Skip to main content

Full text of "Hamlet in Iceland : being the Icelandic romantic Ambales saga"

See other formats


SEENW 

PRESERVATION 
SERVICES 




HANDBOUND 
AT THE 



UNIVERSITY OF 
TORONTO PRESS 



HAMLET IN ICELAND 

(NORTHERN LIBRARY. VOL. III.) 



NORTHERN LIBRARY 



VOL. I. 

THE SAGA OF KING OLAF TRYGGWASON, 

who Reigned over Norway from A.D. 995 to 
A.D. 1000. Translated by S. SEPHTON, M.A. 
xxviii.-500 pp. 18s. nett. 

VOL. II. 

THE TALE OF THROND OF GATE, commonly 
called Fsereyinga Saga. Englished hy F. YORK 
POWELL. xlviii.-84. 7s. 6d. nett. 



[All rights reserved] 



uAet , vine*., o-. -t/v 

HAMLET IN ICELAND 

BEING THE ICELANDIC ROMANTIC AMBALES SAGA, 
EDITED AND TRANSLATED, WITH EXTRACTS FROM 
FIVE AMBALES RIMUR AND OTHER ILLUSTRATIVE 
TEXTS, FOR THE MOST PART NOW FIRST PRINTED, 
AND AN INTRODUCTORY ESSAY 



ISRAEL GOLLANCZ, M.A. 

CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE ; UNIVERSITY 
LECTURER IN ENGLISH ; EXAMINER IN ENGLISH 
TO THE UNIVERSITY OP LONDON; EDITOR OP 

"PRE-TUDOR TEXTS," ETC. 



"And if you intreate him faire in afrostie morning, he will 
afoord you whole Hamlets. . . ." NASH'S Pre/ace to GREENE'S 
"Menaphon." 



LONDON 
DAVID NUTT, 270-71 STRAND 

1898 



Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON 6* Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press 



SEEN BY 
PRESERVATION 



DATE. 



EIRIKI MAGNUSSYNI 

OG 

HINRIKI L. D. WARD 

meS pakklsetis-kveSju 

? 

ViSrgefendr ok endrgefendr erosk lengst vinir." 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

PEEFACE vii 

INTRODUCTION xi 

AMBALES SAGA: 

TEXT AND TRANSLATION 2-191 

APPENDIX : 

I. AMBALES RIMUR EPTIR HALLGRIM HALDtfRSSON . 195-201 

II. AMBALES RIMUR EPTIR PAL BJARN ARSON . . 202-210 

III. AMBALES RIMUR EPTIR ILLUGA HELGASON . . 211-226 

IV. AMBALES RIMUR EPTIR PORVALD SIGMUNDARSON 227-230 
V. AMBALES RIMUR EPTIR P6RD EINARSSON . . 231-241 

VI. SPECIMENS OP MANUSCRIPT SAGAS . . . 242, 243 

VII. EXTRACT FROM J6N THORLAKSSON'S AMLOBA SAGA 244-246 

VIII. BRJAMS-SAGA 247-249 

IX. EXTRACT FROM L.ANDNAMAB6K CONCERNING SN^J- 

BJORN 250, 251 

X. MYVATNS-SKOTTA 252, 253 

XI. ILLUGA-SKOTTA 254, 255 

XII. EXTRACT FROM SO-CALLED " ODDA ANNALS" . 256 

XIII. THE GHEYSMER EPITOME, WITH LOW-GERMAN 

RENDERING 260 

XIV. EXTRACT FROM JOCHUMSSON'S HAMLET DANAPRINS 274 
XV. SUMMARY OF MANUSCRIPTS . 277 



IX 



THE PEDIGRE] 



DUNNCHADH, 

King of 
Ireland, o. 770. 



OF THE FAMILY OF SNAEBJORN OF VAT 5FJ01 



(819). 



'\ 



CONNLA, 

OSSORIORUM SATOR 
(circa B.C. 100). 



DUNGHALL, 



(. 


laugrnt 

CE 




CEARBHALL, = 


Daughter of 


Flann = MALACHY I. 


IB 






/is \ piann, l rd of Ossory, 
7 ( "&5V King of Dublin, 
j CEARBHALL. - ^ o. 887. 


MALACHY I., 
King of Ireland. 




He 




FT, ANN Conch 


jbhair , Raferta - 


= Eyvind Gormflaith, -- 
Austan 
of the 


= Grimolfr Fridgerda= 
(of Agde, 
Iceland). 


Thoris Hymo, E<. 
or Hyrno. 


'si 










Hebrides. 


Fridgerda^ Thordr, 


w 

/ 1 


ng, DONNl 
Dom 


HADI 
nhall = 


i 
; Gormflaith, = 

grand- 
daughter 


(i.)C 'RMACK, 
E ing of 
MinsU;r, si. 908 
s (ii.) CEARB- 
HAI j, King of 
Leinf er, si. 909 
= (iii; NIALL 




rnor 
Eyv 


rrim. 
ind. 


wno 
traced 
descent to 
Ragnar 
Lodbrok. 


((: ' 

tun 
ad, 


Ossur = Bera, Thorodd 
daughter of Goda. 






NIALL 


GLTjNDUBH, 

il by 




Egil 
Skallagrimson. 


lit, 






nTTTRW 


AMIAIDHEat 
















Ath-diath, 919. 










MAELSEC 


HLAINNII.^ 


nell, diowned. 






JT 




1 i i Uacn-a - Thoruwa, Thiolhilda = Thordr, Biorga = Ulf Skialgi, Thorsteinn = 
Snsebjorn He 5gJ*g r * > daughtf of probably son 1 the coloniser the 
of born in ^. o/ . 0/ . Rftd 


-Thurida. Cel 
Lo 

OS! 


, CDlieB, 


Vati.d 
Icel 

Holm 


fjord, 
and. 

stein 


Flatn, Harold Reykianes, (son of 
ftSSS tord Harfagr. Iceland. OLAF THE 
Ireland. He bTles. WHITE, 
_,. , __ Atti the Red. wfto traced 
=Kjalvor. his descent 


Si. 

r 

Donnchj 

I 


~to 






N GALTI. 




Mar. to Ragnar 


L_ 
| 


['' 


SN^ 


JBJOB 






| Lodbrok 
Ari Marson, and Aslaug, 
one of the earliest Sigurd's 
discoverers of daughter). 


Gillapadring, 
Lord of 
Ossory, si. 997. 
i 


u 

o! 










America, 

roo 


Donnchadh, 


ray, 










988 




Lord of 


MOl 














Ossory, o. 1039. 





Koi 



1 -= Thorgerda. Olaf Donnchac 
I Feilan. Earl of 

Orkney. 

Hoskuld = Maelkorka, 
daughter of 
Irish King. 



Frontispiece. 



Olaf PA = Thordgerda, 
daughter of Egil 
Skallagrimson. 

Kiartan (cp. " Laxdsela 
Saga ") or Mirkiartan. 



ted 



lap** 



FJORD 



Cp. "The War of the Gaed- 
hil with the Gaill," ed. 
J. H. Todd, 1867; "Land- 
nama B6k;" "Laxdsela 
Saga;" "The Four Mas- 
ters," ed. O*Donovan ; 
"The Three Fragments," 
ed. Todd ; Steenstrup : 
" JNormannerne." 



The names of the women are 

in italics. 
" Married to" is expressed by 

The important kings are in 
CAPS. 



grandson of 



Thorsteinn 

the Red 
(son of OLAF 
THE WHITE, 

who had 

married E.'s 

niece). 

rd, I 
14. ! 



Cullen, Diarmid, Dufraal. 

si. 886. Lord of | 

Ossory, Duftach. 

o. 929. 



Raude. Vilbald, Askell 

| came Hnokkan, 

Baugr, from settled 

settled at Ireland in 

Fliotshlid, to Iceland. 

ch, Iceland. Iceland. 
of 



foriol 

Gh-oa, 



the 

mcestress 
of the 
Earls of 
Orkney. 

on = Qrelaud. 
Lodver = Edna, 

Sigurd, 
si. 1014. 

I. G. 



PKEFACE 



SCHOLARS are variously infected by the " morbus Hamleticus." 
Many years ago, in his boyhood, the present writer fell a 
victim, the ailment, in his case, taking the form of an unhealthy 
curiosity anent Hamlet's pedigree. He naturally turned to 
the land of the Sagas, and although a certain feeling of disap- 
pointment attended the quest, the investigator soon became 
keenly interested in diagnosing Iceland's long and painful 
struggle for a Hamlet Saga. The story of that struggle is 
told in the accompanying volume. There is something almost 
pathetic in Iceland's effort to compensate itself for its depriva- 
tion or loss of ancient story and song concerning the mythical 
hero, whose name, first recorded in Scaldic verse, has lived 
on the lips of the people for probably the greater part of a 
thousand years. 

Soon after the composition of the "Ambales Saga," the 
possibilities of the Hamlet-story were recognised elsewhere. 
In later times, all unconscious of England's triumph, Iceland's 
ballad-poets be-rhymed their favourite "Ambales" or "Amlool." 
Six independent versions, each in all probability extending to 
more than six thousand lines, testify to the attractiveness of 
the theme. Of these versions five are represented by parallel 
extracts in the Appendices at the end of the book ; the sixth 
has so far not been discoverable : even the last resource of 
patient research has failed, to wit, a public appeal to Icelanders 
in the columns of their " Isafold " and " Dagsskrd." * 

* "Saga eSa Rimur af Ambales kongi (AmldSa), handrit, verfta keypt & skrifst. 
Isafoldar og vel gefiS fyrir." Isafold, Reykjavik, laugardaginn, 29 fCgtist, 1896, 
59 blaS. 

vii 



PREFACE 

In the Introductory Essay an attempt has been made to 
throw some new light upon the development of the legend. 
If the new facts and theories prove acceptable, these studies 
may have advanced the problem, and may, it is hoped, serve 
as the basis of future investigation. 

Finally, the writer desires to express his sincerest thanks to 
several kind helpers : to the patriotic Icelander Mr. Thorsteinn 
Erlingsson, who some ten years ago procured for him MSS. 
and transcripts of MSS. ; to Dr. Jon Thorkelsson, the dis- 
tinguished author of "Digtningen pa Island i det 15 og 16 
Arhundrede," who more recently has put at his disposal unique 
copies of two " Rimur," and has afforded valuable information 
on many points ; to Dr. Jon Stefansson, who has kindly read 
the proofs of all the Appendices, and has made clear many 
dark allusions in the extracts from the " Rimur ; " lastly, and 
more especially, to Mr. Eirikr Magnusson, who with zealous 
generosity familiar to all Cambridge students of Northern lore 
has encouraged the work from its inception in undergraduate 
days afar off: to say that he has read the proofs of the Saga 
is to refer to the least of his many kindly services. The 
volume is fittingly associated with his name, and with that of 
another scholar, whose " Catalogue of the Manuscript Romances 
in the British Museum" deserves some tribute from every 
worker in the field of inquiry illumined by his learning. 
" ' Give ' and * Give back ' make the longest friends," quoth 
Odin. 

" Ambolis Sogu enda eg hier, 

er eg i fyngrum brenn : 

betra seint en aldrei er, 

su einhvorn tima er buen." 

MS. Brit. Mus. 11, 158. 

" Ambales Saga end I here. 
How my fingers burn ! 
Better late than never : 
It is done at last ! " 

I. G. 



Vlll 



INTKODUCTION 



i. 

Sem Sncebjorn kvad : 
" Hvatt kveoa hraera Grotta 
hergrimmastan skerja 
ut fyrir jarSar skauti 
EyluSrs nfu bniftir ; 
paer er, lungs, fyrir laungu, 
liS-meldr, skipa hliSar 
baugskerSir rfstr barol 
bdl, Aml6Sa mdlu." 

Her er kallat hafit Amloda kvern. 

"'Tis said," sang Snsebjorn, "that far out, off yonder ness, the Nine 
Maids of the Island Mill stir amain the host-cruel skerry-quern 
they who in ages past ground Hamlet's meal. The good Chieftain 
furrows the hull's lair with his ship's beaked prow." * 

fTlO Snorri Sturlason, the glory of Icelandic historiography, we 
are indebted for the preservation of these lines, containing 
the earliest known reference to the legendary hero destined to 
play so important a part in later literary history. The strange 
verse occurs in Snorri's " Skaldskapar-mal," or Gradus to the 
Northern Parnassus, the second section of his famous hand- 
book of the Art of Poetry, known as " The Prose Edda," com- 
posed about the year 1230. The illustrative extracts found in 

* i.e., " KveSa niu bruftir eyluSrs hraera hvatt hergrimmastan skerja grotta tit 
fyrir jarSar skauti, J>aer er fyrir longu mdlu AmltfSa liS-meldr ; baugskerSir ristr 
skipa hliSar bdl lungs barSi." 

xi 



INTRODUCTION 

the Gradus (some two hundred and fifty from sixty-five named 
poets, besides anonymous lays) are in many instances the only 
remains of the ancient poems quoted. The work is in cateche- 
tical form, and in answer to the question, " Hvernig skal SSQ 
kenna ? " i.e., " What are the names for the Sea ? " a long list 
of synonyms and epithets is given, together with descriptive 
passages from various poets, some of them clearly sailor-poets ; 
among these is the extract from Snsebjorn. The lines, though 
laboured, are evidently from some poem of adventure in 
Northern waters, " hatched in the storms of the ocean, and 
feathered in the surges of many perilous seas." The passage 
presents many difficulties, and various interpretations have 
been advanced, but the underlying reference is certainly to the 
great World-Mill deep down in the sea, the great cosmic force, 
which the ancient Northerners and other races conceived as 
the cause of storms and showers, and of all the disintegrating 
changes wrought on mountains, rocks, and shores. The fierce 
whirlpools and currents of the Arctic Ocean may easily explain 
this great idea of a gigantic World- Machine, its terrific funnel 
ever ready to gorge, its cruel mill- stones, huge as islands, ever 
ready to grind whatsoever the mighty swirl has seized. This 
great World-Mill must be distinguished from what is called 
" the Lesser Mill," which the two captured giant-maidens, the 
Valkyries Menja and Fenja, were forced to grind for greedy 
King Frothi, singing awhile their " Grotta-songr," or Mill- 
song. First they ground for him peace and gold : " May he sit 
on riches ; may he sleep on down ; may his waking be happy ! 
It were well ground then ! " But the king's greed would not 
let them rest, and in anger they prophesied evils to come : 
" The tokens of war are waking, the beacons are kindled. On 
a sudden a host shall come hither, and burn the hall over the 
king's head." . . . "The maids ground on, putting forth all 
xii 



INTRODUCTION 

their strength, the young maids in giant fury. The huge 
props flew off the bin, the iron rivets burst. . . . The shaft- 
tree shivered, the bin shot down, the massy mill-stone rent in 
twain. But the Mountain-giant's bride spake this word : 
" We have ground, O Frothi, to our mind's liking. We have 
stood full long at the mill." The maidens tell the story of 
themselves and of their mill : " Never had this mill come out 
of the grit mount, nor the massy mill-stone out of the earth, 
nor were the Mountain-giants' maids thus grinding here, if 
thou, king, knewest our kindred ! We two playmates were 
brought up under the earth for nine winters. We busied our- 
selves with mighty feats; we hurled the cleft rocks out of 
their places ; we rolled the boulders over the giant's court, so 
that the earth shook withal. We hurled the stones so fast 
that the massy rocks were split in twain." * This " Grotta- 
songr" would have been lost had not Snorri inserted it in 
his Gradus, where he explains why gold was called " Frothi's 
meal." There is a prose introduction to the poem not alto- 
gether clear, for it confuses the story of Frothi with the 
familiar tale, " How the Sea Became Salt." 

And now to return to Snsebjorn's verse. It is clear from 
the Prose Edda that " the Nine Maidens of the Island-Mill " 
are the nine daughters of ^Egir, the Ocean-god. These Nereids 
are thus enumerated by Snorri : " Himinglsefa, Diifa, BloSug- 
hadda, Hefring, U5r, Hronn, Bylgja, Bara, Kolga." One of 
these, at least, to judge by her name, " the Dove," must have 
had kinship with the gentle daughter of ^Egir's Celtic brother- 
monarch, the much-harassed Lear. The compound, " ey-MSr," 
translated " Island-Mill," may be regarded as a synonym for 
the father of the Nine Maids. " LiiSr " is strictly " the square 
case within which the lower and upper quernstones rest," 

* Cp. Corpus Poeticum Borealc, vol. i. pp. 184-188. 

xiii 



INTRODUCTION 

hence the mill itself, or quern; "ey-luoV is "the island 
quern," i.e., " the grinder at islands," the Ocean-Mill, the Sea, 
the Sea-god, and, finally, JEgir. 

"^Egir's daughters" are the surging waves of Ocean; 
they work Grotti, "grinder," the great Ocean-Mill (here called 
" Skerja-Grotti," the grinder of skerries, the lonely rocks in 
the sea) " beyond the skirts of the earth," or perhaps, better, 
" off yonder promontory." The latter meaning of the words 
" lit fyr iarSar skauti " would perhaps suit the passage best, if 
Snsebjorn is pointing to some special whirlpool. Indeed, one 
cannot help thinking of a possible reference to the marvellous 
Maelstrom, the greatest of all whirlpools, one of the wonders 
of the world; "umbilicus maris" according to the old geogra- 
phers, " gurges mirdbilis Norvegice omnium totius orlis terra- 
rum celeberrimus et maximus" as Athanasius Kircher describes 
it in his fascinating folio " Mundus Sutterraneus." And one 
recalls, too, Poe's thrilling narrative of the old man's descent 
into the Maelstrom, or the Moskoe-strom, as the Norwegians 
call it, "from the island of Moskoe in the midway." "Just 
opposite the promontory upon whose apex we were placed," 
wrote Poe, as though commenting on the Eddaic passage under 
discussion, " and at a distance of some five or six miles out at 
sea, there was visible a small, bleak-looking island ; or, more 
properly, its position was discernible through the wilderness of 
surge in which it was enveloped. About two miles nearer the 
land arose another of smaller size, hideously craggy and barren, 
and encompassed at various intervals by a cluster of dark 
rocks."* The whole story should be re-read in this connection. 

* According to Kircher, it was supposed that every whirlpool formed round 
a central rock : a great cavern opened beneath ; down this cavern the water 
rushed ; the whirling was produced as in a basin emptying through a central 
hole. Kircher gives a curious picture illustrative of this theory, with special 
reference to the Maelstrom, 
xiv 



INTRODUCTION 

The real difficulty in Snorri's extract from Snsebjorn is, 
however, in its last lines; the arrangement of the words is 
confusing, the interpretation of the most important of the 
phrases extremely doubtful. "Li5-meldr" in particular has 
given much trouble to the commentators : " ineldr," at present 
obsolete in Icelandic, signifies "flour or corn in the mill ; " but the 
word " liS " is a veritable crux. It may be either the neuter 
noun " Ii5," meaning " a host, folk, people," or " ship ; " or the 
masculine "liSr," "a joint of the body." The editors of the 
Corpus Poeticum Borecde read " meldr-H5," rendering the word 
" meal-vessel ; " they translate the passage, " who in ages past 
ground AmloSi's meal-vessel = the ocean;" but "mala," to 
grind, can hardly be synonymous with "hrsera," to move, in 
the earlier lines, and there would be no point in the waves 
grinding the ocean. There seems, therefore, no reason why 
"meldr-H5" should be preferred to "HS-meldr," which might 
well stand for " ship-meal " (? " sea-meal," to be compared with 
the Eddaic phrase " grseSis meldr," i.e., sea-flour, a poetical 
periphrasis for the sand of the shore). Rydberg,* bearing 
in mind the connection of the myth concerning the cosmic 
Grotti-Mill with the myth concerning the fate of Ymir and 
other primeval giants, more especially of Ymir's descendant 
Bergelmer, who, according to an ingenious interpretation of a 
verse in Vafj>ru5nis-mal,t "was laid under the mill-stone," 



* Teutonic Mythology, pp. 388-392. 

f In the poem found in the Elder Edda, the giant tells Odin that, countless 
ages ere the earth was shapen, Bergelmer was born : " the first thing I remember 
is when he d var ludr urn lagitir." The meaning, according to Rydberg, was not 
clear even to Snorri, who in the Gylfaginning interprets the verse with reference 
to the drowning of the frost-giants in Ymir's blood: "One escaped with his 
household : him the giants call Bergelmer. He with his wife betook himself 
upon his ludr and remained there, and from them the races of giants are 
descended " a sort of giant Noah. The Resenian edition of the younger Edda 
(Copenhagen, 1665) actually reads "/or d bdt sinn " (went on to his boat) instead of 

b 



INTRODUCTION 

advanced the theory that " Ii5-meldr " means " limb-grist." 
According to this view, it is the limbs and joints of the primeval 
giants, which on AmlooVs mill are transformed into meal. 
Allowing, for the nonce, that there is something to be said for 
" liS-meldr " in the sense of " limb-grist," one finds it difficult 
to get Rydberg's interpretation out of the words as they stand 
in the text. The Nine Maidens of the Ocean-Mill grinding 
AmlooVs limb-grist, i.e., his bones, might be plausible enough, 
suggestive of some story of a brave prince who sailed too near 
their dread abode, and received less kindly treatment than did 
young Macphail of Colonsay at the hands of the maiden of 
Corrivrekin. Snorri does not help us. The note following 
Snsebjorn's verse merely adds that here the sea is called 
" AmlooVs kvern." * No explicit explanation is to be found 
in early Northern poetry or saga. " Hamlet's mill " may 
mean almost anything ; if, as the editors of the Corpus state, 
Hamlet is here an Ocean Giant, his mill seems to be identical 
with the great World-Mill, unless the Ocean Giant was himself 
ground by the Nine Maidens. All this seems unlikely ; indeed, 
though at first sight it looks as though some ancient sea- 
hero is alluded to in Snsebjorn's phrase, yet the later Icelandic 
poets were capable of such fatal ingenuity in the matter of 
poetical periphrases, that even so much consistency must not 
be expected of them. All that can be said at this point in 
the investigation is that the verse quoted in the Prose Edda 
gives us a reference to some old legend concerning " AmloSi," 
whose name is identical with that of the hero known to us 
as Hamlet. 

It is worthy of note that a few more lines of Snsebjorn's 

"f<5r upp a luSr sinn." C. P. B. translates the passage in the poem, " when this 
wise giant was laid in the Ark." 

* Bjorn of SkarftsjC, in A.M. 742, writes : " Her er hafid kallad AmloSa melldur," 
i.e., " Here the sea is called AmloSe's meal." 
xvi 



INTRODUCTION 

verse have been preserved; they may well all be fragments 
of the same poem.*" 

From the passages preserved it is evident that Snsebjorn 
was a sailor-poet, and the lost poem must have been descriptive 
of some voyage in the Arctic seas. In Landndma Bok, i.e., " The 
Book of Iceland Settlements," there is a vivid picture of a 
tenth-century Arctic adventurer, Snsebjorn by name, who went 
on a perilous expedition to find the unknown land, "Gunn- 
bjorn's Reef," after having wrought vengeance, as became a 
chivalrous gentleman of the period, on the murderer of a fair 
kinswoman. It is generally accepted, and there can be little 
doubt, that this Snsebjorn is identical with the poet Snsebjorn. 

His family history is not without interest. His great-grand- 
father, Eywind the Easterling, so called because he had come 
to the Hebrides from Sweden, married the daughter of Cearbhall, 
Lord of Ossory, who ruled as King of Dublin from 882 to 888, 
" one of the principal sovereigns of Europe at the time when 
Iceland was peopled by the noblemen and others who fled from 
the tyranny of Harold Harfagr."t Cearbhall was descended 
from Connla, the grandson of Crimhthann Cosgach, the vic- 

* The fragments are (1) four short lines, or two long lines, found in Snorri's 
Edda, edit. 1848, p. 460 ; and (2) four short lines in A.M. 742, 4to (not A.M. 738, 
as Edd. Corp. P. B. state, p. 54; cp. Bugge, Arkiv for Norditk Filologe, iii. pp. 
335-338) ; the lines are there attributed to J)or8r Sjareksson, and not to Snsebjorn, 
by the writer of the MS., viz., Bjorn of Skar3s;L >orSr lived in the first half of 
the eleventh century. Bjorn was probably mistaken in ascribing the lines to 
him. They certainly closely resemble Snaebjorn's, and Bugge agrees with the 
Edd. Corp. P. B. in assigning them to him, and not to the later poet ; he reads 

the lines as follows : 

"Sva~$<5r fit jar f jotre, 
fldSs isynju bldSe 
(rbst byrjask rb'mm) systra, 
rytr, eymylver snyter." 

i.e., "the island-mill pours out the blood of the flood goddess's sisters (i.e., 
waves of the sea), so that (it) bursts from the feller of the land : whirlpool begins 
ttrong." In no other drtttkvcett verse does eymylver occur : cp. " eyluSr," above. 
t Cp. Landndma 6k, 1 ; Todd's War of the Gcedhitt with the Gaitt, pp. 297-302 ; 

xvii 



INTRODUCTION 

torious King of Ireland, who is said to have flourished about 
a century before the Christian era. Lann or Flann, the half- 
sister of Cearbhall, was married to Malachy I., King of Ireland, 
whose daughter Cearbhall had married. Flann was the mother 
of King Sionna and of the Lady Gormflaith. Sneebjorn could 
certainly boast of a noble pedigree. His family sagas must 
have had much to tell of the ancient glories of the race : he 
may often have heard the sad story of the poetess Gormflaith, 
whom a cruel fate pursued ; a king's daughter, the wife of three 
kings, forced at last to beg for bread from door to door. We 
may perhaps have more to tell of her later on. Before letting 
the Landndma Eok tell its own story of Snsebjorn's life, it may 
be mentioned that, about the date of his Arctic expedition 
(circa 980), his cousin, Ari Marson, is said to have landed on 
" White Man's Land," or " Great Ireland," that part of the 
coast of North America which extends from Chesapeake Bay, 
including North and South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, 
and became famous as one of the earliest discoverers of the 
New World. 

Here follows the tragic story of Snsebjorn the Boar : 
" Snsebjorn, son of Eyvind the Easter ling, the brother of 
Helgi the Lean, took land between Mjovafjord (Narrow Firth) 
and Langadals-a (Langdale River); he had his dwelling at 
Vatnsfjord (Waterford). His son was Holmstein, the father of 
Snsebjorn Galti (the boar) ; the mother of Snaebjorn was Kjalvor; 
he and Tungu-Odd were sons of sisters. Snaebjorn was fostered 
in the house of Thorodd at Thingness (but at times he was 
with Tungu-Odd or his mother). Hallbjorn, the son of Odd 
of Ki5jaberg, the son of Hallkel, the brother of Ketilbjorn the 

the history of Cearbhall and his many descendants (he had four sons and four 
daughters) illustrates the close connection between Ireland and Iceland. For 
Cearbhall's pedigree, cp. Donovan's Tribes and Territories of Ancient Ossory. 
xviii 



INTRODUCTION 

Old, took to wife HallgerS, daughter of Tungu-Odd. The couple 
were with Odd during the first winter after their marriage; 
Snsebjorn Galti was there at the same time. Now there was 
no love lost between the newly wedded folk, and Hallbjorn gat 
him ready to depart in the springtime, about the flitting season. 
While he was making his preparations, Odd went from home 
to the baths at Reykjaholt, where he had his sheep-folds. He 
had no wish to be present at Hallbjorn's departure, for he 
doubted whether Hallgerftr would be willing to accompany her 
husband. Odd had previously done his best to improve matters 
between them. 

"Hallbjorn, having saddled the horses, went to the room 
where the women kept. HallgerSr was sitting on the high- seat, 
combing her hair ; the hair fell all about her to the very floor. 
She had the best hair of all women in Iceland, save only 
HallgerS, whom folk named ' Twisted Tartan.' Hallbjorn bade 
his wife get up and come with him ; but she sat silent. He 
then clutched at her ; she moved not from her place. Thrice 
he seized her, but she moved not. Hallbjorn stood still, and 

said thus : 

' Here stand I as a laughing-stock 

Before her flowing tresses ; 
The linen goddess dares to mock, 

While grief my bosom presses. 
brewer of the sparkling ale, 

No good for me thou brewest ; 
My heart is sore with bitter bale. 

bride, this thing thou ruest.' 

Thereupon he wound her hair around his arm, and would 
have pulled her from her seat, but she sat and flinched not. 
Then he drew his sword, and struck the head from off her; 
and so went out and rode away. His comrades were two in 
number, and they had with them two pack-horses. 

" Now there were but few men at the house when this 

xix 



INTRODUCTION 

thing befell, yet the news thereof was forthwith sent to Odd 
Snsebjorn was then at KjalvararstaSir ; Odd sent a messenger to 
him, and bade him look to the pursuit ; he himself would not go. 

"Snsebjorn went in pursuit of Hallbjorn, eleven men with 
him ; and when Hallbjorn was aware that he was approaching, 
his comrades bade him hurry on, but he would not yield to 
them. Anon Snsebjorn and his men caught them up near the 
hills now called Hallbjorn's Cairns. Hallbjorn and his two 
comrades betook themselves to the hill-top to defend them- 
selves, and there for a time they held out. Three of Snsebjorn's 
men fell there, and both the companions of Hallbjorn. As for 
Hallbjorn, Snsebjorn struck off his foot at the ankle, and he 
was forced to hobble along to another hill ; there he slew two 
more of Snsebjorn's men, but he himself was slain. Wherefore 
there are three cairns on that hill, and five on the other. 
Then Snsebjorn went home. 

" Snsebjorn had a ship at the mouth of the river Grims-a ; 
Hrolf of Redsand bought half-rights in the vessel ; the crew 
were twelve on each side. Snsebjorn had Thorkel and SumarliSi, 
the sons of Thorgeir the Red, who was the son of Einar of 
Staf holt. He took with him also Thorodd of Thingness, his 
foster-father, and his wife. Hrolf took with him Styrbjorn, 
who made this ditty after a dream he had : 

' I see the bane 
Of both us twain, 
North out at sea 
All piteously : 
Horrors untold, 
Dire frost and cold : 
From these I gain 
Our Snaebjorn slain.' 

" They went in search of Gunnbjorn's Reef ; they found land; 
but Snsebjorn would not let them explore at night. Styrbjorn 

XX 



INTRODUCTION 

went ashore, and found there a treasure-trove in a cairn; he 
concealed it about his person. Snsebjorn struck him with his 
axe, and the treasure fell to the ground. Thereafter his men 
made a hut, but it was soon buried deep in the snow. One 
day, however, Thorkel, the son of RauS, found that water 
was running along the pole which projected from the hut; 
they knew that spring was near, and they dug themselves 
out of the snow. While Snsebjorn repaired his ship, Thorodd 
and his wife stayed in the hut on his behalf; Styrbjorn and 
his comrades stayed on behalf of Hrolf. The rest of the party 
had gone out hunting. Styrbjorn then up and slew Thorodd, 
and then turned and, with the help of Hrolf, slew Snsebjorn. 
The sons of Rau5 and all Snsebjorn's men were put under 
oath, and were allowed their lives. Thereafter they landed at 
Halogaland, and thence went to Iceland, and came to Vaoll. 
Thorkel the Muffler guessed what had befallen the sons of 
Rau5. Hrolf set up defences to protect himself at Strand- 
heath. Thorkel sent Sveinung to bring him Hrolfs head. 
Sveinung first went to Hermund, who dwelt at Myri ; then he 
went to Olaf at Drangar ; and finally came to Gest at Hagi : 
Gest sent him to his friend, Hrolf. Sveinung slew both Hrolf 
and Styrbjorn, and then returned to Hagi. Gest exchanged 
with him sword and axe, and gave him two horses black 
of mane, and he ordered a man to ride round VaSil all the 
way to Kollafirth, and asked Thorbjorn the Strong to claim the 
horses for him from Sveinung. But Thorbjorn slew Sveinung 
at Sveinungseyri ; Sveinung's sword had broken at the hilt. 
Wherefore Thorkel often bragged to Gest, when their wits 
were matched, that he had so got round Gest that he had 
sent his man to bring him the head of his friend." * 

* Op. Appendix, ix. Concerning "Gunnbjorn's Reef," cp. "Grdnlands His- 
toriske Mindesmcerker" vol. i. 

xxi 



II. 



GOME two hundred years after the events recorded in the 
foregoing story, " Saxo Grammaticus," the learned Dane, 
emulous of the great Roman historians, took upon himself, at 
the bidding of Absalon, " Chief Pontiff of the Danes," the task 
of compiling into a chronicle the history of his country. The 
labour was a heavy one too heavy for his weak faculty, as he 
modestly puts it, for the materials to hand must have been 
very slight : his Danish predecessors had hitherto done but 
little " to vaunt the glory of their nation's achievements." His 
materials, apart from the influence exercised upon him by the 
Latin classical writers, were mainly drawn from Latin historical 
writers (such as Bede, Adam of Bremen, and Dudo, " rerum 
aquitanicarum scriptor "), from Danish traditions, and from Ice- 
landic sagas and poems. As regards his indebtedness to Ice- 
land, we know that he had at least one Icelandic friend, Arnoldus 
Tylensis, Arnold of Thule, a skilful narrator, learned in ancient 
lore. In his Preface Saxo makes handsome acknowledgment 
of his obligations to Arnold's countrymen.* "Nor may the 

* "Nee Tylensium industria silencio obliteranda, qui cum ob nativam soli 
sterilitatem luxurie nutrimentis carentes, officia continuae sobrietatis exerceant, 
omniaque uite momenta ad excolendam alienorum operum noticiam conferre 
soleant, inopiam ingenio pensant. Cunctarum quippe nacionum res gestas cog- 
nosse memorieque mandare voluptatis loco reputant, non minoris glorias iudi- 
cantes alienas uirtutes disserere quam proprias exhibere. Quorum thesauros 
historicarum rerum pignoribus ref ertos curiosius consulens, haut paruam presentis 
operis partem ex eorum relacionis imitatione contexui ; nee arbitros habere 
contempsi quos tanta uetustatis pericia callere cognoui." Saxo, Ed. Mu'ller and 
Velschow, pp. 7-8. 
xxii 



INTRODUCTION 

pains of the men of Thule be blotted in oblivion ; for though 
they lack all that can foster luxury (so naturally barren is the 
soil), yet they make up for their neediness by their wit, by 
keeping continually every observance of soberness, and by de- 
voting every instant of their lives to perfecting our knowledge 
of the deeds of foreigners. Indeed, they account it a delight 
to learn and to consign to remembrance the history of all 
nations, deeming it as great a glory to set forth the excellences 
of others as to display their own. Their stores, which are 
stocked with attestations of historical events, I have examined 
somewhat closely, and have woven together no small portion 
of the present work by following their narrative, not despising 
the judgment of men whom I know to be so well versed in the 
knowledge of antiquity." * Even more explicit in this respect 
was Saxo's Norwegian contemporary, Theoderic the Monk, ac- 
cording to whom the men of Thule, the Icelanders, were the 
only Northerners who had preserved the ancient history of their 
race ; their writings were the only available sources for Northern 
historians.! There can be little doubt, however, that among 
the Norwegians and Danes, popular legend, a mass of mythic 
and traditional lore, still preserved, however obscurely, the 
memory of the ancient gods and heroes. In the matter of 
Northern mythology, the first nine books of Saxo's History are 

* Elton's First Nine Books of the Danish History of Saxo Grammaticus. 

t Cp. Langebek's Script. Her. Dan., vol. v. The passages in question are fully 
discussed in " Safn til Sogu fslands og I'slenzkra Bokmenta aS fornu og nyju gefig 
ut af hinu islenzka bokmentafelagi," vol. i. pp. 143-148. Theoderic repeatedly 
refers to his debt to the Icelanders ; e.g., " Operas pretium duxi, vir illustrissime, 
pauca hsec de antiquitate regum Norvagiensium annotatare, et prout sagaciter 
perquirere potuimus ab eis, penes quos borum memoria praecipue vigere creditur, 
quos nos Islendingos vocamus, qui haec in suis antiquis carrninibus percelebrata 
recolunt . . . Veritatis vero sinceritas in hac nostra narratione ad illos omni 
modo referenda est, quorum relatione haec annotavimus, quia non visa sed audita 
conscripsimus. " In another passage Theoderic writes of Norway as " ilia terra, 
ubi nullus antiquitatum unqiiam scriptor fuerit." 

xxiii 



INTRODUCTION 

of supreme interest, and it has been well said that " the gratitude 
due to the Welshman of the twelfth century, whose garnered 
hoard has enriched so many poets and romancers from his day 
to now, is no less due to the twelfth- century Dane, whose faithful 
and eloquent enthusiasm has swept much dust from antique 
time." * Geoffrey's priceless gift of Arthurian romance has not 
proved richer than Saxo's wild barbaric tale of Hamlet's fate. 
" Had fortune been as kind to him as nature," so wrote the 
historian, " he would have equalled the gods in glory." Fortune 
had even greater glory in store for Hamlet than his panegyrist 
could have hoped for. 

The story of Amlethus, or Hamlet, as told by Saxo, divides 
clearly into two periods the first dealing with his early career, 
and the consummation of his vengeance ; the second with his 
accession to power, and the subsequent events of his life. The 
former is to be found at the end of Book III., the latter at the 
beginning of Book IV. The division is noteworthy. Divested 
of Saxo's eloquence, the story may be thus epitomised : Hor- 
wendil and Feng succeed their father, Gerwendil, as governors 
of Jutland. Horwendil's valour gains the favour of King 
Rorick, who gives him his daughter Gerutha to wife. They 
have a son who is named Amleth. Feng is jealous of his 
brother's good fortune, murders him, and takes his wife, alleg- 
ing that Horwendil had treated her badly. Amleth, fearing 
lest too shrewd a behaviour may make his uncle suspect him, 
chooses to feign dulness, and pretends an utter lack of wits. 
He is altogether listless, and unclean in his habits, and seems 
to be a very freak of nature. At times he sits over the fire 
and fashions wooden crooks, shaping at their tips certain barbs. 

* Cp. Professor York Powell's Introduction to Elton's translation of Saxo's 
Nine Books. The Introduction gives a valuable summary of the sources, together 
with an excellent analysis of Saxo's folk-lore, &c. 
xxiv 



INTRODUCTION 

He says he is preparing sharp javelins to avenge his father. 
The courtiers grow suspicious, and try various tests; more 
especially they make use of his foster-sister for the purpose. 
A foster-brother warns him of the trap, and he baffles them. 
He gives cunning answers to all their questions ; " he mingles 
craft and candour in such wise that, though his words do not 
lack truth,* yet there is nothing to betoken the truth and 
betray how far his keenness goes." Thus, as he passes along 
the beach, his companions find the rudder of a ship, and say 
they have discovered a huge knife. " This," says he, " is the 
right knife to carve such a huge ham ; " by which he means 
the sea. Also, as they pass the sandhills they bid him look at the 
meal, meaning the sand ; he replies that it has been ground small 
by the hoary tempests of the ocean^ A friend of Feng suggests 
that Amleth be spied upon while closeted with his mother. 
But Amleth has his antidote for the treachery. Afraid of 
being overheard by some eavesdropper, he at first resorts to 
his usual imbecile ways, and crows like a noisy cock, beating 
his arms together to mimic the flapping of wings. Then he 
mounts the straw and begins to swing his body and jump 
again and again, wishing to try if aught lurks there in hiding. 
Feeling a lump beneath his feet, he drives his sword into the 
spot, and impales him who lies hid. He drags him from his 
concealment and slays him. He cuts the body into morsels, 
seethes it in boiling water, and flings it through the mouth 
of an open sewer for the swine to eat, bestrewing the mire with 
the hapless limbs. He then returns, upbraids his mother, and 

* Mr. Elton, on whose excellent rendering this epitome is for the most part 
based, renders Saxo's words "though his words did lack truth," omitting the 
negative ; but the original runs" ita astutiam veriloquio permiscebat, ut nee 
dictis veracitas deesset, nee acuminis modus verorum indicio [Madvig, iudicio] pro- 
deretur." 

t "Arenarum quoque prseteritis clivis, sabulum perinde ac farra aspicere 
jussus, eadem albicantibus mavis procellis permolita esse respondit." 

XXV 



INTRODUCTION 

explains to her his passion for vengeance. Feng cannot find 
his friend the spy. Jestingly, folk ask Amleth whether he 
knows aught ; he answers that niaybe the man has fallen 
through the sewer, and, stifled by the filth, has been devoured 
by swine. His uncle at last determines to send Amleth to the 
King of Britain with a message that he should slay him. 
Before his departure Amleth gives secret orders to his mother 
to hang the hall with knotted tapestry, and to perform pre- 
tended obsequies for him a year hence. 

Two retainers of Feng accompany him to Britain, bearing 
a letter graven on wood " a kind of writing material frequent 
in old times; " this letter enjoins the king to put to death the 
youth who is sent to him. Amleth obtains the letter, and 
substitutes for this the death of his companions, adding an 
entreaty that the king grant his daughter in marriage to the 
youth of great judgment whom he sends to him. The king 
receives the guests and treats them all hospitably and kindly. 
Amleth disdains the rich food placed before him, much to the 
king's annoyance. A man is sent into the sleeping-room to 
take note of Amleth's talk. He reports how Amleth told his 
companions that the bread was flecked with blood and tainted, 
and further, that the king had the eyes of a slave, and that the 
queen had in three ways shown the behaviour of a bondmaid. 
All this, on special investigation, turns out to be true, and the 
king adores the wisdom of Amleth as though it were inspired, 
and gives him his daughter to wife. Moreover, in order to 
fulfil the bidding of his friend, he hangs Amleth's two com- 
panions. Amleth, feigning offence, treats this piece of kindness 
as a grievance, and receives from the king, as compensation, 
some gold, which he afterwards melts in the fire, and secretly 
causes to be poured into some hollowed sticks. After a year 
he returns to his own land, carrying away of all his wealth only 



XXVI 



INTRODUCTION 

the sticks containing the gold. He then again puts on a gro- 
tesque demeanour, and, covered with filth, enters the banquet- 
room where his own obsequies are being held. The guests 
jeer at one another, and are right merry. They ask him con- 
cerning his comrades ; he points to the sticks, saying, " Here is 
both the one and the other." Then he plies the company with 
drink, and, to prevent his loose dress hampering his walk, he 
girds his sword upon his side, and purposely drawing it several 
times, pricks his fingers with its point. The bystanders accord- 
ingly have both the sword and scabbard riveted across with an 
iron nail. The lords drink so heavily that they fall asleep 
within the palace. Anon, Amleth takes out of his bosom the 
stakes he has long ago prepared, and goes into the room where 
the ground is covered with the bodies of the sleeping lords. 
Cutting away its supports, he brings down the hanging his 
mother has knitted, which covers the inner as well as the outer 
walls of the hall ; this he flings upon the sleepers, and then 
applying the crooked stakes, he knots and binds them up in 
such insoluble intricacy that not one of the men beneath, how- 
ever hard he may struggle, can manage to escape. After this 
he sets fire to the palace, which is soon enveloped in flames. 
He hurries to his uncle's chamber, and awakening him, tells 
him that Amleth is come, armed with his old crooks, to help 
him. Seizing his uncle's sword, and placing his own in its stead, 
he easily exacts the vengeance, long overdue, for his father's 
murder. 

This is the story told in Book III. In Book IV. it is 
related how Amleth eloquently harangues the assembled Jut- 
landers, who appoint him Feng's successor by prompt and 
general acclaim ; how he returns to Britain in magnificent 
array, with a wondrous shield whereon all his exploits are 
depicted ; how his father-in-law discovers that it is his bounden 



XXVll 



INTRODUCTION 

duty to avenge Feng's death on his own son-in-law, and hopes 
to spare himself the task by deputing him to go and woo for 
him a fierce unwedded queen reigning in Scotland, whose 
suitors have invariably paid for their insolence with their lives ; 
how the queen, becoming enamoured of the young prince, plays 
on him the very trick he had himself erewhile used, changing 
the purport of the letter so that it reads as a commission 
from the king that she should wed the bearer ; how he yields 
to her pressing solicitations that he should transfer his wooing, 
and make over to her his marriage vows, and learn to prefer 
birth to beauty. It is further told how he returns to Britain 
with a strong band of Scots, and is met by his much-injured 
wife, who, in spite of her wrongs, reveals to him her father's 
plot to entrap him. An under-shirt of mail saves him from 
the king's cunning blow. He is, however, anxious to exonerate 
himself from the guilt of treachery towards his father-in-law, 
and wishes to make the whole blame recoil on his Scotch queen, 
Hermutrude; but the king pursues him, and so reduces his 
forces that he resorts to a device in order to increase the 
apparent number of his men. He puts stakes under some of 
the dead bodies of his comrades to prop them up, sets others 
on horseback like living men, and ties others to neighbouring 
stones. The plan succeeds, and the Britons, terrified at the 
spectacle, flee without fighting ; the king is killed, and Amleth, 
having seized the spoils of Britain, goes back with his wives to 
his own land. 

Meanwhile Rorick has died, and his successor Wiglek, 
regarding Amleth as a usurper, has cruelly harassed Amleth's 
mother. This evil treatment Amleth takes at first with much 
forbearance, and even gives Wiglek the richest of his spoils ; 
but soon he seizes a chance of taking vengeance, attacks him, 
subdues him, and becomes his open foe. Fialler, the governor 
xxviii 



INTRODUCTION 

of Skaane, he drives into exile ; and the tale is, that " Fialler 
retired to a spot called Undensakre, which is uriknovm to our 
peoples" '' Wiglek, recruited with the forces of Skaane and 
Zealand, sends envoys to challenge Amleth to a war. Amleth 
foresees that the war will prove fatal, but he is more anxious 
about the future widowhood of Hermutrude, so greatly does 
he love her, than about his own death. She protests; the 
woman who would dread to be united with her lord in death 
was abominable. But ill she keeps her boast; for when 
Amleth is slain by Wiglek in battle in Jutland, she yields 
herself to be the conqueror's spoil and bride. 

This, then, is the story of Amleth as told by Saxo towards 
the end of the twelfth century. Whence did he obtain it ? 
His closing words, that " a plain in Jutland is to be found 
famous for Amleth's name and burial-place," seem to indicate 
that the local traditions were somewhat limited, and in all 
probability Saxo's debt to Jutland sources was but slight. f 
It is certainly interesting that a Jutland folk-tale, De Kloge 
Studenter, " The Clever Students," has much in common with 
Hamlet's wisdom in disdaining the King of Britain's banquet, 
and in discovering the secret of his mother's low origin. $ This 
very episode must have been one of the most popular of the 
legends fathered on to Hamlet, for Saxo tells us distinctly that 

* " Quern ad locum, cui Undensakre nomen est, nostris ignotum populis, con- 
cessisse est fama." 

t Miiller points out that two places in Jutland are still called Ammelhede. 
Olrik, in Sakses Oldhistorie Norrone sagaer og Danske Sagn, refers to Jyske Folke- 
minder, viii. No. 152. The story told is that two petty kings lived by Virring, 
half-a-mile from here (Ammel and Krog) ; they quarrelled and slew each other. 
One, hight Ammel, lived by Ammelhede ; he is buried in a little mound right east 
of it. " Ammel-hede " may perhaps = Amlaefoe-heftae (AmlaeSae, according to 
Olrik, would be the West Danish form of the name AmldSi ; hence Saxo's 
Amlethus), but when once the legend had become localised in Jutland, the 
identification would soon follow. 

t Cp. Jyslce Folkeminder, vii.-viii. p. 156 ; and Olrik, p. 165. 

xxix 



INTRODUCTION 

" others relate " a slightly different version of the incident, but 
it is certainly no intrinsic part of the Hamlet story. 

As far as Iceland is concerned, we have no trace of the 
Hamlet story in the sagas and poems belonging to the two 
centuries intervening between Snsebjorn's verse and Saxo's 
History ; but it seems probable that some account of " AmloSi " 
was given in the lost " Scioldunga Saga," that part of it which 
contained the Lives of the Kings of Denmark from the earliest 
times.""" Internal evidence does not conclusively connect 
Saxo's story with an Icelandic source, but one statement seems 
to point to some original document containing a reference to 
Northern heathendom, such as would have been easily under- 
stood by a twelfth-century Icelander ; the force of the expres- 
sion has seemingly been missed by Saxo. " Fialler," he writes, 
" retired to a spot called Undensdkre, which is unknown to 
our people." Surely this represents Saxo's rationalising of a 
poetical periphrasis for Fialler's departure from the world. 
" Odainsakr," the Land of the Undying, the Northern Elysium, 
was familiar enough to the Icelanders of the twelfth century ; 
the Danes had evidently forgotten their pagan Paradise.f 

* Cp. Prolegomena, Sturlunga Saga, p. Ixxxix. : " Among others we have here 
to mourn the loss of the Icelandic Saga of Hamlet (AmloSi), Hagbard and Signy, 
King Frodi, &c., which we take all to have been included in the mythical part. 
The Skioldunga is mentioned as late as 1462 in the inventory of the church of 
Modruvalla." Professor York Powell, Saxo Grammaticus, p. 411, is of opinion that 
a brief chapter on AmloSi may have formed an episode in the early part of 
Scioldunga; there may even have been a scrap or two of verse of an old AmloSi's 
lay in this chapter. 

t Vedel, in his Danish translation of Saxo, places Undensakre in Skaane, the 
south-west province of Sweden. I cannnot follow Olrik in his suggestion that 
Undensakre = Undornsakrar (i.e., the south-eastern fields), cp. Sakses Oldhistorie, 
p. 159. Rydberg ingeniously identifies Fialler with Fair, i.e., Balder, "the single 
person who by an enemy was transferred to Odainsakr." Cp. sections 44-53, 93 : 
the former sections give a valuable analysis of Eric Vidforle's Saga (who, one 
Christmas Eve, made a vow to seek out Odainsaker), where the older pagan myth 
has become Christianised. E. Mogk, Orundriss der Ocrmanischen Mythologie, 

XXX 






INTRODUCTION 

It may be fair to assume that Saxo's source for this 
passage was some Icelandic lay ; similarly, Hamlet's riddling 
answers to the courtiers, more especially his poetical metaphor 
concerning the sand of the shore, " ground small by the hoary 
tempests of the ocean," may well have been derived from some 
Icelandic original in prose or verse ; at all events, the latter 
passage gives us the twelfth- century explanation of Snsebjorn's 
reference to "Hamlet's meal,"*' whatever may have been 
Snsebjorn's own interpretation. The solution of the problem 
found in Saxo is certainly a disappointment. It surely required 
no dissimulating Solomon, " stulti sapiens imitator," to discover 
for folks accustomed to the conception of the Ocean-kvern the 
analogy between the sands of the sea and the grist of the mill. 
Here, too, the passage in Saxo's History gives the impression of 
representing some more subtle myth rationalised. 

But whatever Northern elements may be detected in Saxo's 
Hamlet story, there can be no doubt that some important 
incidents have been borrowed from legendary Roman his- 
tory. The merest outline of the plot cannot fail to show the 
striking likeness between the tales of Hamlet and Lucius 
Junius Brutus. Apart from general resemblances (the usurp- 
ing uncle ; the persecuted nephew, who escapes by feigning 
madness ; the journey ; the oracular utterances ; the outwitting 

gives a careful summary of " Life after Death " as conceived by the Northerners 
(vol. i. p. 1115-6). 

* I do not deny that, the sand-downs on the west coast of Jutland, to which 
Olrik refers, seem to be closely associated with Hamlet's famous answer, and 
may well have helped the localising of the legend ; the Icelandic words mjol, 
meal or flour, melr, a sandhill, meldr, flour, together with the old myth of the 
Grotti-mill, are more than enough to explain the not very remarkable simile. 
Olrik holds a brief for Denmark in his excellent study of Saxo ; some of his 
alleged Danish characteristics seem doubtful, but his comment on Hamlet's 
resting upon ' ' the hoof of a beast of burden, upon a cockscomb, and also upon a 
ceiling," is distinctly ingenious, if one of these proves to be a plant-name peculiarly 
Danish, not found in Icelandic. Cp. O. F. Hjaltalin, Grasafrodi, pp. 223-224, 230. 

C 



INTRODUCTION 

of the comrades ; the well-matured plans for vengeance), there 
are certain points in the former story which must have been 
borrowed directly from the latter. This is especially true of 
Hamlet's device of putting the gold in the sticks. This could 
not be due to mere coincidence ; and moreover, the evidence 
seems to show that Saxo himself borrowed this incident from 
the account of Brutus in Valerius Maxirnus ; one phrase at 
least from the passage in the Memorabilia was transferred from 
Brutus to Hamlet.^ Saxo must have also read the Brutus 
story as told by Livy, and by later historians, whose versions 
were ultimately based on Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Dio Cassius, 
&c. ; he may have seen some such epitome of Roman history 
as that of his contemporary Zonaras, who has preserved a com- 
pendium of the early part of Dio's lost Roman history. One 
must dwell on this point, for while Livy, Valerius, and others 
make mention of Tarquin's murder of the elder brother of 
Brutus, Zonaras, as well as Dionysius of Halicarnassus, gives 
the important additional statement that the father of Brutus 
had also, from motives of jealousy, been put to death by his 
brother-in-law, Tarquinius Superbus.f In order that the reader 
may be enabled to place in juxtaposition the twin-brothers 
Hamlet and Brutus, the earlier portion of the tale of Brutus as 
told by Livy is here added ; the subsequent events connected 

* Stephanius first called attention to Saxo's borrowing of the phrase obtusi 
cordis esse. Valerius Maximus gives the following version of the story : "Quo 
in genere acuminis [vafritiae] in primis Junius Brutus referendus est, nam cum a 
rege Tarquinio, avunculo suo, omnem nobilitatis indolem excerpi, interque ceteros 
etiam fratrem suum, quod vegetioris ingenii esset, interfectum animadvertet, 
obtunsi se cordis esse simulavit eaque fallacia maximas suas virtutes texit, prof ectus 
etiam Delphos cum Tarquinii filiis, quos is ad Apollinem Pythium muneribus et 
sacrificiis honorandum miserat, aurum deo nomine doni clam cavato baculo 
inclusum tulit, quia timebat ne sibi cseleste numen aperta liberalitate venerari 
tutum non esset." 

t Cp. The Credibility of Early Roman History, by Sir G. C. Lewis, vol. i. 
p. 518. 

xxxii 



INTRODUCTION 

with the rape of Lucrece are too well known to need recapi- 
tulating.*"" 

" While Tarquin was thus employed (on certain defensive 
measures), a dreadful prodigy appeared to him : a snake 
sliding out of a wooden pillar, terrified the beholders, and 
made them fly into the palace ; and not only struck the king 
himself with sudden terror, but filled his breast with anxious 
apprehensions : so that, whereas in the case of public prodigies 
the Etrurian soothsayers only were applied to, being thoroughly 
frightened at this domestic apparition, as it were, he resolved 
to send to Delphi, the most celebrated oracle in the world ; 
and judging it unsafe to entrust the answers of the oracle to 
any other person, he sent his two sons into Greece, through 
lands unknown at that time, and seas still more unknown. 
Titus and Aruns set out, and, as a companion, there was sent 
with them Junius Brutus, son to Tarquinia, the king's sister, 
a young man of a capacity widely different from the assumed 
appearance he had put on. Having heard that the principal 
men in the state, and among the rest his brother, had been 
put to death by his uncle, he resolved that the king should 
find nothing in his capacity which he need dread, nor in 
his fortune which he need covet; and he determined to find 
security in contempt, since in justice there was no protection. 
He took care, therefore, to fashion his behaviour to the resem- 
blance of foolishness, and submitted himself and his portion to 
the king's rapacity. Nor did he show any dislike to the sur- 
name of Brutus, content that, under the cover of that appella- 
tion, the genius which was to be the deliverer of the Roman 
people should lie concealed, and wait the proper season for 
exertion. 

" He was, at this time, carried to Delphi by the Tarquinii, 

* Livy, Book I. chap. Ivi, 

xxxiii 



INTRODUCTION 

rather as a subject of sport than as a companion ; and is said to 
have brought, as an offering to Apollo, a golden wand inclosed in a 
staff of cornel wood, hollowed for the purpose, an emblem figurative 
of the state of his own capacity. When they were there, and 
had executed their father's commission, the young men felt a 
wish to inquire to which of them the kingdom of Rome was to 
come ; and we are told that these words were uttered from the 
bottom of the cave : ' Young men, whichever of you shall first 
kiss your mother, he shall possess the sovereign power at 
Rome.' . . . Brutus judged that the expression of Apollo had 
another meaning, and as if he had accidentally stumbled and 
fallen, he touched the earth with his lips, considering that she 
was the common mother of all mankind." * 

It is clear from this, that however much the Hamlet story 
may have already resembled the Brutus story before its appear- 
ance in the Danish History, Saxo must have recognised the 
kinship of the two stories, and added to their common traits. 
These points of contact, however, belong only to the earlier 
career of Hamlet, as narrated in Saxo's Third Book. An in- 
genious theorist t has even gone so far as to maintain that the 
Hamlet story is nothing more than a Northern transformation 
of the Roman Brutus saga. He deepens the likeness between 
the two tales by suggesting that Tarquinia, the mother of 
Brutus and sister of Tarquin, was regarded as the wife of 
Tarquinius, and became identified with the wicked Tullia ; after 
the murder of her husband, Tarquin's brother, who might easily 
have been identified with the father of Brutus, she became 
Tarquin's wife, aiding and abetting him as an accomplice in all 
his wickedness. According to this view, the name " Amlool " 

* George Baker's translation, 1797. 

t Dr. Better, Zeitschrift fur Deutsches Alterthum u. Deutsche Litteratur, 
vol. xxxvi., 1892. 
xxxiv 



INTRODUCTION 

was merely a translation of the Latin " Brutus," i.e., " The 
Dullard." * Even as it has been suggested that the story of 
Brutus' pretended idiocy was invented to explain the fact of 
so wise a man being called by such a name, so, according to 
this view, the name " Amlo5i " was originally a common noun, 
meaning " simpleton," or " fool," which became the descriptive 
nickname of the hero. It is strange, however, that the original 
worker of the story should have chosen, as the Northern 
equivalent of the Latin " brutus" so strange a word as " amlodi" 
which is not found in oldest Scandinavian; its modern and 
mediaeval uses in the Icelandic, Swedish, and Danish dialects 
are all suggestive of the name of the hero of some popular 
legend; the etymology proposed does not carry any more 
conviction than the other suggestions put forward by Northern 
scholars.! 

Livy's influence on Saxo is unmistakeable, even in the very 
arrangement of the materials. Thus the story of Brutus fills 
the last chapters of Book I. and the earlier chapters of 
Book II., the former ending with Brutus' election to the 
consulship, the latter beginning with the consul's address to 

* Cp. Dion. Hal. iv. 67 : " ej/ 8' 



t Dr. Detter proposes ' ' ami + 6di " : the first component (which is not found in 
old Icelandic, but according to Erik Jonsson is used in modern Icelandic) is said 
to mean " labour, or toil, without much progress " (cp. Icelandic amstr, toil ; ama, 
to annoy, vex) ; the compound is rendered " verdruss-wiitend," i.e., " annoyingly 
mad." Other compounds in -odi are compared, e.g., mdlddi, mad in speech; 
handddr, mad with one's hands ; steinddi, stone-mad (cp. stone-deaf) : all these 
latter compounds are easily explained ; anilddi stands by itself, isolated. The 
explanation seems to me an excellent folk-etymology ; in all probability the 
ending of the word (ddlt = mad) helped to fix the popular usage of the name 
"Amlddi." Similarly, Carl Save (Aftryck ur Nord. Univ. TidsL 10 Irg. 4 Haft) 
suggested an untenable derivation of the name from "and-blaudr " = "hinn and- 
blaudi," i.e., "the crack-brained, crazy person." 

Dr. Vigfusson rightly withdrew his suggestion that "amlddi" might be con- 
nected with the Anglo-Saxon word "homola" one whose head has been mutilated or 
shaved ; adding in his "Corrigenda" : "No one knows the origin of this name." 

XXXV 



INTRODUCTION 

the excited people ; similarly, Saxo's Hamlet story, as regards 
its division between Books III. and IV., seems modelled after 
Livy's pattern. There is, however, this great difference between 
the matter distributed over the two books of the Danish 
history: the earlier incidents of Hamlet's life, found in 
Book III., have their analogues in Livy, while the later 
events, described in Book IV. (viz. the chapter of Hamlet's 
adventures in England, the story of Hermutrude), find no 
parallels in the Latin story. It seems clear that even were 
Dr. Detter's contentions altogether acceptable, his theory 
would only apply to the Hamlet of Saxo's Third Book, 
though even here a number of elements would have to be 
accounted for. 

It must indeed be admitted that Saxo's Hamlet- tale has 
but few links connecting it definitely with Northern mythology. 
The reference to " Odainsakr " at the end of the whole story 
has already been considered ; a more important link is to be 
found in the name of Hamlet's father, Horwendillus, the 
Scandinavian " Orvandill," the German " Orendel," the Eng- 
lish " fiarendel," whose myth was Christianised by Germanic 
Europe, and whose star was glorified as " the true Light, which 
lighteth every man that cometh into the world;" as the old 
English poet sang, in almost Miltonic strain : 

" Eala, earendel, engla beorhtast, 
Ofer middan-geard monnum sended, 
And soS-feesta sunnan leoma, 
Torht ofer tunglas, jku tida gehwane 
Of sylfum />e symble inlihtes." * 



* Op. Cynewulf's Crist, ed. Gollancz, pp. 10, 159. 

In the Prose Edda it is told how Thor carried Orwendel from Jotunheim in a 
basket on his back ; Orwendel's toe stuck out of the basket, and got frozen ; 
Thor broke it off, and flung it at the sky, and made a star of it, which is called 
xxxvi 






INTRODUCTION 

" Hail, heavenly Light, brightest of angels thou, 
sent unto men upon this middle-earth ! 
Thou art the true refulgence of the sun, 
radiant above the stars, and from thyself 
illuminest for ever all the tides of time." 

In the stories of Orwendel found in the Eddas, there is 
nothing strongly suggestive of Saxo's Hamlet story, though 
Rydberg attempted, without success, to identify Hamlet with 
Orwendel's famous son Svipdagr, whose adventures in giant- 
land to win the giant-guarded maiden are told so dramatically 
in the fine Eddaic " Lay of Swipday and Menglad." If, how- 

Orvandels-td. In Anglo-Saxon glosses "earendel" (cp. Spinal gloss.), or 
"oerendil" (cp. Erfurt gloss.), is interpreted jubar, but "dawn" or "morning- 
star " would probably be a better rendering, as in the only other passage known 
in old English literature, viz. The BlicUing Homilies, p. 163, 1. 30 : " Nu seo 
Cristes gebyrd at his seriate, se niwa eorendel Sanctus Johannes ; and nu nu se 
leoma pasre so]>an sunnan God selfa cuman wille ; " i.e. " And now the birth of 
Christ (was) at his appearing, and the new day-spring (or dawn) was John the 
Baptist. And now the gleam of the true Sun, God himself, shall come.' 
Orvandill, Earendel, &c. , are probably rightly compared with Sanskrit usrd, the 
morning-red ; Latin, aurora ; Greek, ^c6s. It is interesting to note that the old 
Germanic spring-goddess " Austro " (whose existence has been evolved from Bede's 
"Eostra," i.e. West Saxon "Eastre"; cp. De Temporum Ratione, c. xv.) must have been 
identical with usrd, aurora, &c. ; as Kluge points out (v. Ostern, Etymologisches 
Wdrterbuch), the old Indo-Gerrnanic Aurora became among the Germans a spring- 
goddess in place of a dawn-goddess : the Christian festival commemorating 
Christ's resurrection coincided with the pagan festival of Easter, which was 
celebrated at the vernal equinox, whence the transference of the pagan name to 
Christian purposes. "Earendel" and "Easter" have evidently the same root, 
and both illustrate the same interesting compromise between Old and New (cp. 
Kluge; Paul's Orundriss, vol. i. pp. 1099, 1111). On the other hand, Symons 
(Paul's Grundriss, vol. ii. p. 65) supports the older view of Miillenhoff, and rejects 
the theory that Orwendel = dawn-god, and points to its oldest form Auriuuan- 
dalus (gen. Auriuuandali, found in Lombardic, anno 720) as connected with old 
Norse aurr, moisture ; Anglo-Saxon tar, sea ; he holds that the hero's name the 
wanderer on the sea, the seafarer ; a sort of Germanic Ulysses. It is certainly 
difficult from this standpoint to explain the Anglo-Saxon use of "earendel," 
and recent Northern philologists (e.g. Noreen, cp. Abriss der Urgermanischen 
Lautlehre, p. 89) equate ear- with the root signifying " to burn " in Greek etfw, 
Latin uro, Fes-uvius, &c. 

xxxvii 



INTRODUCTION 

ever, in spite of the absence of evidence to support the view, 
it be maintained that the Hamlet- tale was originally connected 
with the Orwendel myth, those who favour nature-myths have 
here an excellent opportunity for the display of their ingenuity. 
"The first hero ever born," as Orwendel is described in the 
preface to the old German " Spielmanns Gedicht," was cer- 
tainly, as his name implies, a radiant god of dawn or of spring ; 
and does not Saxo make him battle with and ultimately slay 
King Collerus, i.e. King Cold ? He kills him in " a spring-tide 
wood," and in due course is himself slain by his own brother, 
and avenged by his own son. The hapless Gerutha, the giant- 
mother " Groa " of the Edda, is Mother Earth, who in the 
forced embraces of cruel Winter longs for the return of her 
beloved Spring. Some twenty years ago, Zinzow,* in an elabo- 
rate treatise, advanced some such interpretation of the Hamlet 
story as a nature-myth ; and more recently, the distinguished 
mythologist Mogk has adduced the above theory in dealing 
with Orwendel's share in Saxo's story; while Dr. Symons, 
writing in the same work, maintains that Saxo's Danish legend 
is associated only in name, and not essentially, with the 
Orwendel myth. Even so, the Hamlet story may very well 
have borrowed certain elements from the ancient Northern 
myth of the struggle between Spring and Winter; from this 
point of view, the most difficult element of the whole story 
the part played by the hero's mother becomes illumined. 

Summing up, then, we have in Saxo's " Hamlet " a general 
framework probably derived from Northern mythology (or 
rather from Northern mythology which had passed through 
the various stages of heroic-myth and pseudo-history); we 
have in Book III. a story presenting remarkable analogues to 

*. Die Hamletsage : an u. mit verwandten Sagen erldutcrt : ein Beitrag zum Ver- 
stdndniss nordisch-deutsche Sagendichtung. Von Dr. A. Zinzow. Halle, 1877. 
xxxviii 



INTRODUCTION 

the Brutus story, and indebted to it for many of its most 
striking details ; while in Book IV. we have a series of inci- 
dents which seem to belong to an entirely different stratum 
of legendary lore. A consideration of this latter portion of 
the narrative may throw light on the time, place, and origin 
of Saxo's materials. 



XXXIX 



III. 



fYJTHER mediaeval legends suggest contact with the legendary 
^ history of early Rome. One instance must be considered 
side by side with the Brutus element in "Hamlet." While 
Hamlet may be regarded as a sort of Northern counterpart of 
the Roman Brutus, another Danish prince, whom the elder 
Grundtvig aptly styled " Hamlet's mythical half-brother," * 
recalls the most striking element in the legend of Servius 
Tullius. Prince Havelok, degraded to the servile condition of 
scullion and buffoon, reveals his high lineage, during sleep, by 
the flame-breath issuing from his mouth. " Caput arsisse Servio 
Tullio dormienti, qu& historia non prodidit 1 " as Cicero puts it 
in " De Divinatione" There are other parallel incidents in 
the careers of Servius and Havelok, more especially the role 
played by their respective wives in firing their ambition. The 
influence of Latin legend on both " Hamlet " and " Havelok " 
suggests at least the possibility of finding other links in the 
two stories, and some evidence as to the time and place of 
their origin. 

In dealing with the Anglo-Danish romance of " Havelok," 
three versions must be differentiated: (i.) Gaimar's version, 
found at the beginning of "Lestorie des Engles ; " probably origi- 
nally inserted between the lost " Lestorie des Bretons " and the 

* Op. Nordens Mythology, 1832, p. 365. 
xl 



INTRODUCTION 

extant history ; (ii.) an Anglo-Norman Lai de Havelok found at 
the end of a copy of Lestorie in the College of Arms, Gaimar's 
version being omitted; (iii.) " Havelok the Dane" an English 
poem belonging to the thirteenth century, probably based on 
popular legends, and more especially on the local legends 
accounting for the origin of Griinsby ; the Grimsby seal, which 
may go back to the date of the poem, epitomises the story. 
This English romance is independent of the French versions, 
though the author was evidently acquainted with the Anglo- 
Norman poem. It is of least importance for the present 
investigation. As regards the Lai, it is almost certainly 
derived from Gaimar's terser version,* which may safely be 
assigned to the first half of the twelfth century. Its source is 
unknown ; it was possibly in one of the manuscripts borrowed 
for Gaimar by his patron's friend, Walter Espec, the noble 
founder of the Abbeys of Kirkham, Rievaulx, and Wardon, 
from Robert, Earl of Gloucester. Gildas is vaguely referred 
to immediately before the account of Havelok, but Gaimar cer- 
tainly did not find any account of the Dane in any lost work 
of the sixth century historian. Gaimar tells how, in the days 
of Constantine, Arthur's successor, King Adelbrict, a Dane, 
rules in Norfolk, while Edelsi, a Briton, rules in Lindsey ; the 
kings are brothers-in-law; Edelsi's sister, Orwain, has been 
married to the Dane. Adelbrict and Orwain die, leaving 
Argentille, an only child, to the care of her uncle, who proves 
to be the proverbially cruel uncle of popular story. Hear what 
this felon king does ! For the inheritance which he covets, he 

* Cp. Ward's Catalogue of MS. Romances, pp. 437-439, and the whole section 
where the whole evidence concerning HavdoTc is dealt with ; also, Lestorie des 
Engles (Hardy and Price Martin), (ed. Rolls Series), 1889 ; Madden's Havelok the 
Dane (Roxburghe Club) ; Skeat, Havelok (E.E.T.S.) ; Michel, Le Lai d Havelok le 
Danois ; Kbster, Sagnet om Havelok Danske ; G. Storm, Christiania Videnskabssel- 
skal)s ForhancUinger, 1879, &c. 

xli 



INTRODUCTION 

mismarries his niece. He gives her to a lad named Cuheran, 
to abase her. 

This Cuheran though a scullion 

was a comely lad to see, 

of beauteous face, and beauteous hands, 

of graceful form and mien; 

of cheery mood, whatever befell; 

good legs, good feet, were his; 

and brave he was, and thereto bold, 

and willingly he fought; 

and oft it chanced that some vile groom 

would play with him in sport, 

would hustle him, yet soon he sprawled 

with legs high in the air, 

but if the groom grew wrath thereat, 

he tied him with his belt, 

and if no other folk were nigh, 

would beat him with a rod : 

and yet withal he was so frank, 

he soon released his foe, 

if he the word of promise gave 

to bear him no ill grudge, 

and when they had embraced again, 

then Cuheran was glad. 

He is the most popular among all the king's servants, and 
Edelsi, who knows him but as " quistrun," i.e. a scullion, has 
made him his fool (" de lui son jugleur feseit "). Argentille 
sorely feels her disgrace, until one night she sees a marvellous 
flame coming from Cuheran's mouth. She questions him con- 
cerning his birth, and he tells her all he knows, namely, that 
he is the son of poor fisher-folk at Grimsby. They hasten 
thither. His " father," Grim, is dead ; but Grim's daughter is 
still living. She knows the whole secret of his birth, though 
at first she is reluctant to confide it to him, lest harm should 
befall him therefrom, owing to his " folly " (par son folage). At 

length, however, she reveals that he is the son of Gunther, 

xlii 



INTRODUCTION 

king of Denmark, who had been killed when King Arthur 
conquered the land. 

TJie queen in sore dismay of the fight 
fled thence with the rightful heir; 
and you are he., Dan Havelok, 
King Gunthei's son and heir. 
My father Jiad a right good ship; 
he took the queen away ; 
toward this land he steered his course; 
but God willed otherwise. 
Fierce outlaws met us on the seas, 
they pillaged and plundered all; 
the knights and all our folk they slew, 
nor e'en the queen they spared ; 
no man but father mine was spared, 
no woman but my mother, 
for friendship' s sake they spared them both, 
them, and the children eke, 
both me and you, my brothers too, 
e'en as my father begged. 
And when at length we landed here, 
we cut our ship in twain ; 
shattered and battered were sides and stern, 
in that fight when the queen was killed : 
of our stout ship we made our home, 
by a boat we got our bread. 

So Kelloc, Grim's daughter, describes the early history of the 
hero, who subsequently behaves with anything but "folage." 
He and his wife visit Denmark, where various adventures 
befall them. He is ultimately discovered by his father's 
seneschal, who soon, by various tests, recognises him as the 
true heir to the throne. The usurper King Edulf is defeated ; 
Havelok is acclaimed as king. Anon he calls together all his 
ships, and defies King Edelsi. He fights a drawn battle, but 
Argentille teaches him a trick by which he wins the second 
day. All night they fix stakes in the earth ; they fix thereon 

the dead men in two squadrons. The next morning, when 

xliii 



INTRODUCTION 

Cuheran's men see that the host of the enemy is so great, all 
their flesh shuddered, they lose courage, and make the king 
surrender : 

To fight is now of no avail, 
yield thou the lady's right, 
make peace lest things fare worse. 

Argentille thus gains her heritage ; and soon after, on Edelsi's 
death, Havelok, king of Denmark, succeeds to Lindsey as well 
as Norfolk. Twenty years was he king. 

The briefest summary of the romance suffices to show 
that we have here a story of the Hamlet type, though the 
characters of the two heroes stand apart in many important 
respects. " They may fairly be called foster-brothers," writes 
Dr. Ward, in an excellent and summary analysis of the two 
stories ; * " they both grow up at the court of a ' usurping 
uncle,' and are both famous for their quaint sayings. But 
there the first resemblance ends. In the case of Havelok, the 
usurper is not the uncle of Havelok himself, but of Argentille. 
Havelok's simplicity is real. He is quite content with playing 
pranks before the court at Lincoln, where the king treats him 
as a sort of jester. He is aware of the marvellous flame-breath, 
but it never makes him dream of being the heir of kings, or of 
having any wrongs to avenge ; t indeed, he is ashamed of it 
until Argentille becomes his Valkyria (even the crowning war 
trick is her device, for it is done par conseil de la reine, 1. 773) ; 
and she informs his splendid body with the spirit of a hero. 

* Cp. English Historical Review, 1895. 

t On the other hand, as Dr. Ward points out elsewhere (Catalogue, p. 441), in 
the English poem of Havelok " the hero is never unconscious of his real position. 
His character is light and thoughtless before his marriage, but then it changes ; 
he withdraws Goldeburgh from Lincoln to Grimsby of his own accord ; he has 
dreams of ambition, remembers his wrongs, and prays for revenge. This brings 
Havelok in some respects a little closer to Hamlet." 
xliv 



INTRODUCTION 

Hamlet, on the other hand, schemes for revenge; and his 
sayings are in character with his assumed madness. But the 
course of the two stories often brings the same incident to the 
front. Thus each of the heroes is a disinherited Danish prince ; 
each marries an English princess, and regains his power in 
Denmark; each returns to Britain, and marches against an 
English king ; each is accompanied by his own Valkyria (the 
English Argentille and the Scottish Hermuthruda) ; each of 
them half loses the first day's battle, and each wins the second 
day by staking up the dead men in squadrons. These are 
marks of the same workshop, at the very least." 

But the workshop in which Havelok was wrought is 
unmistakeable ; the mark is graven on the workmanship. 
The researches of Koster, Storm, and Ward make it certain 
that " Havelok Cuheran " * is identical with the name of the 
famous Viking, perhaps the greatest warrior of the house of Ivar, 
Anlaf Curan, the vanquished hero of Brunanburgh and Tara. 

Anlaf Curan, or Olaf o' the Sandal, was the son of Sihtric 
Gale, or Caoch, a Viking chief of the house of Ivar, who first 
came to Dublin in 888, and who subsequently gained and lost 
the kingship of Dublin, and died as king of Northuinbria in 
925 ; a year before his death he had married the sister of King 
Athelstan. Sihtric's son Anlaf was the child of another wife, 
but the Wessex king stood very much in the relationship 
of uncle towards his sister's stepson. It was, however, the 
policy of Alfred's ambitious grandson to make himself king of 
all England, and Northumbria was to be added to his rule. 

* The English romance does not mention the name Cuheran at all ; the 
author of Lai de Uavdok has perhaps misunderstood Gaimar, and explains 
"Cuheran" as equivalent to "quistron" (i.e. scullion) ; "car ceo tenoient li Breton 
ensur language quistron;" Gaimar's merely states that " Cuheran estait quistrun." 
Cuheran, Kvaran=Irish cuardn, a sock ; Welsh ^curan (cp. W. Stokes, Revue 
Celtique, iii. p. 189). 

xlv 



INTRODUCTION 

He drove thence Godfrey, Sihtric's brother, Godfrey's son Anlaf, 
and his nephew Anlaf; the latter was destined, as Anlaf 
Curan, to cause much trouble to the English. Expelled from 
Northumbria, Anlaf took refuge at the court of Constantine III., 
king of Scotland, whose daughter he eventually married. 
Athelstan resented Constantine's alliance with the Hiberno- 

, Danes, and in 934 sent an expedition to waste his kingdom. 
In 937 a mighty coalition of British and Danish chiefs was 
formed against Athelstan ; Constantine, together with his son- 
in-law Anlaf, now king of the Northmen in Ireland, were at 
the head of the league, which soon numbered many chiefs of 
the west and east ; the Danes and British formed a confederacy 
against their common West Saxon foe. Anlaf, with his cousin 
Anlaf Godfreyson, came to the Humber with a fleet of 615 
sail, and seized York. At Brunanburgh, probably somewhere 

. in the north-west, the opposing forces met, and the English 
king gained a great and decisive victory; "never had huger 
slaughter of heroes hapt in this isle." The importance of 
the issue may be gathered from the noble war-song enshrined 
in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle : 

" Five young Kings put asleep by the sword-stroke, 
Seven strong Earls of the army of Anlaf 
Fell on the war -field, numberless numbers, 
Shtpmen and Scotsmen" * 

But though the Saxon poet was so exultant in his song, we 
may infer that the poets of the other camp sang a different 
song, lauding their leader's valour, telling of the havoc he had 
wrought on the foe, and refusing to recognise the decisive 
character of the contest. At all events, on the death of Athel- 
stan in 940, or perhaps sooner, Anlal came again to York, and 
was received as king. The Danes of Mercia and East Anglia, 

* Tennyson's translation of the Anglo-Saxon poem, 
xlvi 



INTRODUCTION 

with Wulfstan, archbishop of York, accepted his kingship, and 
according to Simeon of Durham, King Edmund was forced to 
make terms whereby the kingdom was divided between them, 
the English taking the south, Anlaf the north, the boundary 
between them being Watling Street. At this time (943), Anlaf, 
who had hitherto been a pagan, received the rite of baptism. 
It would seem that he divided Northumbria with his cousin 
Anlaf Godfreyson, whose life-story is so closely interwoven with 
his that the old historians are constantly confusing the two. 
Constantine's abdication made a great difference in Anlafs 
position in Northumbria, and at last, in 952, he was driven 
thence for the last time. His marvellous career as king of 
Dublin culminated in 980 in his utter defeat at the battle of 
Tara, which shattered the power of the Scandinavians in 
Ireland. After the battle Anlaf left the world of action, and 
became a monk of the monastery at lona, where he died the 
following year. His son Sitric became king of Dublin in his 
stead. It is worthy of note that Sitric's mother, Gormflaith, 
married Malachy II., the victor of Tara ; Gormflaith must be 
distinguished from Anlafs other wife, the daughter of Constan- 
tine of Scotland; she was the sister of Maelmordha, king of 
Leinster, daughter of Murchadh, and granddaughter of Finn, 
Lord of Offaly. She is " KormloS " of Njals saga, which 
describes her as " the fairest of all women, and best gifted in 
everything that was not in her own power," i.e. in all physical 
and natural endowments; but "she did all things ill over 
which she had any power," i.e. in her moral conduct. She was 
divorced or repudiated by Malachy, and subsequently married 
his dispossessor, Brian, by whom she was also put away.* 

* Todd's War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill (London, 1867) is the great source 
for all this Hiberno-Danish history. Op. also Ward, Keary, Steenstrup, Robert- 
son, who are all indebted to Todd. 

d 



INTRODUCTION 

Many legends naturally clustered round Anlaf s heroic career. 
One of these has been preserved by William of Malmesbury in 
his " Gesta Regum " and " Gesta Pontificum." It tells how, at 
the battle of Brunanburgh, Anlaf, disguised as a harper, entered 
Athelstan's camp, and was brought before the king to display 
his minstrelsy. He marked well the situation of the king's 
tent ; but the king, warned by a soldier, removed his tent to 
another part of the camp. A bishop unwittingly took posses- 
sion of the vacant place, and was slain in the assault which 
was made that night. We are acquainted with a similar story 
of an English king's visit to the Danish camp. There can be 
no doubt that the romance of " Havelok Cuheran " is little 
more than a romance of the life of " Anlaf Curan," or rather 
of the many legends fathered upon him, some belonging to 
ancient story, some derived from various episodes in Hiberno- 
Anglo-Danish history. The romance must have originally 
been developed among a Welsh-speaking population, for "Ab- 
loec," or " Abloyc " (with voiced b, i.e. Avloc ; cp. " Habloc," the 
form on the Grimsby seal), is the name given to " Anlaf " in 
the oldest Welsh annals. It is not to be explained, as Todd 
suggested, as a Welsh form of " Anlaf," but rather, as Dr. Ward 
has pointed out, as a native Welsh heroic name (Aballach, or 
Avallach, otherwise Abloyc, the sixth son of the semi-mythical 
Cunedda) transferred to the Northern hero, its sound being 
nearly identical with what would have been the Welsh form of 
some Scandinavian variant of Anlaf. The Welsh kingdom of 
Strathclyde must be thought of in connection with the Welsh 
origin of the romance. King Owen, who ruled there during 
Anlaf s life, was nephew to Constantine of Scotland, Anlaf 's 
father-in-law, and one of his allies at Brunanburgh. The events 
of the romance clearly belong to Constantino's reign, though 

by an error Gaimar confuses this tenth-century Constantine 
xlviii 



INTRODUCTION 

with Constantine, " the nephew of Arthur, who had the sword 
Calidure." 

Gaimar's " Havelok " and Saxo's " Hamlet " have many 
traits in common, as has already been shown. " Havelok " is 
but a romance of " Anlaf Curan." Is any light thrown on the 
legendary " Hamlet " when viewed side by side with what is 
known of the historical Anlaf ? As regards the earlier career 
of Hamlet, there is nothing much more strikingly parallel than 
the part played by Anlaf 's usurping uncle. Unfortunately, the 
story of Anlaf 's youth has not come down to us ; there is a 
blank of ten years in the annals, from the death of his father 
in 927. But the Hamlet of Saxo's Fourth Book, who journeys 
to Scotland to woo the fierce virago Hermutrude,* whose cruel 
arrogance made her always loathe her wooers, may be identified 
with the son-in-law of Constantine of Scotland. It has been 
well said that while Hermutrude resembles Anlaf 's first wife in 
her country, she resembles his second wife, Gormflaith, in her 
character ; for though, according to Saxo, she had previously 
resisted all offers of marriage by reason of her chastity, yet at 
Hamlet's death "she yielded herself unasked to be the con- 
queror's spoil and bride." 

The most remarkable parallel in the " Havelok " and 
" Hamlet " stories is perhaps the stratagem of setting up the 
dead men and so gaining the battle ; this incident seems to 
belong peculiarly to Anglo-Danish or Hiber no -Danish history. 
A similar expedient is mentioned by Saxo Grammaticus as 
practised by Fridlevus, king of Denmark, who invades Britain 
after conquering Dublin ; in the Book of the " Wars of the 

* The whole subject of the Hermutrude-type of woman in mediaeval litera- 
ture is very fully treated of by Olrik (pp. 172-179) ; Mr. A. Nutt (Folk-lore, 1892, 
26-48) dwells on its points of contact with Marie de France's " EUduc." The 
name "Hermutrude" is evidently a Danish borrowing of the German "Hermin- 
trade." 

Xlix 



INTRODUCTION 

Gaedhil with the Gaill," * the same device is resorted to in one 
of the last episodes of that long struggle. The statement in 
Saxo and Gaimar must be referred to the traditional exploits 
of Anlaf Curan. 

In the case of " Havelok," the Welsh annals come to our 
aid in clinching the alleged identification of " Havelok " with 
"Anlaf." Do we find any similar evidence bearing out the 
alleged influence of Anlaf 's story on Saxo's Hamlet- tale ? 
The supposed absence of all such evidence must, I think, be 
answerable for the scant attention hitherto given to the whole 
subject of the " Havelok-Hamlet " problem, so that in so recent 
a study as Mr. Elton's valuable Appendix to " Saxo Grammati- 
cus," the possibility of the equation is not even referred to. 
But there does exist in ancient annals a clue of the greatest 
possible importance, strangely overlooked by previous workers. 
Its neglect can easily be explained; owing to a very simple 
but unfortunate blunder, the translators have obscured the 
value of their document, while the historians have naturally 
followed the translators. In the "Annals of Ireland ly the Four 
Masters" \' under the year 917 (= 919), a striking account is 
given of the great battle of Ath-Cliath, i.e. Kilmashogue (near 
Kathfarnham, in the county of Dublin). A mighty victory was 
gained by the Northerners under Imhar and Sitric Gale; twelve 
Irish kings and princes were struck down in the fight. Chief 
among these was Niall Glundubh, son of ^Edh Finnliath, king 
of Ireland, " after he had been three years in the sovereignty." 
" Concerning this battle," adds the annalist, " several songs were 
made. Fierce and hard was the Wednesday, is the burden of one ; 
Where is the chief of the western world ? of another. Niall said 
before the battle : 'Whoever wishes for a speckled boss, and a sword 

* Cp. Todd, p. 215. 

t " Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters," ed. O'Donovan ; cp. also "Three 
fragments, copied from Ancient Sources," &c. (Irish Arch, and Celt. Soc.), 1860. 



INTRODUCTION 

of sore-inflicting wounds, and a green javelin for wounding wretches, 
let him go early in the morning to Ath-Cliath.' Celedabhaill, 
son of Scannall, successor of Comghall, and confessor of Niall 
Glundubh, was he who had requested of Niall to come to the 
battle ; and it was he who gave the viaticum to Niall, after 
having refused to give him a horse to carry him to the battle." 
Then follows a strange fragment of song, which the annalist 
had already quoted under the year 904. This, however, is its 
proper place. Its author was none other than Niall Glundubh's 
widow, Queen Gormflaith, daughter of Flann (who must not 
be confused with Gormflaith, daughter of Murchadh, Anlaf's 
wife, already referred to). These words are quoted from her 
lament : 

"Olc 
2t)A 
CeArbA.ll IA bUlb corbxxl 



" 111 for me the compliment of the two foreigners, 
Who slew Niall and Cearbhall ; 
Cearbhall was slain by Ulf, a mighty deed ; 
Niall Glundubh by Amhlaide." 

The last word, "Amhlaide," is certainly the Irish form ot 
" AinloSi " or Hamlet.* O'Donovan, the editor of the Annals, 
mistook the name for "Amhbaeibh," i.e. the Irish form of 
Aleifr, or Olafr, and renders it so in his translation of the 
passage. The historians, including Steenstrup, have all fol- 
lowed him, and state that Niall Glundubh was slain at the 
battle by one of the enemy whose name was Olaf. The con- 
fusion of " Amlaidhe " (i.e. Amlooi) with Arnlaibh (i.e. Aleifr, 

* Mr. Whitley Stokes duly gives the name in his list of " Norse Loan-words 
in Irish Annals," Bezzenberger's Beitrage, 1892. 

li 



INTRODUCTION 

Olafr) was natural enough; the dh was taken to be a mere 
variant of bh. That this is not the case is proved by the 
metrical system of Gormflaith's song, which requires that 
" Amhlaide " should be a trisyllabic word the final -e cannot 
be ignored.* This passage in the Irish annals yields us the 
earliest instance of the name " AmloSi " or " Hamlet " to be 
found anywhere in literature. The Irish queen Gormflaith, 
about the year 919, introduces it into her verse as the name 
of one of the Northern heroes at the battle of Ath-Cliath. Who 
was this " Amlaidhe," the slayer of Niall Glundubh ? Though 
" The Annals of the Four Masters " name Imhar (i.e. Ivar) and 
Sitric as the leaders of the Northmen, it is probable that 
Imhar is an error for Clann Ivar, " the children of Ivar," f 
and that Sitric, the father of Anlaf Curan, was at the head 
of the enterprise. J Under these circumstances, he was cer- 
tainly the cause of Niall's death. But it would seem that 
he was the actual slayer of the Irish king. The Saxon 
Chronicle (E. and F.), Simeon of Durham, Henry of Hunting- 
don, Gaimar, and other authorities, all state that " Sitric slew 
Niel;' though they make the strange mistake of calling him 
Sitric's brother, king of Northumberland. Hodgson Hinde 
(Hodgson's Northumberland, vol. i.) has shown that this Niel 
was no other than Niall Glundubh, "who never was king of 
Northumberland, and was no Dane, nor brother of Sitric, but 
a genuine Irishman of the race of the Northern Hy Neill." 
Perhaps the chroniclers have confused this Sitric with Sitriucc 

* Professor Kuno Meyer has kindly given me his opinion on the point : " From 
the metre and rhyme we see that Amlaidhe makes three syllables." 

f The Ivar were probably of Norse, and not Danish, origin. Cp. Steenstrup, 
Normannerne, ii. iii. 

J Cp. Todd. 

Keary (Catalogue of English Coins : Anglo-Saxon Series) states definitely, in 
his biographical note on SIHTEIC GALE : "slew, in battle of Kilmashogue, 919, 
King Njel Glundubh, K. of Dublin." 
Hi 



INTRODUCTION 

(one of the sons of Ivar of Limerick), who slew his brother 
Sichfrith. In the Ulster Annals, anno 888, it is stated that 
" Sichfrith Mac Imair rex Nordmannomm a fratre suo per 
dolum occisus est." The only brother we know of is Sitriucc, 
Lord of Limerick. 

If, then, it can be shown that Sitric, the father of Anlaf 
Curan, was the slayer of Niel, it follows that " Amlaidhe," 
the Irish form of " Hamlet," in Gormflaith's song, must have 
reference to him; yet nowhere else, so far as is discovered 
at present, is Sitric referred to under this name. Two nick- 
names of his are well known, viz., " Caoch," an Irish word 
meaning blind or one-eyed, and " Gale " or " Gaile," a word 
which, as Todd says, if it be Irish, may signify " the champion " 
or " hero " ; but it cannot well be an Irish word, and Celtic 
scholars tell me "this epithet wants explanation." I would 
hazard the suggestion that " gaile " is the Norse galiitr = galinn, 
" bewitched," or, more commonly, " mad " (the past participle of 
gala, " to enchant "). May it not be that " amlaidhe" as used 
by Gormflaith, was synonymous with " gaile " ? But if Sitric's 
career recalled the story of " AmloSi," how was it that his own 
Northern countrymen did not apply to him this expressive 
nickname ? As a matter of fact, we know nothing of Sitric's 
early career. The annals are silent as to his father, and the 
circumstances under which he first came to Dublin in 888.* 

* There is a curious story told by Suhm, in his CritisTc Danmarks Historic, 
about the alleged discovery of some coins bearing the inscription, " Amleth Rex 
Anglorum." Suhm casts doubt on the authenticity of the reading, derived from 
"Resenii Descr. Jutise MSS. in Atlante." The MSS. of Resenius in the Arni- 
Magnsean Collection have been summarily investigated, but no such note has 
been discovered. Suhm probably quoted directly from Pontoppidan's Marmora, 
Danica, where the following statement is made : 

" In boreali regione parseciae Torringensis portio terras in Lymicum se inferens 
sinum insulam efficit Hellere dictam, in qva Amlethus Rex munimentum quondam 
extruxisse fertur. In medio hujus collis surgit sepulchralis, quern annis abhinc 

liii 



INTRODUCTION 

Again, so far as the legend of " Amlocti" is concerned, it 
must be borne in mind that we find no Northern reference 
to the name before the time of the Icelander Snsebjorn, pro- 
bably some twenty or thirty years after Gormflaith's reference to 
" Ainlaidhe." Whatever Northern elements there may be in 
the story of Hamlet, it has not yet been conclusively proved 
that the name " Hamlet " is of Northern origin. As a Teutonic 
word " amlool " stands absolutely isolated, and no etymology 
hitherto advanced by Teutonic philologists commends itself to 
serious consideration. The word has not yet been connected 
with Celtic vocables, but future investigations on the part of 
Celtic scholars may perhaps resolve the name into its com- 
ponent parts ; " amhlair," " amadon," and " amlaidhe " may once 
have been synonyms in Irish speech for that most popular 
character among all folk, and more especially the Irish, to 
wit, " the fool ; " the nickname " amlaidhe " may perhaps repre- 
sent the confluence of the characteristic Northern name " Am- 
laibh " and some such Celtic word as " amhaide," sour, sulky, 
surly (cp. " amaideac," silly, absurd, fantastic, foolish, idiotic). 

Anyhow, it would seem that among the Irish, in the 
Scandinavian kingdom of Dublin, Anlaf Curan's father was 
known as " Amlaidhe," or " Hamlet." Later on, the father and 
the more famous son were no doubt blended in popular story, 
the confusion being greatly helped by the likeness in sound 
between " Amlaibh," the Irish form of " Anlaf," * and " Am- 

sex cum perfodisset Andreas qvidam Lundius, magnam vim nummorum invenit, 
partim ex corio clavulis argenteis confixo, partim ex auro cum imagine Viri & 
inscriptione : Amleth Rex Angliae." 

Probably, as Suhm suggests, if there is any truth at all in the story, Lund 
found some coins of "Anlaf." Kea'ry (p. 235) gives several specimens of his 
coins, one bearing inscription, "Anlaf Rex Tod" (probably = totius Britanniae). 
The British Museum has at least one coin of Anlaf 's father, Sihtric Gale (cp. p. 231). 

* Many Irish forms of this name are given from the Annals in Whitley 
Stokes' article, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, xviii. 116. 
liv 



INTRODUCTION 

laidhe," the Irish form of " AmloSi." In later times the two 
words, following phonetic law, would become absolutely iden- 
tical in form.* The story of " Hamlet " in Saxo certainly 
owed a great debt to this Hiberno-Danish history ; and the 
accretions from this source grafted upon the older mythical 
story, especially the late matter to be found in Saxo's Fourth 
Book, may now easily be accounted for. Indeed, the evidence 
here adduced seems to point to the Celtic West, more particu- 
larly the Scandinavian kingdom of Ireland, as the locality 
where the Northern tale of " Hamlet," as we know it from Saxo, 
was finally developed some time in the eleventh century 
about the same time that the Welsh minstrels of Strathclyde 
were forging their tale of " Havelok." t The tenth-century 
Icelander Snsebjorn must have known the tale at an earlier 
stage of its development, before the legends of the house 
of Ivar had been added thereto ; but it may be inferred (if 
the interpretation of Gormflaith's " amlaidke" as equivalent 

* Professor Kuno Meyer has kindly given me the benefit of his learning on 
this matter : "The ending aidhe is what Irish grammarians call a 'slender,' 
i.e. a palatal-sound combination, represented in English by ie or ey, as you 
actually find in Auley, which might come either from Amlaibh or Amlaidhe, 
though the former also makes Auliff, with the labial preserved." 

t Dr. Ward (Cat. MSS., p. 860) calls attention to the curious fact that a word 
almost the same in sound as Amlogi formed the name of one of the old Welsh 
heroes. This was Amlaudd, of whom nothing is known except that he was the 
father of three or four heroines, one of whom was Eigr, the mother of Arthur. 
Lady Charlotte Guest states in a note that he was married to Gwen, a daughter 
of Cunedda (Mabinogion, ii. 319). Dr. Ward ingeniously makes the following 
observation : " This forms, at all events, some sort of connection between him 
and Abloyc (or Avallach), the son of Cunedda, whose name was transferred to 
Anlaf Curan. We think it quite possible that both names were used for Anlaf 
by different romancers, and that whilst one became Havelok, the other became 
Hamlet." This is rather too ingenious : the similarity of Amidol to Welsh 
" Amlawdd " is probably purely accidental. Professor Meyer tells me that the 
older form of anlawdd, viz. " anblaud," is against the theory. 

While writing of Wales in connection with Hamlet, it may be well to call 
attention to Trev Amlodd in Pembrokeshire ; this seems to point to the settle- 
ment of a Norseman. 

Iv 



INTRODUCTION 

to galinn, i.e. mad, be accepted) that the hero's stupidity, 
assumed or otherwise, was the important element of the tale 
as known to him. Even this earlier and simpler form of the 
story may have been brought to Iceland from Ireland, whither 
the Vikings had originally taken the story of Orwendil's son. 
No Scandinavian family illustrates more strikingly than Snae- 
bjorn's the close connection between the Northerners and the 
Celts from the ninth to the eleventh centuries ; * the greatest 
names in Hiberno-Scandinavian history figure in his pedigree ; 
even the poetess Gormflaith, whose husband, Niall Glundubh, 
was slain by Amlaidhe, was among his kinsfolk ; she probably 
died when he was a youth. It is indeed a curious coincidence 
that the earliest instances of the name " Hamlet " should be 
found in Gormflaith's Irish lament, and in Snsebjorn's Icelandic 
poem of adventure in Arctic Seas. 

In view of the evidence adduced tending to associate the 

* The mutual influence of the Celts and the Scandinavians both received 
increased attention at the hands of scholars. Vigfusson boldly recognised the 
non-Icelandic character of many of the Eddaic songs (cp. Corpus Poeticum Borcale, 
vol. i. p. Ixii.). In the Prolegomena to " The Sturlunga Saga " occurs the following 
statement : " We may therefore take the Lays to be a parallel development in 
the Western Isles to the Saga in Iceland, composed for the same purpose, 
popular entertainments, after the initiative of some great poet who arose among 
the Norse emigrants somewhere in the West (Ireland, Man, Northumberland, or 
Scotland, we know not which)." Professor Bugge is the chief exponent of the 
influence of Irish Christianity on Scandinavian mythology ; and as regards 
Northern poetry, he has recently worked out his theory that the " Helgi " poems 
belong originally to the West. In an article on " Gaelic Words and Names in 
the Icelandic Sagas" (Zeitschrift fur Celtische Philoloyie, 1897), Mr. Craigie re- 
asserts his previous contention (Arkiv for nordisk FUologi, x.) that "there is 
abundance of evidence in the Gaelic vocabulary to show that the Celt learned 
much from the Scandinavian, while there is scarcely any similar evidence to 
prove an Irish influence on the Norsemen." The test of vocabulary in this case 
is to my mind not altogether conclusive. The case of Olaf Pa, who was taught 
Irish by his mother, and " spoke it as well as any man " (Laxdcda Saga), was 
probably not an isolated instance. E. Mogk's Kdten und Nordgermanen im 9. u. 
10. Jahrbundeste, 1892, emphasises the Celtic influence on Northern (and more 
especially Icelandic) literature. 
Ivi 



INTRODUCTION 

development of the Hamlet story with the British Isles, it is a 
matter of surprise that English folk-lore or folk-speech has not 
so far yielded one slight trace of the story independently of 
modern literary influences. It is possible that Middle English 
poetry may give us some such trace a valuable confirmatory 
clue to the theory previously propounded. Alliterative poetry 
of the West and North- West has preserved for us many fossil- 
remains of ancient legend, and so rich a treasury of archaic 
speech, that the student will be prepared to consider carefully 
the following problem. In " The Wars of Alexander," an alli- 
terative romance, translated for the most part from the famous 
" Historia de Preliis," * and composed somewhere in the North 
of England about the beginning of the fifteenth century, we 
find a strange word, " amla^e " or " arnlaugh," twice used as a 
term of reproach, Alexander the Great being scoffed at by 
Porrus of Inde as " Amla^e out of Grece " : 

" I, Porrus, that as principall possessed am in Ynde, 
To this michare t out of Messedoine this mandment I write. 
Thou, Alexander, thou ape, thou Amla3e out of Grece, 
Thou little thefe, thou losangere,| thou lurkare in cites . . . 
Madding marred has thi mode and thi mynd changid." (3540-3545.) 

While Darius, inquiring about Alexander's appearance, is shown 
by his courtiers a caricature thus graphically described : 

" And thai in parchment him payntid, his person him shewid, 
Ane amla3e, ane asaleny,5[ ane ape of all othire, 
A wirling,** a wayryngle, tt a wawil-e3id J J shrewe, 
The caitifeste creatour, that cried was evire." (1707.) 



* Re-edited from MS., Ashmore 44, and Trinity College, Dublin, MS., by 
Professor Skeat, E.E.T.S., 1886; the former MS. was edited for the Roxburghe 
Club, in 1849, by Stevenson. 

t Petty thief. J Liar. Mind. H Little ass. 

** Dwarf. tt Little villain. t Wall-eyed. Created. 

Ivii 



INTRODUCTION 

In disdain Darius sends him a ball to play with, a golden 
headpiece, and a hat made of twigs, together with a letter, 
bidding him abandon his folly, and bethink him that he is but 
' a dwinyng, a dwa^e, and a dwerje " a dwarf and a grub ; he 
must learn to "feign with fairness" * 

Have we in these passages some reminiscence of a popular 
tale of " Hamlet " ? or rather, is the word " Amla^e " not merely 
a synonym used much in the same way as " Amlo'Si " in 
modern Icelandic, but actually its Middle English equivalent ? 
It is a curious fact that the first editor of " The Wars of 
Alexander " misread the text and printed " Amlair," evidently 
recalling the Irish " amhlair," a fool. Professor Skeat, in 
his great edition of the two texts, rightly prints " amlaje," 
" amlaugh," explaining the words in the glossary as equivalent 
to " imbecile, weak person," and adding without comment 
" Icelandic, amlodi" The difficulty of deriving the Middle 
English form from the Scandinavian is probably answerable 
for the omission of the word from Middle English lexicons, as 
well as from that noble survey of English speech, the New 
English Dictionary. The phonological aspects of the word 
must first be considered. It is difficult to determine whether 
the guttural in " amla^e " was of any phonetic or etymological 
value. The poem in which the word occurs belongs to a 
Northern district, and was composed at so late a period that 
it may safely be assumed that in most cases the guttural 

* The Latin original of the two passages has been elaborately worked up by 
the English poets. The letter of Porrus begins with these words: " Porus 
Indorum rex latroni Alexandra, qui latrocinando obtinet civitates, prccipiendo man- 
damus. Cum sis mortalis homo, quid prevales facere deo? " &c. The drawing of the 
caricature is described in section 29 : ' ' Itti vero ostenderunt ei staturam Alexandri 
depictam in membrana. Vidcns autem ittam Darius despexit earn propter parvitaiem 
forme ejus et statim direxit ei pilam lubricam," &c. (cp. Historia de Prelii$, ed. 
O. Zingerle, Breslau, 1885). 
Iviii 



INTRODUCTION 

symbol, even when of etymological significance, was unsounded 
in pronunciation.* In consequence of its non-phonetic value, 
the symbol was often used erroneously, or as a mere scribal 
mannerism. It may well be that the final syllable of " Am- 
Ia3e " does not etymologically represent a guttural letter, and 
that the ending -laje was due to the influence of the common 
word " out-laje," outlaw an attempt to Anglicise some Gaelic 
vocable with an undefined vowel in the second syllable. At 
all events, if the word should prove to be ultimately identical 
with the Scandinavian " amloSi," it can only be accounted for 
by derivation from the Celtic form " amlaidhe." In later Irish 
and Gaelic the endings -dh(e), -bh(e), -gh(e) were not sounded, 
though scribes continued to write them,t too often erroneously. 
Hence, however, results the following conclusion: If the 
Middle English Amla[e] may be traced to the Gaelic Amlaidhe, 
and thence to the Norse amlodi, it may similarly also represent 
the Gaelic amlaibh, i.e. Old Norse Anleifr (Olaf). 

It may be that the linguistic problems of the form " Am- 
la^e " illustrate in an interesting manner the literary problems, 
already discussed, of the fusion of the legendary story of " Am- 
16$i " with the romantic legendary history of Anlaf Curan. It 
comes to this, that, from a philological point of view, the 

* " The Wars of Alexander " is probably half a century later than " Gawayne 
and the Grene Knight," "Cleanness," "Patience," and "Pearl"; these latter 
poems (more especially the first and last, owing to their rhymes) clearly demon- 
strate the loss of the guttural in such words as might, light, rhyming with 
non- guttural words ; hence such spellings as sorquidry$hc, fayry^e, and such 
forms as 30^36 ( = $olwe) by false analogy with the correct Middle English sor$e 
( = sorioc). 

The writer of " The Wars of Alexander " belonged, in all probability, to a more 
northernly district than the Gawayne-poet, whose disciple he seems to have been, 
if we may judge from vocabulary and characteristics of style. 

f Such a text as Kuno Meyer's Vision of MacConghle gives abundant illustra- 
tion of this ; cp. also the etymology of " ban-s/tee," given as from sidhe, instead of 
sighe (v. Skeat's Student's Pastime). 

lix 



INTRODUCTION 

modern Gaelic name "MacAulay" may be interpreted as "Ham- 
let's son," or " Olaf 's son." * 

* As a matter of fact, the name " Amlaidhe " (AmldSi) took no root in the 
Highlands ; there are, as Mr. MacBain, the author of the Gaelic Dictionary, kindly 
points out to me, two M'Aulay clans in Scotland : the Argyleshire branch is from 
(1) Amalgaid, which appears in charters of the thirteenth century as Amelec, 
Ameleus, and even Saxonised as Hammelin ; the Lewis M'Aulays from (2) Amhlaibh, 
i.e. Norse Anlflfr (Aleifr, Oltifr). There is no distinction in modern Gaelic pro- 
nunciation (McAmhlai) between the two M'Aulay sept names. Irish differentiates 
thus : (1) M'Auliffe (Anlafr) ; (2) M'Aulay (Amalgaid, Amhalghaidh). 

The strong probability that the Middle English Amla$e is a borrowing from 
Gaelic makes a reference necessary to the well-known expressive Scotch word 
ablach, or ablich, used absolutely as the English word in the passages quoted from 
"The Wars of Alexander," in the sense of " a dwarf ; an insignificant, contemp- 
tible, useless sort of creature " (cp. the colloquial Aberdeenshire use in Dr. 
Alexander's Johnny Gibb of Gushetneuk). On the high authority of Mr. MacBain 
(cp. Gaelic Dictionary, s.v.), the word must be resolved into the component parts 
ad-bal-ac from /Jbal, die; cp. Eng. quell; hence ablach=" carcase," "object of 
pity," &c. There can be little doubt that "aploch" is merely another spelling of 
the same word. Mactaggart's Scottish Gallovidian Encyclopedia (1823) has an 
interesting note on "aplochs " : "Some few years ago a field of corn could not 
be shorn, nor a meadow mowed, without parts of them being left in corners 
uncut ; these were called aplochs : they were left for the benefit of the warlock 
race, so as to keep their favour, but farmers have long ago defied all beings of 
the sort to do their worst : aplochs now are vanished away." 

Dr. Wright, in the first instalment of The Dialect Dictionary, places ablach 
among the " words for the present kept back for the want of further informa- 
tion," rightly withdrawing the derivation proposed in the body of the work 
where reference is made to Gaelic abhac, "a dwarf, pigmy, manikin, sprite." 
Abhac and ablach, though etymologically distinct, are evidently synonymous ; 
the former is clearly identical with the word amhach, "dwarf, like a fool," given 
in Armstrong's Gaelic Dictionary, and is probably a derivative of amh, "a fool, 
simpleton, dwarf," recorded in the same. 

It is impossible to dismiss without comment the remarkable groups of words, 
ultimately of different etymological origin, used in senses almost synonymous : 
(1) Gael, amh, amhac, abhac; (2) Gael, ablach; (3) Gael, amhlair ; (4) Gael, amadou 
amaidhe, &c. ; (5) Gael, amlaidhe ; Norse, amlodi ; (6) probably various derivatives 
of Norse, Aleifr, e.g. Irish, Amlaibh; Welsh, dbloyc (Havelok Curan). 

The second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth groups have already been discussed ; 
as regards the first group, Mr. David MacRitchie, who strongly believes in the 
existence of dwarfish races in former times, in countries where they no longer 
exist, has the following interesting remark in an article contributed to Scots Lore 
(p. 390) : "It has been seen that the Gaelic Na h-Amhuisgean is translated The 
Dwarfs or Piymies by the Minister of Tiree, and that in two Gaelic dictionaries 
lx 



INTRODUCTION 

(one Irish, the other Scotch) the corrupt form Tamhasg (from an-t-amhasg) has 
the same meaning. Each of these lexicographers gives the variants amhach and 
abhac or abhag, all signifying ' dwarf ; ' and these, again, are extensions of the 
earlier form amh or abh." In a letter, Mr. MacRitchie points out that as the 
aspirated consonant in Gaelic infers an earlier unaspirated form, we are led to 
" ab, an ape, a spell anciently, any little creature," and, contrary to my own views, 
he is predisposed to assume that the earliest "havelocks" were, as defined by 
Armstrong, "pigmies"; but this confuses the voiceless Gael, ablach with the 
voiced Welsh aUoyc. Anyhow, the proposed connection of ab, or am, and "ope," 
recalls the line quoted above from "The Wars of Alexander," " thou ape, thou 
amla^e." 



Ixi 



IV. 



T^ROM the investigations summarised in an earlier section of 
* the essay, it seems at least probable that the Hamlet story, 
as known to the Icelander Snsebjorn, was fundamentally iden- 
tical with the groundwork of the story subsequently elabo- 
rated by Saxo Grammaticus. The assumption may perhaps be 
hazarded that, in some form or other, the legend lived on among 
the myth-loving Icelanders throughout the Middle Ages inde- 
pendently of the more distinguished literary form impressed 
upon it by the genius of the Danish historian. A. noteworthy 
passage in a later Danish history, " Series Regum Danise," 
compiled by the learned Icelander Torfeus, who flourished in 
the seventeenth century, may perhaps have had reference to 
some such " old wives' tale," containing elements derived from 
pre-Saxo times. " As regards Saxo's Amlethus," observes 
Torfeus, " as a boy at home in Iceland I frequently heard the 
story of Amlode told by wretched old crones, but I regarded 
it as merely an old wives' tale : later on, however, when I 
came across Saxo's noble account of the hero, I abandoned 
my boyish notion, and thenceforth left my friends no peace, 
but worried them to find out for me the old story I had once 
heard ; yet without success. At last, a few years ago, they 
sent me a story of Amlode, but no sooner had I perused it 
than I cast it aside, as altogether worthless and quite modern. 

It actually makes Hamlet not a Dane but a Spaniard ! It 
Ixii 



INTRODUCTION 

must have been composed after the time of the Scythian 
Tamberlaine, for some of the details are certainly derived 
from his history." * 

The book sent to Torfaeus was clearly not the story he had 
heard in his youth ; yet the worthless volume may well have 
merited more serious attention on the part of the historian. 
In spite of the borrowings from Tamberlaine's history, and the 
general romanticising of the Northern story, some of the 
closest elements might still have been preserved therein. The 
manuscript sent to Torfseus is extant among the MSS. at 
Copenhagen.t It is substantially identical with the " Ainbales 
Saga " issued in the present volume. 

Other antiquaries followed up the efforts of Torfseus to 
discover an older Icelandic Hamlet Saga. The great name 
of Ami Magnusson must be mentioned in this connection. 
He commissioned one Jon Thorlaksson (known as " the Saga 
spoiler") to send him any such saga he might come across. 
Demand called forth supply; and Arni, sometime in 1705, 
received a copy of a professedly ancient story of Amlode ; 
he was not, however, deceived by Jon's professions. The 
manuscript in question is preserved among Ami's collections, 
enriched with the following note : " Me, nimirum decipere wluit 

* "Ad Saxonis Amlethum quod attinet, ego in patria puer a vetulis anibusque 
et ejirsdem furfuris homuncionibus Amlodii historiam narratam audivi, inque 
tenerrima ilia aetate pro fabula tantum aestimavi. Verum postquam adultior, 
suada Saxonis expositam amplificatamque conspexi, conceptam prius per- 
suasionem ut puerilem antiquavi. Exinde amicorum quosvis sollicitare non 
destiti ut illam historiam ubique quaererent, qui se nihil profecisse scriptis ad 
me literis crebro questi sunt. Tandem ante aliquot annos earn nactus, lectione 
omnino indignam deprehendi, anilem quippe nee tressis fabulam, nuperque con- 
fectam ; quae Amlodum istum non Danuni scd Hispanum fuisse suggerit. Fabulam 
post Tamerlanis seu Tamercutli tempora confectam esse ex eo liquet, quod ex 
ejus gestis aliquod ibi assutum compareat " (Series Regum Danice) ; Torfseus was 
born in 1636. 

t Cp. Appendix : Summary of Manuscripts, No. 14. 

e 



INTRODUCTION 

vir bonus, et persuadere se rem vetustatam mihi mittere. Sed non 
ego credidus illi" * 

By this time Ami had got together several manuscripts of 
the more interesting Saga, a version of which Torfseus had 
previously received from his friends in Iceland; his collec- 
tion included, too, a long ballad-cycle on the same theme, a 
rhyming version of the fictitious saga. 

During the last two hundred years the "Ambales Saga" 
has excited the curiosity of many students of the Hamlet 
story, and it has seemed desirable that it should at length 
be rendered accessible.! 

There can be no question that in its present form the Saga 
is a modern production, belonging to the sixteenth or perhaps 
early seventeenth century. The value of the text depends 
mainly on the possibility that, more especially in the earlier 
chapters, there may still be found elements belonging to the 
pre-Saxo Hamlet legend. That the bulk of the Saga is 
drawn from the Danish history, remodelled under the influence 
of popular folk-tales, Charlemagne and Arthurian romances, 
and the stories of Tamberlaine, cannot for a moment be 
doubted. The name " Ambales," evidently evolved from 

* Cp. ibid. 16 ; Appendix VI. Vedel's Danish translation of Saxo's History 
(1575) had clearly been used by the ancient sagaman ! 

t Dr. Ward (Cat. MS. Romances, Brit. Mus. 1883) was, I think, the first of 
modern scholars to summarise the contents of the Saga. Soon after, the present 
writer began collecting information on the Saga and Eimur. A short account 
of his results was read before the New Shakespeare Society in 1889 (vide 
Transactions N. Shak. Soc.). Meanwhile a small printed chap-book, "Sagan af 
Ambalis Kongi," appeared at Reykjavik ("hjji Einari porSarsyni," 1886), 
evidently a normalised text of a poor modern manuscript. Recently Dr. Detter 
(Zeitschrift fur Deutsches Alterthum, 1892) gave an account of the Saga, based 
on Dr. Otto Jiriczek's researches, which were subsequently (1896) published in 
the Weinhold Festschrift of the Germanistische Alhandlungen (Breslau) a valuable 
summary of the contents of the Arni-Magnsean MSS., with references to the more 
important differences. It is strange that both Dr. Detter and Dr. Jiriczek were 
unaware of the published articles of English scholars on the subject. 
ixiv 



INTRODUCTION 

" Amblethus," a late variant of " Amlethus," points to some 
such epitome of Saxo as that attributed to the monk 
Gheysrner. This epitome, probably composed about the 
middle of the fourteenth century,* was soon translated into 
Low German, and in this form appeared in print as early as 
1485, a quarter of a century before the same honour was 
accorded to Saxo's Latin original. This Low German version 
may well have been in the hands of the Icelandic writer of 
" Ambales." The book is now so scarce that probably no copy 
is to be found in England; and Schmeller, the bibliographer 
of Low German literature, makes the same statement with 
reference to the libraries of Germany. A careful transcript of 
the illustrative chapters, from one of the Copenhagen copies of 
the book, will be found among the Appendices, accompanied 
by the Latin of Gheysmer's epitome. 

Of the "Ambales Saga" there are many manuscripts, 
though the oldest cannot be assigned to an earlier date than 
the seventeenth century. In all probability none of the 
extant copies represent the original form of the Saga. The 
versions may be broadly divided into two classes, according 
to their nearness to the Arni-Magnaean MSS. 521& and 52 Ic 
respectively. There are minute and unimportant differences 
in style, vocabulary, names, incidents, divisions of the chapters. 
The second of the two classes seems to preserve the better 
version. The Saga in this volume, printed without normalisa- 
tion from a more modern manuscript, belongs substantially to 
this class.t 

* Cp. Velschow's Saxo Grammaticus : notce uberiores. Gheysmer was the 
scribe, and not the author, according to this view. 

t Cp. Appendices VI. and XV. The specimens in Appendix VI. illustrate the 
sort of differences to be found in the MSS. I have not deemed it necessary to 
give lists of various readings. The following may be noted: Page 1, line 11, 
''Selina, &c.," so c (i.e. A.M. 521c), not in a (i.e. A.M. 521a) ; Holmsetuland (1, 14), 

Ixv 



INTRODUCTION 

It is hardly necessary to calculate the many divergences 
in the " Ambales Saga " as compared with Saxo's Amlethus 
story. The main question is this : Is there any incident in 
the Saga which may be referred to the older independent ver- 
sion of the story current in Iceland ? One such incident is 
certainly noteworthy. The most striking divergence from 
Saxo's account is the statement that Ambales had an elder 
brother who was killed by the slayer of his father because he 
showed unfeigned resentment, while Ambales saved his life by 
concealing his feelings under the guise of heartless folly. Saxo 
says nothing of an elder brother. Now, this very point diffe- 
rentiates the various versions of the Brutus story. According 
to some historians, Tarquin had put to death the father of 
Brutus as well as his elder brother ; other historians (notably 

a Smaland ; Sigurdur (4, 45), a Sigvarftr ; a Artabani (14, 22), c Arthibanis ; 
Mordia (18, 40), a Mandia, c Mondia; Victor (22, 24), c Vyg>or ; Roso (26, 54), 
a c Rasi ; Anga (54, 2), a Angany ; Dyla (56, 5), c Tyla ; Vallanus (56, 9), a c 
Valianus; Fyris (64, 7), a c Tyrus ; [(?) read Leta] Ceta (72, 3), a c Leta; 
Batellus (84, 68), a Batthas, c Batar ; Karon (86, 86), a c Garon ; Actamund (86, 
87), a c Artamund ; Silla (102, 2), a c Salla ; Barastatis edur Bastianus (148, 8), a 
Bastianus, c Bajasetes eSur Bastianus ; Tambis (158, 3), c Cambis, Cambris. 

Perhaps the most important difference between the two recensions is the 
verse p. 110, 38-40, which is not found in a; c reads as follows : 

" mann sa"-eg stunginn mitt undir kerru 

mann eg ]>a?5 ekki, 
sd, hjelt svinum vis saelkjori 
sii-eg ]>a hrekki." 

i.e., "I saw a man stuck under a car; I remember it not. Swine did he tend 
with dainty morsels ; I saw the trick." This is a better version than the corrupt 
text of the lines in my own MS. ; "heV' is evidently an error for "he"[l]t." 

As regards Ambales' nickname of " AmloSi," there is, I think, good reason for 
inferring that this passage was not in the earliest form of the Saga, but was 
added later to account for the likeness of " Ambales " to the proverbial " AmloSi " : 
a, while substantially agreeing with the statement on p. 12, 11. 98-103, adds the 
following words: "la jafnan i eldaskjila viS oskudyngju ok kom sier allilla, var 
bans nafni umbreytt ok var AmloSi kallaSr," i.e., "he always kept in the fire- 
stead among the ash-heaps, and was surly ; so they changed his name from 
Ambales to AmloSi." 
Ixvi 



INTRODUCTION 

Livy) refer only to the brother's murder. " Amlethus " has but 
to avenge his father's death ; the early history of " Ambales " 
more closely resembles that of Brutus, in that he narrowly 
escapes an elder brother's fate. The resemblance can hardly 
be accidental ; furthermore, this detail must needs be inde- 
pendent of Saxo's version. It does not, however, necessarily 
follow that we have here an element derived from a version of 
the Hamlet story earlier than Saxo's. Comparative mytholo- 
gists existed before the nineteenth century, and it would not 
be surprising to find that scholars of the sixteenth century 
had recognised the debt Saxo's Danish Amlethus owed to the 
Roman Brutus. Indeed, I have recently found proof of this in 
certain pseudo-annals of Iceland preserved in manuscripts at 
the British Museum and in Denmark. The annalist gives, 
under " anno mundi 3430," a somewhat full account of Tar- 
quinius Superbus, together with the story of Lucrece. The 
next entry is a brief reference to Odin's reign in Denmark; 
a short note on Cincinnatus follows ; then it is stated that 
Orvendil was king of Denmark ; Plato's fame is recorded in a 
couple of lines ; and then follows an epitome of the story of 
Hamlet, unmistakably drawn from Saxo. One can see at a 
glance that the four brief entries dividing the paragraphs deal- 
ing with Tarquinius Superbus and Hamlet are but annalistic 
padding, and that Hamlet has stepped into the place of Brutus ; 
the Icelandic annalist recognised the identity of the two stories, 
and naturally preferred the Northern to the Roman hero.^ 

* Cp. App. XII. and XXVd. Finn Magnusson must have known the fictitious 
character of these Annals. The Odda Annals are older than 1580, but yet of the 
sixteenth century. Torfaeus (Series, p. 121) quotes Bjorn of Skarftsa about these 
Annals, but he never saw them. All the Icelandic Annals seem to go back to a 
common source, perhaps Annals of the thirteenth century. Scemund the Wise 
may have written or copied annals. See Annales regii, A.D. 1042 : " Na segir 
Soemundr presti inn frddi." (Cp. Gustav Storm, Islandslct Annala.} 

Ixvii 



INTRODUCTION 

This evidence that scholars two or three hundred years 
ago definitely regarded Hamlet and Brutus as twin-brothers, 
does not absolutely negative the possibility that the author of 
the " Ambales Saga " engrafted upon his romanticising of Saxo 
certain elements of a current folk-tale of Amlode derived in 
far-off pre-Saxo days from Roman legend. The Icelandic form 
of Hamlet's name, " Amlo-gi," is perhaps the best evidence we 
possess that some story of the hero was once on the lips of the 
people, though by the sixteenth century, if not sooner, the name 
had degenerated into a mere nickname for " an imbecile weak 
person, one of weak bodily frame, wanting in strength or briskness, 
unable to do his work, not up to the mark." * According to the 
Saga, Ambales is called " Amlode," because of his strange unlike- 
ness to ordinary beings. One wonders whether many of the 
old hearers or readers of his story recognised the identity of 
the two names, and understood the evolution of the name of 
Amlode's mother, " Arnba." " Call him after thy name, for he 
shall resemble thee and his mother's kin," bade the Norn before 
she departed ; and the queen names him " Ambales." " But 
the king and the courtiers call him ' Amlode.' " It would 
indeed be remarkable if, together with the nickname, the tra- 
ditional associations of the word, handed down from distant 
ages, did not find a place in the " Ambales Saga," and so, in 
spite of its fictitious character, the Saga may well preserve 
some noteworthy traits of the ancient story, lost in Saxo's more 
stately history. 

The Icelandic folk- tale of " Brjam," though first written 
down from oral tradition in 1705, is certainly nothing but a 

* Gp. Cleasby-Vigfusson, sub voce ; amldftaligr, imbecile ; amldfta-skapr, imbe- 
cility ; amldSast, to behave as an amlofti, Torfaeus (Series Reg. Dan. p. 302) quotes 
from an old Swedish rhyme " rett some han vore en Amblode," i.e., " he behaved as 
if he were a Hamlet." Cp. Norwegian amtod, subs. ; amloda, amloa, verb. 
Ixviii 



INTRODUCTION 

levelling down of the story of " Hamlet," cleverly blended with 
another folk-tale of the " Clever Hans " type. The interest 
attaching to " Brjam " is mainly due to the fact that it sub- 
stantially agrees with the "Ambales Saga" where the Saga 
diverges from Saxo. So clearly is this the case, that one must 
conclude that the folk-tale has been evolved from the Saga, 
or it must be taken as evidence that the Sagaman availed 
himself of some popular tale of Amlode for certain striking 
elements of his romantic transformation of Saxo's story, and 
furthermore, that this popular tale is preserved in the story 
of " Brjam." There are no definite criteria to determine the 
point, but the impression given by the romance of " Ambales," 
and general considerations of literary methods, tend to support 
the view that the old heroic myth of " Amlo'Si" had been reduced 
to the humbler condition of a folk-tale before the composition 
of the Ambales Saga. It is easy, moreover, to understand why 
the hero of the folk-tale, as we have it, is not named " Amlode," 
but " Brjam." " Amlode " had already ceased to be used as a 
mere personal name ; the story is therefore told of an " amlode " 
whose name was Brjam.* Possibly the latter name is not 
without significance in connection with previous observations 
tending to associate the development of the Hamlet story with 
the critical period of the Norsemen's occupation of Ireland. 
" Brjam " is the Icelandic form of the Irish " Brian ; " and the 
very occurrence of the name in Iceland is evidence of the close 
relationship of Norsemen and Irish in early times. In view of 
what has been said concerning " Hamlet " and " The Wars of 
the Gaedhill with the Gaill," it is at least a strange chance (if 

* Maurer and Better call attention to the modern Icelandic "brjni," an 
idiot ; Better, ingeniously but not convincingly, suggests that perhaps this was 
the original name of the hero of the tale, and that only later was the Irish name 
assigned to him. Op. Cleasby, subs, brjd, &c. 

Ixix 



INTRODUCTION 

not something more) that the name of the hero in the folk- 
tale should be identical with that of the mighty hero of the 
decisive battle of Clontarf (1014), the closing scene in the long 
struggle between the Irish and Norsemen. The noble history 
of Ireland's King Alfred, the famous Brian Borumha,* inspired 
alike Irish chronicler and Icelandic sagaman. In dealing with 
the events of his reign, it must be borne in mind that the 
hostile Norsemen were intimately connected with their Irish 
foes ; the wife of Sitric, Anlaf Curan's son, was Brian's daughter ; 
Brian's wife was Sitric's mother, the notorious Queen " Gorm- 
flaith of the Three Leaps." Oral tradition certainly confused 
at times the achievements of the two sides. An interesting 
instance has already been referred to ; in the story of Havelok 
Curan, as well as in that portion of Saxo's account of " Hamlet " 
seemingly derived from the legendary history of Curan, it is 
told how the wounded men tied to stakes retrieved the fortunes 
of their party. This device, according to Irish annals, was the 
crowning act of heroism on the part of Brian's brave Dalcassian 
soldiers. Of this deed sang Moore in his famous war-song : 

" Remember the glories of Brian the brave, 
Though the days of the hero are o'er ; 

Forget not our wounded companions, who stood 

In the day of distress by our side ; 
While the moss of the valley grew red with their blood, 

They stirr'd not, but conquer'd and died." 

It is indeed a noteworthy coincidence that the name of 
" Brjam " should take the place of " Amlode " in the Icelandic 
folk-tale, which without further comment herewith follows : 



Op. Joyce, History of Ireland ; Todd, The Wars of the GaedhiLl ; &c. 
Ixx 



INTRODUCTION 



THE STORY OF BRJlM* 



ONCE upon a time there lived a king and queen who ruled their realm. 
They were rich and wealthy, and scarcely knew the number of their 
precious possessions. They had one daughter ; she was brought up as 
most other story-children. For a time nothing befell there, in the 
way of tales or tidings, noisings or news, unless one were to tell a 
lying tale. 

Now in Wall-nook dwelt an old man and his wife. They had 
three sons.f One cow supported the whole family. This cow was 
so good that she gave milk three times a day, and at noon she came 
by herself home from the pasture. 

Once the king went a-hunting with his men, and passed by the 
herds belonging to him ; the old man's cow was there near the herds. 
The king said : " What a fine cow have I there ! " 

"Nay, sir," said his men, "that cow is not yours; it belongs to 
the old man in the cottage yonder." 

The king answered : " It shall be mine." 

And so the king rode home ; and when he had sat down to drink, 
he recalled the cow, and resolved to send his men to the carl asking 
him to exchange it for another. The queen prayed him not to do 

* There are two variant versions of the story, one found in Arnason's collec- 
tion (cp. Appendix VIII.), the other in Maurer's Isl. Volkss. der Oegenwart. The 
latter is the better version in certain important respects ; it gives " three sons " 
instead of " seven," and makes Brjdm the youngest and not the eldest son. The 
translation is based on Arnason's text (cp. Magnusson and Powell's Icelandic 
Legends), modified where necessary by Maurer's epitomised version ; the chief 
changes are noted. I have divided the story into three divisions : the first and 
third show clearly their derivation from the Hamlet-tale ; the second, while it 
contains the riddling element suggested in the original tale, was evidently 
derived from a folk-tale of the " Clever Hans " type. A noteworthy feature of 
this section is the potency of the fool's words ; they are not only oracular but 
also magical. 

t Arnason, "seven sons." 

Ixxi 



INTRODUCTION 

this, as the poor folks had nothing but the cow for their support. 
The king, however, would not listen, and sent three men to bargain 
with the carl. He and his children were out in the fields when the 
messengers came. They told him the king's message, that he wished 
to take his cow in exchange for another. 

The carl answered : " The king's cow is not dearer to me than 
mine is." 

They pressed him, but he would not give way, and at last the 
king's men killed him. Then the children set up a wail, all but the 
youngest,* whose name was Brjam. The messengers asked the children 
where they felt the greatest pain. They struck their breasts, but 
Brjam slapped his buttocks and grinned, f Then the king's men killed 
the two children who had slapped their breasts, but said there was 
nothing lost by letting Brjam live, for he was a witless fool. The 
king's men then went home, and took with them the cow. But Brjam 
went in to his mother, and told her all that had befallen, and her grief 
and sorrow were great. He bade her not weep, for they gained little 
thereby ; he would do what he could. 



II 

Once it so happened that the king was having a bower made for 
his daughter, and had given to the builder enough gold to gild it both 
within and without. Brjam came to the place, behaving like a fool, 
as was his wont. 

The king's men said to him : " What good word have you for this, 
Brjam?" 

He answered : " Lessen measure much, my men ! " and went away. 

But the gold that had been given them wherewith to gild the 
bower shrunk so much that it was only enough for half the building. 
They went and told the king ; he thought they had stolen the gold, 
and had them all hanged. 

Brjam went home and told his mother. She answered : " You 
should not have said it, my son." 

He asked : " What should I have said, mother ? " 

She replied : "You should have said, ' Grow three- thirds ! ' 

* Arnason, "the eldest son." f Cp. pp. 80-81. 

Ixxii 



INTRODUCTION 

" I shall say it to-morrow, mother," quoth Brjam. 

Next morning he met some people carrying a body to the grave. 
They asked him : " What good word have you for this, Brjam ? " 

" Grow three-thirds, my men ! " he said. Then the corpse grew so 
heavy that the carriers let it fall to the ground. Brjam went home 
and told his mother. 

She said : "You should not have said that, my son." 

He asked : "What should I then have said, mother?" 

" ' God grant peace to thy soul, thou dead ! ' you should have said," 
replied his mother. 

"I shall say it to-morrow, mother," answered he. 

Next morning he went to the palace of the king and saw a barber 
strangling a dog.* He went up to him, and the barber said : " What 
good word have you for this, Brjam ? " 

He answered : " God grant peace to thy soul, thou dead ! " 

At this the barber laughed, but Brjam ran off to his mother and 
told her what had happened. 

She said : "You should not have said that." 

" What should I then have said ? " he asked her. 

She answered : " You should have said, * Why ! is it the king's 
thievish cur you are handling there ? ' " 

" I will say it to-morrow, mother," quoth he. 

He went to the palace next morning, and it so happened that 
the king's men were driving the queen round the city. Brjam 
stepped up to them. " What good word have you for this, Brjam ? " 
said they. 

" Why ! is it the king's thievish cur you are handling there, my 
men ? " said he. 

They cursed him. The queen bade them desist, nor do the boy 
any harm. He ran home to his mother and told her. 

She said : " You should not have said it, my son." 

" What should I then have said ? " asked he. 

She answered : "You should have said, ' Is it the glorious life most 
precious to the king which you have charge of now, my men ? ' " 

" I shall say it to-morrow, my mother," answered the son. 

Next morning he went toward the palace and found two of the 
king's men flaying a mare. He walked to them and said : " Why ! is 

* Maurer, "hangman hanging a thief." 

Ixxiii 



INTRODUCTION 

it the glorious life most precious to the king which you have charge 
of now, my men ? " 

They hooted at him, and he ran off to his mother and told her all. 
She said : " Do not go thither any more ; some day or other they will 
kill you." 

" Nay, my mother, they will not kill me," said he. 



Ill 

Once the king had ordered his men to go out a-fishing. They 
were getting ready to go in two large boats. Brjam came to them 
and asked them to let him go with them ; but they drove him away 
and mocked at him. They asked him, however, "What will the 
weather be like to-day?" He looked now up at the sky, and now 
down to the ground, and said : " Wind and not windy, wind and not 
windy, wind and not windy ! " * They laughed at him. They rowed 
out to the fishing-bank, and loaded both boats with fish ; but when 
they turned to row ashore a storm arose, and both boats were lost. 

Now nothing of note happened, till once on a time the king bade 
all his friends and favoured comrades to a grand banquet. Brjam 
asked his mother to give him leave to go to the palace that he might 
see how the banquet went off. When all had taken their places at 
the richly furnished tables, Brjam went to the smithy, and began 
shaping small pieces of wood with his knife. Those who saw him at 
work asked him what he meant thereby. He answered : " Avenge 
father, not avenge father."! They said : "You don't look unlike it," 
and so went away. He drove sharp spits of steel into the ends of his 
pieces of wood, and then stole into the guest-room, and nailed quietly 
to the floor the clothes of all who sat at table, and then walked off. 

* Maurer, "vindi og ei vindi," i.e., "windy and not windy," with perhaps a 
play on "ei," not, and "ae," aye. 

t Maurer's version, " Hefna papa, hefna papa," i.e., "To avenge father, to 
avenge father." The various versions of the Ambales Saga give the ambiguous 
version with the negative (cp. p. 82) ; A.M. 521 a, b, " hann kvaSst til fofturhefnda 
aetla og ekki hafa" ; A.M. 521 c, "en hann kvag til fogurhefnda, aS hefna }>a og 
ekki hefna J)d,." The printed text reads "pa" for " )>a," which corroborates a 
suggestion already made by Dr. Jiriczek (Qermanistische Abhandlungen, 1896, 
xii. Heft). 

Ixxiv 



INTRODUCTION 

When the guests attempted to get up from their seats in the evening, 
they found themselves fixed to the benches; and they charged each 
other with having done this ; and at last it came to blows, and one 
killed the other, till none were left alive. 

When the queen heard this she was sorely grieved, and she bade 
them bury the dead. That morning Brjam came back to the palace, 
and offered himself as the queen's servant. She was glad to get him, 
for she had but few servants left. Brjam discharged his duty well, 
and at last married the king's daughter, and became king in that 
realm, and laid aside all his hare-brained folly. Thus ends this 
story."* 

* While BrjiCm represents a levelling down of the Hamlet-tale, a brief 
reference must be made to Hrolfssaga Kraka (Fornaldar Sogur, ed. Rafn, 1829, 
vol. i.) for parallels to the main elements of Saxo's Amlethus story. Helgi and 
Hroar, the heroes of the saga, have many points in common with Hamlet, so 
far as motive for vengeance and method of vengeance. Dr. Better, in the 
article already referred to, attempts to work out the direct influence of the 
Hamlet sage on the saga as represented by the late version preserved in Fornal- 
dar Sogur, and by the fragmentary verses of the ffelgakorSa. Mr. Elton seems 
to me to have summed up the case excellently (cp. Appendix to Saxo Gramma- 
ticus] : " The comparison only establishes that Saxo's tale of Amleth is parallel 
in its three chief elements to an Icelandic saga, which concerns a historical king, 
Hrolf Kraki, included by Saxo in his Danish list, but represented by him as 
living at a period long before Amleth." 

Mr. Vigfusson's note on Hrolf Kraki's Saga (v. Prolegomena to Sturlunga 
Saga), runs as follows : "Only seventeenth-century paper copies of one vellum. 
Whether corruption is due to transcribers or is earlier we know not. There is 
a part of Biarkamal paraphrased in it (with a little better treatment than Helgi's 
Lays received from the Volsung composer) ; and it contains traditions such as 
must have existed in the lost part of Skib'ldunga, whence indeed it may have 
been taken. False stuffings and fictitious episodes." 

As regards the ground elements of the saga, attested by the Helgi Lay, 
Dr. Detter ingeniously points out that Hamal's words, "you thought you had 
harboured a sheep (einen Hammel), but it was a grey wolf," recall Cicero's (De 
Divinatione, i. 22) citation of a fragment of Accius to the effect that Tarquin 
dreamed he led two rams to the altar, and while he slew one, the other struck him 
down from behind. The augur warned him to beware of him who pretended to 
be as simple as a sheep (hebetem ceque ac pecus), but who had a wise heart in his 
breast. The parallel is striking in view of the undoubted influence of Roman 
legend on the Hamlet story. 

Ixxv 



V. 



" Margr prisar sumariS fyrir fagran fugla-song ; 
En eg hseli vetrinum Jwi nottin er long." 

"Many love the summer, for the fair birds' song, 
But I like the winter best, for the nights are long." * 



A S early as the thirteenth century the great Sagas of Iceland 
^"*- were already becoming " unread classics," and were giving 
place in popular estimation to " Spurious Sagas " (Skrok Sogur) 
and "Fictitious Sagas" (Riddaro, Sogur); the former based, 
however slightly, on Icelandic tradition, the latter founded 
directly on the Romances of Chivalry, or, at all events, indebted 
for much of their machinery to the Mediaeval Romance Cycles. 
From the French Metrical Romances the idea was probably 
taken of casting the Sagas, the Old Sagas as well as the later 
Spurious and Fictitious Sagas, into metrical form rimur, as 
they were called, or " Ballad-cycles," though the varied forms of 
versification employed in these rhyming romances were derived 
from mediaeval Latin verse of the "Golias" type, and not from 
Romance metres.f A "Ballad-cycle" (rimur) represents the 
versifying of the successive chapters of a Saga, each ballad 
of the cycle corresponding roughly to a chapter of the prose 

* Prolegomena to " Sturlunga Saga," p. clix. 

t On the metres of the rimur, cp. Wisen's " Riddara Rimur" ; " Brceyfrafti" 
by Helgi Sigurdson, &c. The oldest rimur date probably from about the middle 
of the fourteenth century, Olafs Rima in the Flatey-Book being the earliest 
specimen preserved. 
Ixxvi 



INTRODUCTION 

original, and giving an opportunity for pause to minstrel and 
to audience, much like a scene in a drama. Any number of 
ballads (rima) go to the making of one cycle, and the whole 
work may extend to almost any length. The number of 
sections more commonly found is some five-and-twenty, and 
the average length about seven thousand lines. The long 
winter nights were passed in listening to the story unravelled 
in the successive ballads, the wandering Hmur-chanter mean- 
while being the welcome guest of the household, more especially 
of the women-folk, whose praise was sure to find some place in 
many a prelude of the rimur. 

The diction of these romances exhibits the influence of 
Mediaeval Court Poetry at its worst. Conventional peri- 
phrases, too often beyond the comprehension of the simple 
hearers, and therefore perhaps all the more welcome, constitute 
the chief apparelling of the verse. Yet despite these " shreds 
and patches," the rimur are of interest to the student from 
many standpoints. The very shreds and patches recall regal 
splendour long gone by. Even the most modern of rimur link 
themselves, by their phraseology, to the elaborate mythology of 
Northern paganism ; by their mastery of alliterative effect, to 
the characteristic system of Teutonic versification ; by many of 
their quaint devices, to the oldest extant remains of Northern 
poetry. The Hmur-writers of the nineteenth century play 
with runes much in the same way as the eighth century Anglo- 
Saxon poet, Cynewulf : by runic signatures, acrostic-wise, they 
attest their authorship ; by means of the same archaic symbols 
they tell us many autobiographical facts the name of their 
patrons, their homesteads, and important dates in their life- 
history. 

This personal note is often the main, if not the only charm 

of these special versified Sagas ; it is to be heard for the most 

Ixxvii 



INTRODUCTION 

part in that portion of the ballads which gives the poet the 
chance of indulging his fancy, to wit, in the lyrical prologue at 
the beginning of each rima* To judge from its name, man- 
songr, this prelude was originally a love-song, addressed to the 
poet's lady-love ; but although, according to the practice of the 
rimur-poGts, the mansongr often deals with the writer's love 
troubles, its scope is by no means limited thereto. The theme 
may be as varied as the poet's own life, or the troubles which 
beset the poetic career, or the vicissitudes of life in general. 
The prevailing tone is elegiac. The poet is young and crossed 
in love; or, ageing, harks back to the distant days when he 
knew himself the cynosure of maidens' eyes. "The Ageing 
Poet " might be the title of many of the preludes. Again, the 
poet of the mansongr often replies to the " aspersions " of carp- 
ing critics, to his own foes, or to those who hate all poets ; he 
gives utterance to a long-drawn wail on the low estate of poetry 
contrasted with its former glory. The "Tears of the Muses" 
might be a fitting title for a collection of these preludes. 
"Poetic Art" might summarise another division, where the 
writer tells the difficulties of his task, dwells upon the failure of 
poetic aspiration, and describes the toilsome ordeal of becoming 
a poet ; he invokes to his aid all the benign powers of Eddaic 
song-craft. The " Biographical Mansongr " gives a summary of 
the poet's life-song ; epitomises his literary achievements ; links 
itself more particularly to the circumstances of the special work 
in hand ; or deals with some fateful event in the poet's career 
some weird episode calculated to call forth new interest in the 
personality of the writer. 

There can be little doubt that these "autobiographical 

* Cp. Dr. Kolbing's Beitraye zur Vergleichenden Geschichte der Romanti&chen 
Poesie u. Prosa des Mittelalters ; Mobius, Vom isldndischen Mansongr," Ztschr. fur 
d. phU. Erganzungsbd., p. 42 ff., &c. 

Ixxviii 



INTRODUCTION 

notes" must too often be regarded as mere conventions the 
necessary items in a properly composed rimur ; yet occasionally, 
though rarely, we have evidence to show that some of the most 
remarkable personal allusions, though seemingly conventional 
adjuncts, were based on actual fact, or well-authenticated family 
history.* 

These general considerations of the characteristic features 
of rimur will prepare the reader for the statement that the 
Ambales Saga went through the process of being be-rhymed ; 
indeed, it has already been said that Ami Magnusson obtained 
a MS. of Ambales Rimur about the same time as the Ambales 
Saga. The MS. (A.M. 5210) came from that Jon Thor- 
laksson who had attempted to palm off on the suspecting 
Arni the pseudo-Hamlet Saga. This copy of Ambales Rimur 
is written in a hand of the seventeenth century; the general 
appearance of the manuscript is against the chance of its being 
the author's autograph, though the handwriting seems to be 
that of Pall Bjarnarson of Unnarholt, in South- West of Iceland, 
who is said to have "composed" Ambales Rimur.^ Un- 
fortunately the MS. is defective at the end ; the missing half- 
rima may have contained some reference to the authorship 
of the work. The seven thousand and nine lines of the rimur 
give us no definite clue, though the mansongr of the twenty- 
first rima tells the following remarkable story : 

* The student of Anglo-Saxon literature, brought face to face with this 
aspect of the mansongr, will perhaps be inclined to apply the observation to the 
problem of Cynewulf. Do the autobiographical notes in the Cynewulfian epic 
bear the same relation to the rest of the poem as the mansSngr to the rest of the 
rima ? and if so, may not these passages be similar Anglo-Saxon conventions 7 
Perhaps their value as authentic contributions towards the poet's life-history 
has been altogether overrated. Anyhow, it is perhaps worth while calling atten- 
tion to this point, suggested by a study of the rtrnwr-poetry. 

f Cp. Summary of MSS. c. 18, and Appendix II. ; Pall lived from c. 1600- 
c. 1670. A short riddle by Pall is printed in Arnason, Islenzkar Gdtur, Copen- 
hagen, 1887, No. 1194 (q. v.). 



INTRODUCTION 

"Oft by change of metre have I tried myself: uncunning this 
metre shall be called. Not mine the power to rival mighty scalds. 
Yea, too long is the Saga to tell it all in song. . . . I never saw the 
story set in my mother -tongue. 'Tis true that this same Saga I oft 
was wont to see; in German speech 1 owned it once in days gone by. 
Though the strength of my memory fail to smithy the goodly tale, 
yet I have done my best to translate from it aright. Those who 
are cunning in theft often play folks tricks : into their bag my Saga 
has fallen : hence I know it not." * 

This passage, interpreted literally, must mean that the 
author used a German original for his rlmur, and that the 
Ambales Saga was evolved from the rimur, and not vice versa. 
This seems hardly likely, and we have probably to deal here 
with one of those conventional half-truths often found in the 
mansongr ; unless, indeed, we are indebted to this same author 
for Saga as well as Rimur, both based on the Low German 
version of Saxo's Danish History. 

In the Library of the Icelandic Literary Society at Copen- 
hagen there is an entirely different be-rhyming of the Ambales 

* " Oft viS skifti 6 breyttum brag 
buinn er eg mig ]>reyta 
<5vandaS skal IjdSa lag 
lata J>etta heita 

Mig J>vi bresta mserSar faung 
aS mseta skdldum g<5Sum 
f>essi er sagan J>rauta laung 
aS }>ylja hana alia i Ij6$um 

Sogunnar ekki s& eg letur 
sett i mdftur 



AS sbnnu tjeSan sagna J>tt 
sa eg titt aS vana 
i >sku mjili eg hef &tt 
dSur fordum hana." 

A.M. 521e, xxi. 
Ixxx 



INTRODUCTION 

Saga. Throughout the rimur the hero's name is always 
" Ambales," never " Amlofte " ; the possible identification is not 
even referred to. This noteworthy characteristic seems to point 
to an underlying recension of the Ambales Saga older than any 
we now possess, and confirms one's doubt as to the truthfulness 
of the statement made by the author of the previous rimur. 
The MS. is imperfect at the beginning, but the end is intact, 
and has preserved in mystic runes the name of the poet as 
well as his patron's : 

" Now five-and-twenty ships of Tyr 
Are stilled on the sea of Song 
The words of my verse grow sluggish and dim, 
And dwindle away, and fail. 



Two R's, and add the same of L's 
Annual, Hail, and Man, 
Greedy-of- wounds, Wet, and Ice, 
Have made this Rimur sad. 



RRLL 

AHM 

GUI 



Heart-good, generous, and kind, 
May his glory never cease ! 
Rich in fame, of noble race, 
The best-beloved of God : 



Tears of Hlyrnir two, + D ; 

( = the sky = tir, i.e. rain = u) 
Tamed horse to Ride ; 

(i.e. reift= riding = r) 
Thunder's Roaring, Ice, + G ; 

(duna = rushing thunder = 

ReiSar = r) 
The daughter of Mundil-fori 



Mundil-fori, the father of 
the sun and moon.) 



UUD 
R tf 

RIG g 

H 





Ixxxi 



INTRODUCTION 



Now is come into one verse 
The name of my goodly friend : 
Lo, now, ye can read the name, 
If any here will try.* 

Hallgrim Haldorsson, the author of the rimur, died in 1769. 
He was then an old man. His home was at Steinn, in Reykja- 
strond, in the north of Iceland.! The history of the family is 
known ; but internal evidence would place the Ambales Rimur 
after 1700, for the poet alludes to the Saga of " Balant " : 

" Of Balant's life and deeds 
No more here is told ; 
More of Balant's life 
Doth Balant's Tale unfold." 



* Tyrs hef eg sneckiur tuttugu og fim 
tamiS d s6nar vyder, 
mserfcar ordin daufleg dim, 
dvyna lox urn syder. 



Reiden tven og eins morg L, 
Ar Hagall og Madur, 
adgiorS ssera ude svell, 
ort hefur maerft ey gladur. 



13 Taaren Hlyrners tvo sem D 
Tamen joor aS giera 
Duna svell og dreyst aS G- 
Dootter Mundil Fera. 

14 Nu es komid nidtar brands, 
nafn i vysu Eina, 

par md RdSa heiti bans, 
hvor sem vilde Reina. 



Op. 



rrll 
a H m 
g u i 

xxv. 106. 

u u d 
r 

rig 
S 



xxv. 13. 



; Her mseg findan fore Dances gleaw 
Se Se bine lysteS leoSgiddunga 
Hwa pas fitte fegde." 

Fata Apostolorum ; Cyneivulf's Crist, ed. 

Gollancz (vide pp. 173-184). 

f Some verses of his are to be found in a rare volume printed at Hdlar, 1756, 
Ayicetar Fornmannasogur," a copy of whicb is in the British Museum. 
Ixxxii 



INTRODUCTION 

No prose " Saga of Balant " is known, and the reference must be 
to the very popular rimur on the subject of Balant or Feracut 
by the cripple poet Gudniundr Bergthorsson, finished in the 
year 1701.* 

Another poet, a contemporary of Hallgrim, belonging to the 
West Midland district of Iceland, Thorvaldur Sigmundarsonj 
turned the Ambales Saga into rhyming verse. A fragmentary 
copy of his rimur is in the Public Library of Iceland. The 
mansongr of the second rima is among the best of its kind. 
It is to be regretted that so far a perfect MS. has not been 
discoverable.^ 

The rimur of Thorvaldur Sigmundarson could not have en- 
joyed any very great popularity; even local fame must have been 
denied to his efforts. In the next generation a poet belonging 
to the same district, ThorSur Einarsson, a professional rimur- 
writer, turned his attention to Ambales, and added Ambales 
Rimur to his growing list of similar productions. His autograph 
manuscript has come to light while this work is passing through 
the press. The prelude gives us a full biography of the author. 
He belonged to the district of Eyrarsveit, where he was born in 
1786. His various Sittings are fully described, until at last he 
settled at Lagafell, and devoted all his energies to the writing of 
rimur. Some of his works are included in the volume contain- 
ing the Ambales Rimur. ThorSur seems to have been the most 
self-conscious of these rhymesters. Not content with the many 
personal references to himself inserted in the preludes, he 

* Cp. Summary of MSS. E. 

f Cp, Summary of MSS. C. 21 ; Appendix IV. 

Thorvaldur's father dwelt at Hjarffarbol, in Eyrarsveit, and was the son of 
Helgi Olafsson, priest at Staff, in Hrutafirth (North-West Iceland). Helgi died 
an old man in 1706. His son was a grown-up man in 1689. Thorvaldur was 
probably born circa 1700, and lived till 1760-1770. 

Cp. Summary of MSS. 22 ; Appendix V. 

Ixxxiii 



INTRODUCTION 

actually composed a sort of autobiographical epilogue to his 
works a self-portraiture in verse.* 

While ThorSur was at work on the rimur in his West 
Midland home, a North-Eastern poet had probably already 
issued yet another version of Ambales be-rhyrned. The poet 
seems to have been famous in his district, but so far no manu- 
script of his rimur has been discovered, and we only know the 
fact of his authorship from a note in Einar Bjarnason's literary 
history, Fr&tfimannatal, the manuscript of which is at Copen- 
hagen. It enumerates, among a list of rimur, " Rimur of 
Ambales," by Guftbrandur Einarsson, " with the assistance of 
his daughter Ingebjorg." GuSbrandur lived at Fljotsbakki and 
Narfastaftir, in Thingeyjarsysla. He had various suggestive 
nicknames " Drauga-Brandur," or " Ghost-Brandur " ; " Galdra- 
Brandur," or " Spell-Brandur " ; sometimes he is referred to as 
" Gugbrandur Norgursyslu skald," " Guftbrandur, the poet of the 
North." He " flourished " about ISOO.f 

The stories at the back of " Ghost-Brandur's " nicknames 
have not come down to us. They were perhaps as attractive as 
those of another poet, concerning whose ghost-ridden life some 
weird traditions survive in the North-East of Iceland. Two 
or three of these ghost-stories find a place in Arnason's great 
collection of legends. An English rendering will be welcome 
to the folklorist. They are inserted here as illustrative of the 
personality of an Icelandic rimur- writer, more especially of yet 
another be-rhymer of " the Saga of Ambales " : 

* " Sjdlfslfising Iporftar," at the end of Dr. Thorkelsson's MS. 

t Cp. Summary of MSS. No. 22. Nothing more is known about this poet 
than is found in Einar's book. It is to be hoped a manuscript of the rimur will 
now be searched for throughout Iceland. 



Ixxxiv 



INTRODUCTION 



I 

MYVATNS-SKOTTA ; * 
THE GHOST "SKOTTA" OF MYVATN 

(From North-Icelandic Tradition, preserved in the MSS. of Benedict 
Thortiarson, priest at Brjanslxk.) 

"MYVATNS-SKOTTA" was one of the most famous ghosts in North 
Iceland. The men of Myvatn tell many stories of her marvellous 
doings : one of their stories is the following : There dwelt a wizard at 
Grimstead by Myvatn : he had had a quarrel with a man who lived 
at Koldukin. Now on the Saturday before Easter, or Whitsuntide, a 
begging-girl came to Grimstead. The master of the house received 
her kindly, and brought her to the kitchen, where his wife was just 
then taking the mutton from the cauldron and placing it on the 
trencher. Her husband took a leg of mutton from the trencher and 
gave it the girl, telling her to eat it. The poor girl thanked him, and 
hungrily devoured the meat. When she had eaten enough to satisfy 
her, he offered to put her on her way to the next farm. But when 
they came to the river which ran between the two farms, he caught 
hold of her, threw her into the water, and held her feet while she was 
a-drowning. The girl was wearing, as was then the fashion, the high 
head-dress called " skautskupla," and it was pulled back over her head, 
while he held her under the water. When he was quite sure that she 
was dead, he dragged her from the water on to the bank : he then 
inspirited her with his magic spells, and bade her go kill a certain man 
he wished to wreak vengeance on. Whenever the ghost was seen 
abroad, her head-dress was dangling at the back of her head ; where- 

* Ghosts in Iceland have special names : " Scotta " is a popular name for a 
female ghost. It is said to be derived from her head-gear ; as she roams about it 
streams behind her like a fox's tail (sJcott a fox's tail). Op. Cleasby, sub voce. 

Ixxxv 



INTRODUCTION 

fore men called her "Skotta." She went on her errand, and did as 
she was bidden. She then came again to the Master, and told him 
that she had killed his man, and asked what she was to do next. He 
told her to go and harass the family of the murdered man. She did so ; 
many an injury she caused them, abiding near Myvatn for the purpose : 
the kinsmen of the murdered man lived there. It was said that she 
was the author of all the troubles that befell Illugi Helgason, who 
composed Ambales Rimur. At times he could not compose so much 
as a verse for hours together, owing to her visitation. He lost wife 
after wife they died quite suddenly ; his intellect became impaired, 
and he lost all spirit during the last years of his life : all this was put 
down to "Skotta." In the Proem at the beginning of the Ambales 
Rimur, the poet refers to his troubles; one of the verses is as 
follows : 

" 'Neath baleful stars my life is worn ; 

'Neath luckless planet was I born ; 

No fate can change my plight forlorn." 

The ghost journeyed hither and thither, and it is told that she became 
the wraith of many a dweller at Myvatn, and many a man blest with 
second sight saw her apparition before an expected guest arrived from 
Myvatn. To some she appeared in dreams. It is told how one night 
an old woman, a nurse, was sitting up in her bed ; the child she nursed 
would not stop crying ; the nurse thought there was something uncanny 
in its cries, and it seemed to her that the child saw something eerie. 
So she looked about, and lo, she actually saw Skotta sitting there on 
an empty bed at the other end of the room ; there she was swaying 
her body backwards and forwards, and making wry faces at the child ; 
the old woman could see it quite clearly, for the moon shone brightly 
into the room. Without waiting a moment she laid the child down on 
the bed, and seized what was nearest at hand to frighten away the 
ghost. When Skotta saw this, she hurried off, but the nurse flung the 
pitcher after her, full as it was, and she heard Skotta a-muttering : 
" Too bad : this is too bad." * 

* Another version is given by Arnason in a footnote at the end of the story. 
Cp. Appendix XI. 



Ixxxvi 



INTRODUCTION 



II 
THE ILLUGI GHOST: " ILLUGA-SKOTTA " 

(From a MS. in the possession of Gisli Konradson.) 

IN the North of Iceland at Arnarvatn, near Myvatn, dwelt Farmer 
Illugi; he was reputed a great clerk. At Gautlond dwelt Farmer 
Magnus Hallson; he was a poet, and withal had the reputation of 
being a master of nigromansy. Now he was wont to lampoon Illugi, 
and Illugi vowed vengeance. One day he came to Gautlond, while 
Magnus was in the fields with his sheep. The women-folk were in the 
parlour seated at their spinning-wheels. The room was so arranged 
that the benches were lengthways. Illugi came into the room, and 
chatted with the women for a while, standing all the time close by 
Magnus's bed. In the evening Magnus came home, and soon went to 
his bed ; he asked them if any one had called during the day. The 
women said no one had called : they had forgotten Illugi's visit. Some- 
how their answer did not altogether convince him, and he asked them 
again. Then one of the girls answered that Illugi of Arnarvatn had been 
there. He had suspected it, said Magnus, and caught up his dog and 
threw it on the bed : forthwith the dog expired, and Magnus escaped 
without hurt. As Magnus was going to bed that night, he saw before 
him something in the shape of a woman, wearing a high head-dress. 
He was terrified, and feared that Illugi had with evil intent sent the 
ghost thither to kill him. He determined to inspirit the ghost, and 
send it back again to Illugi. Its potency was thus redoubled, and 
Illugi had a mighty task to grapple with, yet it is told that he broke 
both its arms (so vigorous was the ghost that it was actually corporeal). 
Long thereafter the ghost proved to be the wraith of Magnus and his 
family, and was called " Illugi's Skotta." Ari, the wizard, the son of 
Priest John the Fidgetty, inspirited the ghost yet a third time, and 

Ixxxvii 



INTRODUCTION 

sent it to Illugi Helgason, the poet, the grandson of Illugi of Arnar- 
vatn. Skotta cruelly afflicted him and many other folks ; he is said to 
have protected himself from her power mainly by his verse. It is told 
that thus it came about that Ari sent Skotta to Illugi. Once on a 
time Illugi came to Ari's farm ; there was ill-will between them. Ari 
was sitting in the kitchen ; Illugi knew it ; he stood outside at the 
window, and sung a lampoon on Ari. Nothing else befell on that 
occasion, but later on Ari sent Skotta to Illugi, and she so worried him 
night by night that he could get no sleep, or but very little. This 
Illugi lived at South Neslond, near Myvatn ; he had married Ingebjorg. 
With them dwelt Ingebjorg's brother, John by name; he was much 
older than she. For a long time John was able to ward off the ghost 
from Illugi, until at last he became enfeebled by old age. It is told 
that he resisted the ghost by sheer force, he was so big and strong. 
About this time, Haldor, the elder son of John of Reykjahlithe, lived 
at Vogar. He often watched over Illugi at night, when the onset 
of Skotta was fiercest. One night Illugi woke up in a wild state of 
terror ; Haldor rushed out ; he thought the ghost was at the window 
overlooking Illugi's bed. When Haldor came outside, he saw Skotta 
wrestling with a youth who had died at Neslond during the previous 
autumn ; Illugi had often reproved the youth for his pranks. Haldor 
was not scared, and uttered some verses against the ghost, and bade 
her be off. She at once vanished, but reappeared the same night at 
Vogar. She went to the bedroom, and spoke loudly, so that folk heard 
it ; the words were these : " Haldor is but a gabbler." She then went 
and tickled one of the girls there, and the girl sickened thereafter : she 
did not grow well again, until Haldor returned. Skotta killed, too, the 
best of Haider's cows and some ewes. Once when she was the wraith 
of the elder Illugi she came to Grasrtha in Kelduhverfi ; the folk were 
a-bed at the time. A farm-servant lived there, Asmundur by name ; it 
was said of him that he was not altogether ignorant of witchcraft. 
Skotta threw herself on his bed and muttered, "Asmundur, I'm 
tired." " How so ? " " From passing over mountains and hills as the 
wraith of so many folk." She always appeared as the familiar spirit of 
the kinsmen of Illugi of Arnarvatn.* 

* Cp. Appendix X. 
Ixxxviii 



INTRODUCTION 

It need hardly be said that these stories of Illugi whetted 
one's desire to re-discover the lost rimur: all effort seemed 
unavailing, until some three years back rumour reached me 
that a manuscript of rimur had come into the possession 
of Dr. Jon Thorkelsson of Copenhagen. It was generously 
placed at my disposal. Locked in runic verse was the name 
of its author, Illugi or Illaugi, by way of title to the whole 
work : 

"RfMUR OF AMBALES 

Lock of the Sea-god 

(le. ice = I); 
Two Limpid Springs 

(ie. L L) ; 
Odin's decked wife 

( = Earth = abundance = AR = A), 
And Wet 

(dr=U), 
And Gash 

(mein = stunginn kaun = K crossed = G), 
Three mates of yore ; 
The Sea-god's robe 

(marar reif=hles loesing = Ice = I) 
Near Mother-Earth 

( = by the woman)." 

The manuscript is in a tattered condition, and defective at the 
end. It belongs to about the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury; but the date of composition can be referred back to 
the end of the previous century. Illugi was, perhaps, the first 
of the Ambales poets: at the end of the first mansongr he 
states that he never heard that the Saga had been be-rhymed, 
but we have seen that these statements are not always strictly 

* Cp. Appendix III. 

Ixxxix 



INTRODUCTION 

true. In the seventh mansongr he mentions certain prominent 
Icelanders whose dates help us to fix the date of the rimur 
at 1690-1700: he was then an old man. Fifteen years, he tells 
us, had passed since he had last written verse. The Skotta's 
spell was answerable for the long delay. The passage quoted 
in Arnason's tale is not found in the manuscript: the rima 
which must have contained it is deficient at the beginning, 
and the mansongr is lost. 

I have so far illustrated, indirectly, many of the general 
characteristics of these Ambales Rimur. No less than six 
different poets attempted the task of be-rhyming the Saga. I 
know no similar case in Icelandic literature. In spite of the 
crudeness of the Saga, the eternal interest in the Hamlet-story 
impressed these poets. Parallel passages from the five extant 
versions will be found in the Appendices at the end of the 
volume. It remains but to render intelligible some specimens 
of the preludes no easy task, and probably now attempted for 
the first time in English speech : 



1. Lo, Utterance through the Hall of Speech 
wrathful hath wandered abroad ; 

to the Valley of Hearing I drove it forth 
hence from me far away. 

2. In days of yore the cunning was mine 
to move the quern of Song ; 

with poetic device and Eddaic skill 
I fain enriched each rime. 

3. From all these joys now turneth my mind ; 
few words shall tell my grief : 

nor brave of heart, nor bold am I, 
to grapple with rhythmic art. 
xc 



INTRODUCTION 

4. Small chance of gladness is granted me now ; 
I grovel in sorrow's seat ; 
life's misery, so hard and long, 
checks merriment and cheer. 



5. My body's poor hovel is battered and bare ; 
all joy hath passed therefrom ; 
yet more battered and bare is the heart within ; 
sore bale hath wounded its life. 



6. He who himself hath tried such trials, 
sure this he knows, and more ; 
no longer will I tell in words 
the anguish of the soul. 



7. Though wayward Thought had home returned 
to mould the form of verse ; 
like the bird that flies against the storm, 
so seemeth its home-return. 



8. Lo, the bird in its longing eagerness 
forward urgeth its way ; 

the fell winds drive it far from its course, 
and needs must it tarry and rest. 

9. Long hath the longing dwelt in my mind, 
when my evil lot was eased, 

to tell this Saga in rimur aright, 
that folk might know it in song. 



10. Whether good or ill be in story told, 
all men may learn therefrom ; 
all men may gather good from ill, 
and strengthen good with good. 

xci 



INTRODUCTION 

11. My prelude I protract too long; 
no longer will I tarry : 
I pour from bowl the bidding cup 
a loving-cup for all ! * 



II 

1 I let my vessel, Dwalin's hawk, in fiery wind, 
sail forth from Saga-land. 

2. My crew-mates fain would choose the fair breeze of the south 
a- land I know it well. 

3. Lo, much is wanting ; Odin's ragged ferry fails ; 
it cannot now be rowed. 

4. The gear is loos'd ; the bands fall broken from the planks ; 
the ship of Song scarce floats. 

5. A sorer need constrains me ; yea, more pressing toil 
than smithying Odin's boat. 

6. Frost, snow-drifts, breaking up of floes, and moving storms, 
hinder my vessel's course.! 



Ill 

1. Once more the claw of the eagle of Vindulf 
will I urge onward on Bothn's wide sea, 
whatsoe'er, whether weal or woe, may betide me ; 
lo, the wood of my vessel is small 

2. Not mine is the skill for the modes of the rimur : 
unto me Hjarandi did ne'er pledge a draught, 
when Gunnloth, the beauteous, gave him to drink 
of the mead from the goodly cup. 

* Op. Appendix II., p. 202. 
t Op. Appendix III., p. 223. 
xcii 



INTRODUCTION 

3. O, the mighty poets of ancient day ! 

full well they honoured great Odin's mood, 
when the richest draughts of Bothn he pour'd 
for his guests, and least for himself. 

4. In this company here there are scoffers enow ; 

they laugh me to scorn ; their praise is their laughter ; 
wiseacres, indeed, I know them of yore ; 
nor dare I upbraid them withal. 

5. Another sort know I, and sure they are here ; 
for one short hour they listen perchance, 

nought do they the while but find fault with the song, 
as it pours from the voice's depth. 



6. A third sort follows the story alone ; 
content are they if the drift be but clear ; 
they care not at all for poetic phrase, 
howe'er badly the verse be composed. 

7. A fourth sort is here, I trow full well : 
how curious are they of my craft ! 

how ardent their praise of Eddaic hopes ! 
they give not a thought to the tale. 

8. A fifth sort have I seen ere now : 
'tis their joy to join the coward crew, 
who freely blame all poetic work, 

all who tend Poetry's lamp. 



9. A sixth sort understand not a word 
of Eddaic trope in the land of speech ; 
where never a kenning or trope is found, 
the poem wins all their praise. 

xciii 



INTRODUCTION 

10. A seventh sort have I oft beheld ; 
their looks are fierce and grim to see, 

if a keen mind turn to the joys of verse 
to solace a lonely hour. 

11. All too soon their minds are resolved 
that he sings to them more than enough, 

if they hear in his verse but a word or a phrase, 
they cannot discern at once. 

12. How difficult in this world of woe 
is mankind's life in every place : 
some make us dance the dance of grief, 
who feign to be our friends.* 



IV 

1. Odin's ship may now 

creep from the land of speech, 
to the snowdrifts of Odin's waves, 
blown by Besla's winds. 

2. Am I to set afloat 

my bark on Odin's lake, 
I needs must call to aid 
Modsognir's dwarfish brood. 

3. North and South, draw forth 
the poor beginner's craft 
from the silent shed 

on the Sibyl's heath ! 

4. Get ready the rollers, East ! 
Leeward, look to the quay ! 
push her, Draupnir, onward ! 
Dvalin, bind the mast ! 

* Op. Appendix IV., p. 227. 
xciv 



INTRODUCTION 

5." Ho, Yell and Yelp, blow fair ! 
with strong gusts fill the sails ! 
Enchanter, dip the oars ! 
bale out, bright Gloi, yare ! 



7. North and the Dwarfish Brood 
my bidding pay no heed ; 
silent are they, and I 
on other aid must call. 



8. Bragi, help me sing ! 
help me from thy store ! 
the blood of Kvasir slain 
steep my lips in song. 

9. Elves, stand ye stark blind, 
strengthen ye my lays ! 

ye Gods and Goddesses, 
vouchsafe to grant me help ! 



10. Odin's thralls are still : 
their silence ill meseems : 
my ferry on Odin's sea 
I needs must drive alone. 



11. But this boon, Norns, I pray- 
a happy metre send : 

the matter of my rhymes, 
stands ready to my hand. 

12. All that thought can wish, 
on sea and land alike, 

make strong this day for me,- 
a true day for my verse. 



INTRODUCTION 

13. It helps not before men 
the Muses' lot to wail ; 
to kindly women-folk 

I give the meed of praise. 

14. The Saga in this hall 

sits down in guise of Song. 
May bale my hearers spare, 
all moody grief of soul ! 

15. Scalds bring here from far 
each draught of Bothn's mead ; 
this Saga, as I trow, 

was ne'er berhymed before. 

16. Though sorrow's path I tread 
through windy halls of earth, 
yet all my mind now thirsts 
to tell this tale in song. 

17. Aright the Saga proves, 
when Sorrow dwells with folk, 
the mighty cord of grief 

is all uncoiled at last. 

18. Yet friends I shall ne'er lack, 
whatever ill befall ; 

and so my prelude ends ; 
O ye fair ladies, list ! 

1 9. The Saga now is here ! 

Bow down, listening house ! 
noble dame, bejewell'd, 
my story thus begins ! * 

* Op. Appendix III., p. 211. 



xcvi 



VI 



nnHE last illustrative extract in the Appendices at the end 
of the volume is from Matthias Jochumsson's Icelandic 
version of Shakespeare's play. Twenty years ago the translator, 
an Icelandic parson for some time resident in England, intro- 
duced his countrymen to the master- work in Hamlet-literature. 
Though the more cultivated Icelanders may perhaps appreciate 
the thought and philosophy of the play, it is questionable 
whether the folk, unacquainted with the technique of the 
drama, regard Jochumsson's work as anything but an academic 
exercise. They probably prefer their more homely Ambales 
Saga and Ambales Rlmur. The excellent translation is, indeed, 
a right welcome addition to the mass of Hamlet-literature re- 
presented in this book. Though the Senecan machinery of the 
play may be foreign to theatreless Iceland, at least the frame- 
work of Shakespeare's Hamlet is to be found, however much 
distorted, in the Ambales Saga and its various Icelandic 
analogues and derivative versions, all of them, directly or in- 
directly, indebted to Saxo's story of Amlethus a story well 
known to Icelanders long before it reached England through 
the medium of Belleforest's Histoires Tragiques. This is not 
the place to discuss at any length the source of the English 
play, or its relationship to Saxo's story ; but I may be permitted 
to quote in conclusion what I have said elsewhere on this 
subject : In the story as in the play we have the murder of the 

father by a jealous uncle; the mother's incestuous marriage 

xcvii 



INTRODUCTION 

with the murderer; the son's feigned madness in order to 
execute revenge : there are the vague originals of Ophelia and 
Polonius; the meeting of mother and son; the voyage to 
England : all these familiar elements are found in the old tale. 
But the ghost, the play-scene, and the culmination of the play 
in the death of the hero as well as of the objects of his revenge, 
these are elements which belong essentially to the Elizabethan 
Drama of vengeance. It is of course unnecessary to dwell on 
the subtler distinction between the easily understood Amleth 
and "the eternal problem" of Hamlet. Taine has said that 
the Elizabethan Renaissance was a Renaissance of the Saxon 
genius : from this point of view it is significant that its crowning 
glory should be the presentment of a typical Northern hero, 
an embodiment of the Northern character : 



"tmcfc ana true and tenner t'0 tlje 



XCVlll 




Eije Icelandic Saga of antfmies or " amlotfjt 




I Capituli, 

ONREK he't Kongur er rddi fyrer Spanja, 
Hispanja, Cimbrja, Cumbrja, og morgum 
odrum Eyum og fjodlondum ; hann 
var St6raudugur af Godsi, megtugur ad 
Folki og morgum voldugum undirs&tum, 
pdntu margir Eidkongar hertogar og Jarlar 
sem honum adstod veittu med storri framqveemd Londin 
ad verja og audeefum safna, var hann og sjdlfur hinn 
mesti kappi, forsjall, stor ovinum sfnum, enn ljufur 
10 og litiMtur vinum og vitur i rd,dum J>vi honum var 
stor vitska Mnud. Sellna hdt Drottning haris, bsedi 
v6ru J>aug mjog gomul er Saga J>essi gjordist. Syni atti 
konungur J>rjd,, vid Drottningu sinni, enn hiin var dottir 
Hauks kongs af Holmsetulandi, og eptir honum he't hinn 
15 fyrsti son kdngs, annar he't Bdlant eptir Fodur sinum, 
J>ridje h^t Salman eptir f6stra Donreks kongs. Allir 
voru ])eir brsedur bardaga menn miklir, og v6ru fullvaxta 
er kom ad Sogunni. 

Enn er Donrek kongur deidi, skiptust Lond i Erfdir, 

2 o og hlotnadist Hauki Spanja ; Balant Hispanja ; Salman 

vard kongur i Cimbrja ; Balant stirdi Hispanja til dauda 

og var hinn mesti kappi, en Haukur konungr bj6 

skamma stund ad Fodurleifd sinni, J>vi eirn heidin 

kongur dr^p hann og tok fad Eiki eptir ha, s het 

25 Md,lpriant eettadur ur Schytja, hvorn Saga fessi, 

minist Sidar. Salman var kongur i Cimbrja, ])etta land 

liggur 4 austari Vallands Sydu og M undir Eom d feim 

tlma; far gjordist Salman bardaga madur brddlindur, 




Cbapter L 

HERE lived a king hight Donrek, and he 
was King of Spain, and Hispania, and 
Cimbria, and Cumbria, and divers other 
islands and realms : he was passing 
rich and mighty, what with his folk 
and a many brave retainers : many a vassal-king and 
dukes and earls owed him their service and helped 
him nobly in his land's defence and in achieving 
treasure. As for him, he was the hardiest fighter, far- 
seeing, fierce to foes, yet kind and gentle unto friends, 
and wise of counsel, great wisdom was lent him. His 
queen hight Selina ; they both were very aged when this 
saga befel. The king gat three sons by his queen ; she 
was daughter of Hawk, King of Holstein, after whom the 
king's first son was named; the second hight Balant, after 
the king's father ; the third Salman, after King Donrek's 
foster-father. The brothers were all great warriors, and 
they were grown up when this saga befel. 

Now when King Donrek died, the lands were parted 
into inheritances, and Spain fell to Hawk, Hispania to 
Balant, while Salman became King of Cimbria. Balant 
ruled Hispania till his death, and he was a hardy 
fighter. King Hawk held his heritage but a short while, 
for a heathen king slew him and usurped his realm ; 
he hight Malpriant, by birth of Scythia; the saga will 
tell of him anon. Salman was King of Cimbria, the which 
lieth to the east of Valland, and was under Eome at the 
time ; and he there became a fierce-tempered warrior, 

3 



CH. I. 6vinnannlegur i Sinni og Orustu, enn J>6 blidur vinum 

so sinum hafdi goda Stjornun so allir unnu honum hugdstum 
frd feim mesta til bins minsta, hafdi hann jafnan Sigur 
1 orustum ; hann fiekk eirnrar dgjsetrar Drottningar sem 
Amba hdt, him var Dottir Greifa ])ess er stirdi Burgundien 
i Frakklandi. Salman kongur unni Drottningu sinni 

35 mikid, so hann mdtti ei hennar mein vita, og eingum leid 
ban henni moti ad gjora; mjog v6ru heidurlegar samfarir 
feirra hjona hun var spok 1 g^di og hlidiii sinum herra, 
J>ar med svo skinsom ad hiin J>6kti st6rvitur, allir l^tu af 
henni mikid og hennar ra'dum og unnu henni hug&stum, 

40 beetti hun i morgu rd,d kongs. Ei hafdi k6ngur leingi 
verid a'samt henni, ddur enn Drottning fseddi eitt Svein- 
barn frldt og gofugt, var ]?ad borid firer k6ng uppd, fad 
hann skildi J>ess nafni rdda, en kongur l^t.barnid vatni 
ausa med Skirn kristinna mana, og odladist Sveinnin 

45 nafnid Sigurdur, J>vi kdngurin hafdi kristinna manna Tni 
eptir P^vans reglu haldi, og J>aug lond sem um var gdtid 
utan Spdn, hvorja Malpriant k6ngur fra kristni kugadi, 
sem a"dur er sagt. 

2 Capituli. 

it; lida so stundir til J>ess Drottning vard fungud i 
annad sinn, enn J>ar i Landi kongs var ein Valva 
eda visinda kona, kominn af miklum aettum, og sj^lf var 
hun manleg i sinu ha'ttalagi ; enn so var hun grim i Skapi 
5 ad ollum stod 6tti af henni, hdr med var hun fjolkunnug og 






alike indomitable of will as invincible in warfare, yet 
therewithal gentle unto friends ; his was a righteous rule, 
and he was beloved of all, the greatest and the least ; in 
battle he never failed of victory. He took to wife a noble 
dame, Amba by name, daughter of the Duke of Burgundy 
in France. King Salman greatly loved his queen, and 
suffered her to take no hurt, nor brooked he aught a man 
might do in her despite : their wedded life was of honour- 
able accord ; she was of gentle mood and yielding to her 
lord, and therewithal of so discerning mind that men 
deemed her passing wise ; all marvelled at her and at 
her wisdom, and they loved her from their hearts ; oft- 
time she saved the king from error. They had not been 
together long when the queen bore a man-child, fair and 
noble, and the child was brought afore the king that he 
might give it a name ; the king let besprinkle it with 
water in Christian baptism, for the king kept the faith 
of Christian men after the papal rite, and the boy was 
given the name of Sigurd, and therewith the lands afore- 
named, save Spain, the which King Malpriant cowed 
from Christianity as has been told. 



Chapter a 

ow time passed and the queen was with child a second 
time. But there in the land of the king was a 
spae-wife or wise woman, come of high descent ; she was 
not of elfin-kind, but so grim withal that folk were adread 
of her, and she was eke a great clerk of necromancy 

5 



OH. II. forn ad morgu, Mn var eettud austan ur Gardarlki, og hafdi 
vida farid um nordurlond, og i storum vyrdingum haldin 
verid af k6ngum og mikilshattar hofdingjum, fvi Mn var 
jafnan sokt fa" konga Drottningar og frsegra manna Frur 

10 skildu born ala, uppa fad Mn mselti fyrir um Barnana 
Mn og lukku, hvad] optast f okti mikid eptir gdnga ; vard 
Mn af fessu st6raudug og mjog rikiMt. Enn er Amba 
Drottning 61 sinn Son er firr var getid, var ei Valvari 
tilqvodd ynr Drottnmgu ad sitja, sem J>d, var plagsidur, af 

15 hvorju Nornin f6kk reidi mikla i sitt brj6st, og fessa 
slna folsku magnadi Mn rned Fjolkingi. Enn er leid ad 
Ssengurlegu Drottningar, gjordi Valvan ser ferd til borgar 
komings, og sil svo til Mn hitti Drottnmgu i hennar 
Listigardi, J>a" mselti Valvan til hennar: Lukka fin og 

20 listileg sefi stendur nii i besta b!6ma ; enn Jni skalt far 
ad higgja, ad ddur Mngt lidur skalt fu missa alt fetta 
utan lifid eitt ; k6ngur J>in mun i Stridi drepin verda, 
fvi honum skulu eingin vopn bita meiga neer hann berst 
vid 6vini sina, so skal og lika J>inn Son f Svivyrdilegan 

25 dauda, og so mun ad fer freyngt verda, ad J)^r mun 
daudin lifinu seskilegri fikja, enn sd J>inn Sonur sem fii 
medgeingur mun fe'r ad litillri gledi verda, fvi hann skal 
ollum fifl sinast ; hef eg optlega msett Ssemdum hid, sedri 
hofdingjum enn fid erud, og hafa mig aldrei forsmdd 

so enir sedstu menn og hofdingjar auk heldur minir likar, 
enn fid mikid ; enn ykkar metnadur mun Isegdur verda. 
Vid fessa Forspa" Volvunnar hriggdist Drottning mjog, 

g^kk firir kdng og sagdi honum fra ollu f essu. Kongur 
6 



and of ancient lore ; she was sprung from the eastern 
realm of Gardar, and had fared through northern lands, and 
was held in worship of kings and noble chiefs, for she was 
sought whenas queens and the wives of famous men were 
a-nigh child-bearing, that she might bespeak the chil- 
dren's fate and fortune, the which men deemed followed 
her spells mostwhiles at least; wherethrough she grew 
mightily rich and very masterful. Now when Queen 
Amba bore the aforenamed son, the witch was not be- 
sought to sit by her as was the wont ; whereat the witch 
waxed very wroth, and she enfierced her wrath by magic 
spells. And when the time was nigh the queen should 
be abed, wended the witch to the palace of the king, 
onward till she met the queen within her pleasaunce, 
when she greeted her thus : " Thy fortune and thy life's 
delight stand now in fairest bloom, but lay this to heart 
that ere long thou shalt lose all save life alone. Thy 
king shall be slain in war; of his weapons none shall 
strike home when he fights against his foes ; thy son 
too shall meet a death of shame, and so hard shall it 
go with thee that death shall seem thee dearer than 
life ; and that son of thine thou goest with shall be 
of little joy to thee, for all men shall hold him witless. 
Ofttimes have I met with honour from princes higher 
than ye be, and the greatest of men and chieftains have 
ne'er slighted me in anywise, much less my peers, 
but ye two have done so exceedingly, but your pride 
shall be brought low." At this foreboding of the witch 
the queen was sorely troubled, and she went afore the 
king, and told him of all that had passed. The king 

7 



CH. II. gjordist miog grimmur i Skapi, kalladi & men sina, og 

35 baud f eim ad taka Volvuna til fanga, og Mta hana deya 
einum skamarlegum dauda, enn Drottning meelti : Ei er 
bol vort baett ad heldur, og sjdi ei valvann rdd vid raunum 
vorum, f al mun fad ei odrum takast, sdrdeilis ef henni er 
nokkur vinskapur gjordur. Kongur rnselti : f einkir fii 

40 af f eim ilia anda muni oss vinskapur veittur so okkar 
Sonum gagn ad verdi ? Drottning maslti : til mun eg 
freista, og skulum vid Volvunni veitslu gjora med storu 
yfirlaeti og stdrum fiegjofum, vil eg nu kongur ad J>u 
filgist med mer til hennar J>ess erindis. Kongur svaradi : 

45 ad s hinn versti andi skildi til henar i sin stad g^nga. 
Gekk Drottning }>d, frd, kongi d, fund Volvunar, enn gjordi 
sig ])6 blida i mali ]>6 dopur vaeri med sjdlfri s^r er hun 
fan nornina, var hun J>a biiin til burtferdar ; J> mselti Dr. 
til hennar : Af ovitsku minni hef eg J>ad gjort ad leggja 

so ovyrding ])ig, vil eg )>ad nu gjarnan baeta, byd eg J>er nu 
vinsemd vora med veitingum og veitslugjordum, og ollum 
S6ma er vdr meigum ]?er veita, vil eg J>ii dveljest her med 
oss far til mitt f6stur er i heimin fsedt. Valvan maslti : ei 
mun eg fetta figgja, fvi seintverdur f^r fin Slis ad baeta, 

55 enn eg mun aptur koma neer fin Saengurlega hefst, og 
muntu fa ei furfa ad mer ad spyrja, skildu fa3r ad so 
masltu, og for Valvan leid sina. Enn er Drottning 
k^nndi ser Sottar, kom Valvan aptur, og var fd, odruvisi 
i hatt en ddur, uppal sitt Skapfar ; tok Drottn. blidlega 

eo vid henni, en nornin sindi sdr mestu manfidu, og lagdi 

Drottningu i eina agjaeta Sseng. Drottn. hafdi langa 
8 



grew very wroth, called his men to him, and bade them 
seize the witch and let her die a wretched death, but the 
queen spake : " Our bale is not thus bettered, for an the 
witch sees not remedy for our woes none other will avail, 
and more belike, if some friendliness be shown her." 
The king said : " Dost thou deem that from that evil 
sprite aught of friendship will be shown us for our son's 
avail?" "I will assay it," said the queen, "and let 
us spread a banquet for the witch with great pomp and 
largess, and I would now, king, that thou go with me to 
her on this errand." The king made answer that the 
worst of sprites might to her in his stead. The queen 
went then from the king to seek the witch, and made her 
blithe of speech, though her heart was sad within. As 
she reached her the witch was journey-bound ; the queen 
said to her : " From my want of wisdom have I done 
this to put dishonour on thee, and I would fain now 
make amends, and I offer thee our friendship and gifts, 
and feasts, and all the worship we may show thee, and 
I would that thou bide with us here until my child be 
born into the world." The witch said: "This I shall 
not grant, for it will be long time ere thy folly may be 
mended, but I shall come again when thy child-bed begins, 
and thou shalt then not need to seek me out." Thus 
they spake and the witch went her way. And when the 
queen knew her sickness near, came the witch again, 
and she was then otherwise than she was erst, in her 
temper to wit. The queen gave her a blithe welcom- 
ing, and the witch was wondrous tender with her, and 
placed her on a stately bed. The queen had a long 

9 



CH. ii. S6tt og harda, enn fseddi J>6 um sidir eitt Sveinbarn, var 
)>ad mjog stort og o'a'sja'legt med dokkvum Skinns-lit, og 
broddhserdu hdri kolsvortu, enn J>6 i augunum dsegilegt. 

65 Drottn. I6t bera Sveinin firir kong, enn hann vard vid 
)>ad mikid stiggur og hriggur og skipadi med hasti barnid 
i burtu bera, vildi han einga Ssemd Sveininum veita eda 
neitt nafn geTa, enn J>6 allra sist Volvuna augum lita, eda 
neinu godu vid hana skipta, hvad Drottn. storu hriggdi ; 

70 en Valvan filltist upp med grimdar reidi vid J>etta, J>6kti 
og ollum k6ngi fetta dssemilega fara. Valvan fj6nadi 
Drottn. med mestu kostgjsefni, og leiddi hana af Sseng 
a" venjulegum tima, dvaldist hun J>ar sidan i 3. mdnudi, 
baud Drottning henni J>ar vist alt til dauda dags, edur 

75 svo leingi sem hun J)iggja vildi. Valvan qvad ser annad 
lagid verda. Leisti Drottning hana ut med storum 
gjofum, svo Volvuni fiell hid besta ; enn d J>eim deigi er 
valvan vildi i burt, gdkk hiin ini hiis J>ad sem Drottning 
var i, og barnid fostrad, helt Drottn. d sinum unga Syni og 

so lagdi hann & brjost, gjordist valva ]>a dopur ]?vi henni var 
ordid vel vid Drottningu vildi hun qvedja hana. ]) mselti 
Valvan til Drottningar : eingum hef eg ofreid vordid nema 
J>er, og ilia hef eg firir )?er og J>inum Spad, hvad ei md 
bsetast, valda J>vi forlogin ein, og rsedur J>eim sd monnunum 

85 er ma"ttkari, enn d, J>ina mangjsedsku er mer skildt ad 
mynnast, og skal fessi Sonur J>inn J>in ad nokkru nj6ta,han 
mun verda Sdmi allrar settar sinnar, J)ii skalt honum nafn 
gefa af nafni ])inu, J>vi han mun ])er og m6dur frsendum 
sinum likjast, sidan kysti hun Drottningu og Sveinin 



10 



sickness and hard, and bore at length a man-child, the 
which was very big and unsightly, dark-skinned, and 
with bristle hair, black as coal, yet beautiful by reason 
of his eyes. The queen had the boy brought afore the 
king, but he became thereat most cross and heavy, and 
forthwith bade them take the child away ; he would pay 
the child no heed, nor give it a name, but least would he 
set eyes upon the witch, or have aught friendly dealing 
with her ; whereat the queen was sore aggrieved, and the 
witch was filled with grim anger ; and all men deemed 
the king's behaving was unseemly herein. The witch 
nurtured the queen with greatest care, and brought her 
from her bed at the wonted time ; she tarried there 
thereafter for three months, and the queen bade her live 
there to the day of her death, or so long as she would : 
the witch said something else was toward. The queen 
sped her with rich farewell-gifts, and the witch was well 
content ; but the day the witch was going thence she 
entered the chamber where the queen abode and where 
the child was fostered ; the queen was holding her little 
son in her arms, at the breast ; the witch grew sad, for 
now she felt tenderly towards the queen ; fain would 
she bid her farewell. Said she to the queen : " To 
no one have I been angered out of all measure save to 
thee, and evil have I boded for thee and thine. This 
may not be bettered, for fate above rules, swayed by 
Him who is mightier than men, but 'tis meet that 
I should guerdon thy kindliness, and this son of thine 
shall profit of thy merit somewhat at least; he shall 
be the honour of all his race : thou shalt name him 
after thine own name, for he shall favour thee and his 
mother's kin." Then she kissed the queen and the boy, 



CH. II. gratandi, og mselti : min t<5m lofan mun hann litid stidja ; 
ge'kk sidan burtu ; en Drottmng sat eptir hid Barns 
vogguni og hraerdi hana barninu til vserdar ; bles Drottn. 
Jningum anda af sinu rauna efni, og nefndi Sveinin 
Ambales ; olust J>eir kongs synir nil upp i Rlkinu ad 
95 ollum hlutum <51ikir, Sigurdur var mikid fridur dlytum 
og hardgjedjadur, so hann let sinn hluta firir aungvum 
mani, var hann ad mentum og ifrottum hinn fraegasti 
og framasti. Ambales var 6selegur ad ollu og miklu 
stasrri br6dur sinum, han vildi aungvum mani hlida n6 

100 neitt gott nema, heldur var hann hinn J>rjotskasti vid alia, 
hann var utlima stserri odrum monnum, honum sdu men 
faesta jafna ad ollu hdttalagi, var hann af hyrdinni og 
jafnvel k6ngi sjalfum kalladur Amlode. Lidu so fram 
Stundir til ])ess Synir k6ngs voru anar 10 annar 8 vetra, 

105 og d J?eim drum bar ei annad til tidinda enn seigir. 

3 Capital!, 

I>AD seigir i sogu pessari, ad d feim tima hafdi sd 
kongur rddid fyrir Skytja er Soldan hdt, argur heidingi 

og mjog grimur I skapi, sd ad margar orustur hdd hafdi 

med St6rum Sigri, han dtti ])rjd Sonu vid Drottningu 
5 sinni, hdt hinn fyrsti Tamerlaus, annar Malpriant sd er 

drepid hafdi Hauk kdng og intekid Sp^n sem firr seigir. 

fridje het Fdstmus, allir voru ]>eir hinir grimustu vikingar, 

so hvar feir herjudu, komst einginn heill undan J>eim ; 

enn eptir dauda Solddns kongs, vard Tamerlaus kongur 
10 1 hans Stad, var Fastinus med brodur sinum, og bar hans 

Sigurmerki i orustum, }?6kti flestum ]?eir brsedur vera 



12 



weeping the while, and said : " My mere promise will 
stand him in little stead." She then went her way, but 
the queen sat still beside the cradle of the child, rocking 
it to soothe the child ; heaved the queen a deep sigh from 
her troubled breast and called the boy Ambales. Now 
the king's sons grew up in the realm each unlike the 
other in all things. Sigurd was passing fair to look on, 
and hard-tempered so that he yielded no whit to any man, 
and in all skill and cunning he was most famed and fore- 
most. Ambales was all unsightly, much bigger than his 
brother, would hearken unto none, nor learn aught good ; 
but was most stubborn with all men ; he was larger- 
limbed than other folk ; in all his ways he seemed to 
have but few his like, and the courtiers and the king 
called him Amlode. So time passed till the king's sons 
were ten and eight years old, and in these years nought 
befel but what is told. 

Chapter HI. 

'flTHE saga tells that at this time a king ruled Scythia, 
^^ and his name was Soldan, a vile paynim, exceed- 
ing grim of temper; he had waged a many wars with 
mighty triumph ; he had three sons by his queen, the first 
hight Tamerlaus, the second Malpriant, he who had slain 
King Hawk, and had won Spain as has been told, and the 
third Faustinus. They were all the fiercest vikings, and 
whereso they harried no man escaped them whole. After 
King Soldan's death, Tamerlaus reigned in his stead, and 
Faustinus stayed with him and bore his standard in the 
fight, and most men deemed that these two brothers were 



CH. in. o"yfirvinnanlegir. Tamerlaus kongur var brsedrum sinum 

mjog 61ikur beedi ad a"sind og Skaplindi, hann var spakur 

1 gddsmunum, en ]?6 ge*dstrdngur ; J>ar med r^dgjsetin og 

15 hinn mesti kappi. Allir voru })eir brsedur bardaga men 
miklir J>eir herjudu vida og hofdu jafnan Sigur. Tamerlaus 
k6ngur gjordi herfor til Fenedi borgar og brsedur bans 
med honum, J>ar gjordu ])eir mikinn Skada baedi med 
manndrdpum og ra"ni, so borgar menn sigrudust enn 

20 sumir flydu, og i herfor feirri nddi ban eirnri dgjaetri 
Jomfru, hvor ed J>ar i landi var bin dseilegasta, hiin var 
D6ttir k6ngs Artabani er J>ar hafdi d-dur kongur verid, 
og nil var andadur, enn ad henni feinginni, letti hann 
orustum og hjelt Ijeim aptur 1 Schytja, og sem hann var 

25 heim komin, gjordi ha briidkaup sitt, og baud J>a"ngad 
vinum smum og hofdingjum ; vard pessi agjaata J6mfru 
frd sinum vilja ad gd-nga og bans Drottning ad heita ; 
kongur gjordi vel til hennar og unni henni allmikid, I6t 
hana halda sinum Sidum og Tru alt til dauda, )>vi hun 

30 var vel kristin og dirkadi sannan Gud, enn kongur 
dirkadi Skurgod, fiell )>eim ])6 allvel hvorju vid annad ; 
kongur I6t alt eptir henni sem hiin 6ska vildi. Dottur 
d-ttu ])aug eina barna, hun liktist modur sinni til alyta og 
atgjorfis, og verdur henar getid sldar i fessari Sogu. 

4 Capituli. 

TfNUS var nii i Schytja med brodur sinum og var 
bans landsvarnar madur sem firr er sagt, enn er 
hann hafdi verid med k<5ngi 5 vetur, mselti hann eitt sinn 
vid brodur sinn Tamerlaus : Nu beidist eg af )>er svo 
5 margra Skipa og manna sem mer sjdlfum likar ; ]?vi eg 
vil fara he'dan hurt og abla mdr Bikis, vildi eg einhvor 
r^mdi fyrir mer Sseti sem mdttugur vaeri. Tamerlaus 
14 



invincible. King Tamerlaus was all unlike his brothers 
in his looks as in his temper; he was of gentle mood, 
yet firm, and wary in counsel, and the greatest warrior. 
All these brothers were mighty fighters, and harried far 
and wide, and ever achieved victory. King Tamerlaus 
made a raid on the city of Venice, his brothers with him ; 
they wrought great havoc there by pillage and by slaughter, 
so that the folk was overborne and some fled, and in that 
raid he took a goodly maiden, the comeliest in the land, 
daughter of King Arbatan, aforetime king there, but then 
dead, and having won her, he left off warring, and betook 
himself to Scythia, and when he was come unto his 
home, he made his wedding, and bade thereto friends and 
chieftains, and this fair damsel had, maugre her will, to 
be his queen. The king bore him well toward her, and 
loved her much ; he let her keep her ways and faith even 
unto her death, for she was true Christian and wor- 
shipped the true God, but the king was a worshipper 
of carven images, and they were well accorded, and 
the king yielded to her in all she wished. Their one 
child was a daughter ; she favoured her mother both 
in looks and graces, and she will be spoken of later 
in the saga. 

Chapter IF. 

jfcAUSTiNUS was now in Scythia with his brother, and 
Jr was the seneschal of all his land, as has been said 
afore ; he had been with him five years, when on a time 
he spake thus with his brother : " Now ask I of thee 
ships and men as many as I deem fit, for I would 
hence abroad and get me sovereignty, and make some 
man of might void me his seat." King Tamerlaus 

15 




OH. IV. k6ngur mselti : Eg vil fa f er 80. Skip, velbiiin ad F61ki 
og fararkosti og ollum iltbunadi. fetta likadi Fdstinus 

10 og bjost snarlega til Ferdar, fakkandi brodur sinum 
tillogurnar, og ad Skilnadi qvoddust feir blidt. T6k mi 
Fdstinus ad s6x Skipin med Folkinu, leystu upp atkri 
og Sigldu sidann Skipunum nordvestur i heim, seigist 
ei af bans ferdum firr enn hann t6k hofn vid Spanlen, 

15 gdkk far d, Land med lid sitt, og let setja Tjold & fridri 
Foldu, og sem Mdlpriant k6ngur Spyr fessar n^lundir, 
bi6st ban med hyrd sina fund vid komumenn, og hittust 
})eir brsedur med miklum kjserleika, geingu svo heim 
ad hollinni til godrar veitslu, Sagdi Fdstinus ]?d kdngi 

20 dform sitt, og bad hann a" eitthvort fad k6ngs rlki 
ad visa ser sem honum msetti vel soma, fvi ban 
sagdist eigi vantreysta sinum frsegdum J>ad undir sig 
ad leggja. 

Mdlpriant k6ngur maelti : hdr allnserri Hggur eitt 

25 dgjsett land er Cimbria heitir, hvort ad heldur Salman 
k6ngur hann d hina ^gjsetustu Drottningu, J)dngad skal- 
tu snua lidi ))inu, og fad mun J>er til Soma og Sigurs 
verda. J)d mselti Fd,stinus : hja ydur ]>arf eg lid ad fd, 
og hesta til bardaga i J>d herfor. K6ngur mselti : ])6i 

so skal til reidu er kjosa vilt, fvi mer er dhiggjusamt um 
fd breedur ad feir muni hefnda leita d mina bond far 
f etta riki er feirra Fodurleifd. Fekk kongur honum fa" 
alt er hann til kalladi bsedi menn og hesta og annad 
fleira, far med gaf hann honum eirn agjeetann best er 

35 Styrus he't, hann hafdi kosti so goda ad i Landinu var 
ekki annar slikur ; her med tvo mikla kappa Cimbal og 

Carvel ad nafni, f akkadi hann k6ngi rad sin og tillogur 
16 



replied : " I will give thee eighty well-rigged ships, with 
men and gear and all appurtenance." This pleased Faus- 
tinus well, and he got him ready to depart ; he thanked 
his brother for his help, and their farewell was joyous. 
Faustinus took now in command the ships and crew, 
weighed anchor, and sailed north-west out into the world. 
There is nought to be told of his journey till he took to 
harbour in Spain ; he landed his force there and let his 
tents be pitched in a fair field ; and when King Mal- 
priant heard the news, he made him ready with his court 
to meet the comers ; and the brothers met with great 
love, and they went home to the hall unto a goodly feast. 
Faustinus told then the king his quest, and bade him tell 
him of some realm befitting his degree, for he mistrusted 
not his power to conquer it. 

King Malpriant replied: "There lies quite near a 
goodly land, Cimbria by name ; King Salman holds it ; 
he has the goodliest queen ; thither shalt thou turn 
thy way, and it shall bring thee worship and triumph." 
Then spake Faustinus : " From thee needs must I have 
men and horses for battle in this war-raid." The king 
said: "All shall be in readiness whenever thou wouldst 
have it, seeing I am troubled lest the brothers should 
avenge them on me, for this realm is their inheri- 
tance." The king thereupon granted him all he re- 
quired, both men and horses, and much beside ; he 
gave him too a noble horse hight Styrus, so choice 
that in all the land there was not such another, and 
eke two mighty warriors, Cimbal and Carvel by name. 
And he thanked the king for his rede and his aid. 

B 




CH. IV. hieldt so lidi sinu med miklu dramblaeti 1 Simbriam, hafdi 
ban 20,000 manna, let ban ei firri af enn ban kom til 

40 borgar Salmans kongs er Mordia bet, bun var sterklega 
biggd med miklum Turnum og glsesilegum murum af 
Gulli Silfri og gimsteinum forkostulega pridt; J>ar I6t 
Fd-stinus reisa Tjold sin med harki og storu rembilseti, og 
firr enn bann gdkk til vista sendi hann 12 menn til 

45 Salmans k6ngs med sin erindi, hdt sd, Metilus sem oddviti 
J>eirra var, og er Salman k6ngur sat yfir bordum, geingu 
J>eir i boll bans, tok sa" til mals sem firir J>eim var og 
sagdi : Hofdingi J>essa lands ma" Mta af kosti sinum og 
veraldar glaum, }>vi hann mun verda J>6 ban vilje ei, hdr 

50 er komin stormegtugur k6ngssonur af Schytia, ban bydur 
Jje'r, k6ngur ! ad )>u fdir mdr i hendur C6r6nu }>ina og 
Drottningu ad eg honum pad hvorttveggja fseri nil pegar 
med mer, anars muntu innan annarar S61ar hli6ta ad Mta 
lif Jritt og J)ina manna, sem og eirnin land og allar eigur, 

55 skal J>ig med Smd,n og ha" dung & gd,lga heingja, enn Idta 
]?ig ])6 sjd, adur ofagnad mesta medferd J)inna kristinna 
manna. K6ngur vard miog reidur vid ord bans og mselti : 
Ad odru skal J>dr og pessum hundi verda, enn ei hyrdi eg 
minni frsegd nd framgaungu firir ]>6i ad hr6sa, og skal sd 

60 J)j6fur er J>ig hingad sendi J>etta ad fullu kaupa, og far J)ii 
med J>ad frd minum augum, anars mun eg J>in bolvadan 
kjapt med daudanum aptur binda. J)d, vard Methulus 
grimur mjog, greip eitt Spjot og vildi hsefa k6ng, og lagdi 
til bans, enn k6ngur tok Spjotid med hendini d, lopti, og 

65 Skaut J>vi aptur til Methiilusar, kom J>ad firir brj6st honum, 
18 



So he went with all his host in great array toward 
Cimbria; he had twenty thousand men; he stayed not 
till he reached a certain city of King Salman called 
Mordia ; it was strongly built with huge towers and shin- 
ing walls, wondrously adorned with gold and silver, and 
with precious stones. Faustinus let pitch his tents there 
with great tumult and overweening noise, and before he 
betook himself to food, he sent twelve men to King 
Salman with his message. Methulus was the name of 
their leader. Now as King Salman sat at the board, they 
went into his hall, and their leader spake as follows : 
"The lord of this land must yield up his state and 
worldly pride and glory ; needs must he do so, though 
he wish it not; there is come a mighty prince of Scythia ; 
he bids thee, king, deliver up into my hands thy crown 
and queen, so that I take them both along to him forth- 
with, else shalt thou be doomed within another sun to 
lose thy life, and thy men's lives, and thy land too, and 
all thou possesseth, and thou shalt be hanged with shame 
and infamy upon a gallows ; but first shalt thou witness 
to thy greatest dole the torture of thy Christian men." 
At these words the king was very wroth and said : 
" Thou and this dog shall have another tale to tell than 
this, but it would not become my fame and feats of 
war to vaunt them before thee, and the thief that 
sent thee hither shall pay for it to the full, and go 
thou with this from my sight, else must I bind back 
thy accursed jaws in death." Then Methulus grew 
very fierce ; he grasped a spear to strike the king, and 
thrust at him, but the king caught the spear aloft, and 
shot it back at Methulus ; it struck his breast and 

19 




CH. IV. og i ge'gnum hann so hann fiell daudur nidur. Filgjarar 
bans t6ku til vopna, og urdu nokkrum ad bana, I6t 
k6ngur drepa J>& alia nema eirn, hann komst undan til 
sins herra, og sagdi honum erindis lokinn og Mt sinna 
70 manna. Og er Fdstinus heirdi J>etta, septi hann grifnilega 
med h&um hliodum, og uppfylltist med ofurst6rum heiptar 
hug, sem og allir bans menn, geingu ])d inni Tjold sin til 
ndda og vista og sva"fu af um n6ttina. 

5 Capitulu 

/Jf^G er Salman K6ngur var nu J>essara tidinda vis ordin, 

brd bans Skapi mjog, let hann um n6ttina lid sitt 

buast til bardaga ; ei hafdi hann innan borgar fleira vigra 

manna en 7000, alt var J>ad valid lid. J>rjd, kappa hafdi 

5 ban sem langt bdru af ollum odrum, h^t eirn feirra Hle's, 
annar Victor, fridje het Gamaliel, hann var leindar ra"d 
k6ngs, og var feirra mestur ad vitsku, abli og freegdum, er 
nil vopnabrak i hollinni um nottina. Ekki kunni k6ngur 
lidi ad safna vegna ofnaums tima og 6vina n^lsegdar. Ad 

10 morgni var Salman k6ngur albuin med fad lid sem innan 
borgar var, baud hann monnum sinum ad vera vel 
hugudum og vigmanlega ad berjast og sagdi : Ei skulum 
ver hrseddir vera, heldur qvidalaust mseta 6vinum vorum, 
og uthella b!6di feirra heidnu hunda, og J> men sem hdr 

15 v6ru drepnir af feirra lidi skulud J>er g^lga heingja 
gagnvart hertjoldum heidingjanna J>eim til ofraunar, 
og J)6tt eg Mti lif og land i Stridi J>essu, fd skal 
mig J>6 eingin hreeddan sjd, Mtum g6da fregn af oss 
fara. Svo var gjort vid J>d, daudu sem kongur baud, 



20 



pierced him through, that he fell dead to earth. His 
fellows seized their weapons and caused the death of 
some, but the king had them put to death all save one, 
who got safe to his lord and told him the issue of the 
errand, and his loss of men. And when Faustinus 
heard it he groaned aloud fiercely, and was fulfilled with 
rancour, as were his men ; they went then to their tents 
to rest and to refresh them, and slept the night through. 

Chapter F. 

ow when King Salman was ware of all this, he was 
passing wroth. He bade his host garnish itself at 
night. Within the city he had but 7000 men of arms ; 
they were all picked men. Three of his warriors were far 
above the rest ; one of them hight Hies, another Victor, 
the third Gamaliel ; he was the counsellor of the king, and 
was the greatest of them in wisdom, strength, and fame. 
There was now a great clattering of weapons in the hall 
during night-time. The king might not muster an army, 
for the time was short and the enemy was at hand. On 
the morrow King Salman was ready with all the troops 
which were within the city ; he bade his men be spirited 
and to fight like warriors, and said: "Let us not be 
afeard, but meet our foes right dauntlessly, and pour 
out the blood of the heathen dogs, and hang ye on 
a gallows even in sight of the heathen's tents the 
men of their host that were slain here, so as to tare 
them on, and though I lose life and land in the strife, 
yet none shall see me cowed. Let a good report of us 
go forth." So was done with the dead as the king bade. 



CH. V. Reid harm nu med ollu lidi sinu Slietta vollu g^gnt 

~~20 herbudu heidingja, var fad mjog snema, Skikkadi hann 

lidi sinu ad hentugleikum, og skipar far hvorjum manni 

er honum best fokti. Bar nu Hlds merki k6ngs hsegra, 

enn Victor vinstra bandar, enn Gamaliel bar hofudmerki 

25 k6ngs i briosti Filkingar, enn kongur sjdlfur var laus 

med fvi valdasta lidi ad stirkja Filkingar buar vid furfti. 

Var nu Salman k6ngur albuin til bardaga med sinu lidi. 

6 Capituli, 

TJ sem heidingjar vakna i sinum herbudum, sjd, feir 
herlid k6ngs og sestust af mikillri grimd ; Fdstinus 
septi nu her6p mikid, og skikkadi lidi sinu til bardaga ; 
var J>a" adgdngur mikill sem hann hafdi menn sina ad 

5 eggja og framgaungu ad skikka. Sjdlfur st6d hann i bri6sti 
Filkingar, en Cimbal til hsegri og Carvel til vinstri Sidu, 
og sem ban var album, gullu ludrarnir alia vega, og 
s!6st sidann i harda orustu, Skutu menn first handbogum, 
vard orva hrid so mikil og Svort ad ei naut S61ar d, medan, 

10 so var Skotid Spi6tum og Idtu-margir lif sitt firer J?eim, 
J>d fessari Skothrid linti, toku menn Sverd og drapu nidur 
d, tveer hendur, var far ollum Frid lokid d bddar Sidur. 
Fdstinus og bans menn s6ktu bardagan d,kaflega, enn 
k6ngur og lid bans vardist vel ok frsekilega og st6d 

15 fyrir so all litid gekk bans lid enn heidingjar drapust 
hronnum. Enn er Fd-stinus sd, ad sinum her gekk ad 
6forum, brautst hann fram og vard margs mans bani. 
fetta faer ad lita Hies hinn Sterki, og setti hestinn d, 
rds, enn sokum fess ad ofurebli var vid ad eiga vegna 



22 



He rode forth now with all his company to a certain 
plain over against the war-booths of the heathens. It 
was yet very early. He dressed his host and set each in 
his proper place as time would best allow. Hies bore 
the king's standard on the right, Victor on the left, while 
Gamaliel bore the king's chief standard in the van of 
the troops ; the king kept himself free, and went with 
his best chivalry, so as to aid his men wherever there was 
need. King Salman was now ready with his army for 
the fight. 



ow as the heathens woke in their war-booths, they saw 
the army of the king, and were filled with great fury : 
Faustinus raised a loud war-whoop, and dressed his men 
for battle. There was much ado, what with egging on 
his men and ordering their advance. He stood himself 
in the van of the troops, Cimbal being on the right, and 
Carvel on the left ; and when he was arrayed, trumpets 
were sounded on all sides, and thereafter there was hard 
fighting. First they shot with hand-bows, and the storm 
of arrows was so thick and black that during that while 
the sun was darkened ; then they shot with spears, and 
many lost their lives by them ; and when the shower of 
darts had ceased they seized their swords and struck 
men down on right and left ; all chance of peace was 
ended then on either side. Faustinus and his folk sought 
battle keenly ; the king and his men warded themselves 
right well and valiantly, and stood so firmly that they 
were but little worsted, while the heathens were slain in 
heaps. Now when Faustinus saw his army in discom- 
fiture, he darted forward and was the death of many a 
man. Hies the strong was ware of this, and spurred 
his horse, but overwhelming hosts opposed him, for the 

23 



Ce. VI. lids munar, kunni hann ei til Fdstinusar ad nd, }>vi 

20 herlidid vafdist firir honum og filkti ser i kringum hann 
med ofsa miklum, enn Hies setti endildngt Skeid ge'gnum 
Filkingarnar og hrakti Folkid alia vega, fiellu firir honum 
sedi margir, jafnan hafdi hann 6 i hoggi hvorju, og 

25 hieldust nu ei heidingjarnir vid, so allur sd Filkingar 
armur ridladist. J>etta ser merkis madur Fdstinusar er 
Darius het settadur utanaf Bldlandi, keirdi hann hest 
sinn d m6ti Hies, og er J>eir fundust, vard hardur 
adgdngur, dttu )>eir Idnga sokn og harda, so hvorugur 

so van annan, enn Hies neitti alldjarflega vopna sinna, 
reiddi Sverd sitt og hjo til Darjusar, kom fad i midjan 
Hjalmin, og klauf Darjus ad endilaungu og Essid med, 
og nam stadar i jordu ; fell nu merki Fdstinusar, enn 
Filkingin var rofin. fetta fser ad lita Cimbal, og reid 

35 fegar fram ad Hies, og hj6 til haris med mikilli grimd, 
enn Hlds bar Skjoldiri firir sig, t6k nu Sverdid Skjoldin 
i Sundur um J?veran mundridan, og fekk kappin Sa"r d 
Laerid. Hies reiddi nu aptur Sverdid sem hardast hann 
kunni, kom hoggid d, Hjdlmin J?veran ; so aft6k bardid 

40 og brinjuna a" brj6stinu og hofudid af hestinum firir 
framan bogana, fiell mi Cimbal med Hestinum daudum ; 
i J>vi bili kom Fdstinus ad sem orskot a sinum goda 
hesti, og setti Sverdid a hals Hies so aft6k hofudid, og 
hraut J>ad Mngt utd; vollinn, og fiell hann so vid g6dan 

45 ordstir, v6ru J>ad 300 manna sem han hafdi drepid ; 
Cimbal t6k hest bans og reid i bardagan. Sem Victor 

sd. nu br6dur sinn fallin, bids hann af mikilli reidi, og 

24 



numbers were unequal, and so he might not reach Faus- 
tinus, the army trammelling his way and arraying itself 
around him most furiously. But Hies went at headlong 
gallop through the lines of battle, and scattered folk on 
every side, and many fell before him. He slew six at 
every stroke, and the heathens could not now maintain 
their stand, and the whole of this wing of the army was 
broken up. This was seen by one of Faustinus's men, 
hight Darius, sprung from Blue-land ; he spurred his 
horse at Hies, and when they met there was a mighty 
tussle. They had a long fight and hard, and neither over- 
came the other, but Hies made bold use of his weapon ; 
he raised his sword and struck at Darius, and the blow 
struck the helm right in the middle, and cleft Darius 
downward from the head, even through his horse, till the 
sword stuck in the earth ; the standard of Faustinus now 
fell, and the battle-line was riven. Cimbal espied this, 
and rode forthwith 'gainst Hies, and struck at him in great 
wrath; Hies warded himself with his shield, but the sword 
cut the shield atwain athwart the handle, and the knight 
was wounded in the thigh. Hies then raised his sword 
again as swiftly as he might, and the blow struck Cimbal's 
helm athwart, so that the helm was cut through, and the 
burnie at the breast, and the head of the horse, right at 
the withers, and Cimbal fell with the dead horse. In 
that same moment came up Faustinus, like an arrow 
from the bow, upon his goodly horse, and set his sword 
at the neck of Hies, so that the head was smitten 
off, and it rolled far out into the field, and he fell 
with fair fame, having slain 300 men. Cimbal mounted 
the horse of Hies and rode into the battle. Now when 
Victor saw his brother fallen, he roared in his fury, and 

25 



CH. VI. beitti Sverdi sinu alldjarflega, var hann ordin mjog 
modur af dkofum bardaga, enn ei ad sidur herdti hann 

50 framgaunguna til hefnda, so hvar sem hann f6r, heldust 
aungvir vid, drap hann & tvser hendur og h!6d mjog hda 
valkdsti, og felldi 8 menn i hvorju hoggi, komu )>eir 
fserstir fl6tta vid sem fyrir honum st6du ; honu msetti 
Eisi eirn mikill vexti og herdabreidur, sa" het Eos6, 

55 Strids-eggsi bar hann Jninga i hendi, reiddi Eisin hana 
sem hardast hann kunni, stefndi hoggid d, kappan, stokk 
nu Victor undan lir Sodlinum, so hesturin d6 af )>vi 
jmnga hoggi, Victor hliop Eisan og hj6 af honum 
hendurnar i olbogabotu vard J>d, oxin laus, greip Victor 

60 hana i loptinu og setti i hofud Eisans, vard J>ad hans 
bani, J>vi oxin hlj6p 611 hoi i biikin, var nii dunkur 
mikill }) Eisin fiell. Victor sest best hans og bardist 
alldjarflega. heidingjar gjordu akafa hrid ad Victor i 
risans hefnd, enn hann reid sem hardast i ge'gnum lidid. 

65 Carvel s6i nii hvar Victor ridur, og felldi 6tal manna, 
hleypir hann Essinu eptir honum og kom a" bak til vid 
hann og lagdi Spj6tinu i herdar honum so lit um brjostid 
gdkk, fekk nu Victor dauda lag, han fan fad ^ sjdlfum 
ser, sndri vid hestinum og bar sig enn merkilega, 

70 haldandi merki k6ngs uppi med karlmennsku, og reiddi 
Sverdid sem hardast til hoggs, kom hoggid hjalm 
Carvels, enn han var so traustur ad ekki biladi, enn 
so var hoggid ]mngt, ad Carvel fiell af hestinum i 
6vit. I sama bili kom Fastinus ad J>vi hann s J?eirra 

75 vidskipti ; neitti Victor enn nii vopna sinna, og vardi sig 
26 



plied his sword right dauntlessly. He was much awearied 
by the hand-fight, but none the less he fared forth hardily 
for vengeance, so that where he came none might with- 
stand him, and he slew men on either side, and heaped 
huge piles of slain: he laid low eight men at every stroke; 
but few had chance of flight of those who stood before 
him. He was met by a certain giant, mighty in stature, 
and broad of shoulder, who was called Ros6; he bore a 
heavy battle-axe in his hand. The giant hove it up with 
all his might, and aimed the stroke at the warrior, but 
Victor leapt from out his saddle to escape the stroke, and 
his horse died from the heavy blow. Victor now sprang 
upon the giant and smote off his arms at the bight of the 
elbows. The axe was then set free, and Victor caught it 
aloft and drove it into the giant's head, and that was his 
death, for the axe went down even to the hollow of the 
trunk ; and there was a great thud as the giant fell. 
Victor now mounted his horse and fought boldly on. 
The heathens made fierce onslaught on him to wreak 
their vengeance for the giant, but he rode his hardest 
through the lines. Carvel was ware how Victor rode, 
and laid men low without number ; he spurred his horse 
toward him, and came upon him from behind and thrust 
his spear into his back, so that it came out through the 
breast, and thus Victor got his death-thrust, as he felt full 
well; yet withal he turned his horse about and bore himself 
still bravely, holding up the standard of the king full vali- 
antly, and he raised his sword at his hardest for a blow, and 
it lighted on Carvel's helm, but the helm was strong and 
gave way in no wise, though the blow was so heavy that 
he fell from off his horse aswooning. At that moment 
Faustinus came up, having seen their dealings together. 

Victor still plied his weapons and warded himself right 

27 



CH. VI. alldreingilega ; enn so kom um sidir ad harm maeddist af 
b!6drd,s svo harm fraut burdi, hjo Fa*stinus fa" um fverar 
herdar hanns svo hann fell daudur til jardar; Lofudu 
menn freegd hans og framgaungu, v6ru fad 1000 manna 
so sem hann hafdi ad velli lagt, og endar her ad seigja af 
hans Frsegdar verkum. 

7 Capitttlu 

sem Gamaliel sa* fall f eirra braedra, fell honum sedra 
i brj6st, f vi honum f okti visari daudi enn lif, magnadi 
hann fa" adfor vid heidingja og neitti vopna sinna sem 
hardast, fvi hann feinkti sitt lif dirt ad selja og i feirri 
5 framgaungu maetir hann Salman kongi. Kongur maelti 
fa til hans : m6dur ertu nu Felagi ! enn Gamaliel svaradi 
aptur : ilia hefur ))itt audnuleysi bruggad oss bol ))etta, 
J>vi ))itt st6rlindi freytti hugmod vid galdra nornina, og 
mun ei far a eptir ad botum ad bida. Kongur mselti : Ei 

10 kunni eg ollum minum sem verid hafa visari og fraegri 
ad verda i jrvi ad umflya dauda min far eingin hefur 
hann umfluid getad naer ad hefur kallad ; J>vi fad var so 
af Gudi dliktad saC sem rad hefur yfir lifi og dauda, og 
mina lifdaga taldi fd, eg var einginn ; skildu f eir so talid. 

15 S6kti nu otolulegur lidur ad Gamaliel, enn hann vardist 
so vel ad einginn kom sdri a" hann, heldur felldi hann 
fa" hronnum so ei vard tolu akomid ; setti hann Essid 
ge'gnum endiMngar filkingar, og vo jafnan 10 i hoggi 
hvorju fd; best hoggfseri gafst, svo eingin komst undan 

20 sd er hann adreid, og eingin fekk far neitt ad verkum 
gjort er hann var firir, og mikill otti stod heidingjum af 
honum. Valkostur sem hann hafdi hladid af daudum 
biikum, nam vid axlir honum ; hrakti hann sundur allar 






manfully, but it came to this at last, that he grew aweaiy 
from loss of blood, and his strength ebbed away. Then 
Faustinus smote him across the shoulders, and he fell 
dead to earth, and men praised his glory and his prowess ; 
and it was a thousand men he had laid low on the field, 
and herewith ends the story of his famous deeds. 

Chapter UH, 

ow when Gamaliel saw the brothers fallen, anguish filled 
his breast, for he knew himself more certain now of 
death than life. He renewed his onset on the heathens, and 
used his weapons with all his might, for he thought to yield 
his life full dearly. In the onset he met King Salman. 
Then said the king to him : " Thou art aweary now, 
fellow." But Gamaliel replied : " 111 has thy luckless 
fate brewed us this bale, for in thy pride thou didst 
slight the witch's spells, and it is too late now to get us 
remedy." The king said : "I cannot be wiser or more 
renowned than all my kin in escaping death, seeing no 
one has escaped it when the call has come, for so was 
it fixed by God, who hath power over life and death, and 
who told my life-days when I was nought ! " So their 
talk ended. A great host now rushed upon Gamaliel, 
but he fended him well, and no man dealt him a wound, 
nay he felled them in heaps so that the number could 
not be told : he set his steed at gallop-pace right through 
the lines and struck ten men at every stroke, when the 
chance of striking was best, so that no one against whom he 
rode fared unscathed, and no man could do aught where 
he was present, and there was great fear to the heathens 
because of him. The pile of dead which he had heaped 
reached to his shoulders; he scattered all the lines asunder 

29 






CH. vil. filkingar so J>aer t6ku st6rum ad ridlast og undanflia. 
~25 J^etta faer ad lita Fdstinus, keirdi Essid sporum, feisti ad 
Gamaliel!, og reiddi Sverdid af St6rri breed! til Greifans, 
enn hann skaut firir sig Skildinum so hoggid sakadi hann 
ei, og reiddi nu aptur Sverd sitt, og sett! i midjan hjalm 
Fd,stinusar, enn Adamus Steirn var settur i midjan 

30 hjdlmin, og brotnadi Sverdid i honum, ser nu Greifin 
ad ei muni meiga svo standa, Stokk hann af baki og 
svipti Fa^stinusi ur Sodlinum, tokust J>eir nu fdngbrogdum, 
var J>eirra glima en hardasta ; vikingurin bar Greifan og 
hrakti, enn fekk honum ei af f6tum komid, urdu dinkir 

35 miklir af hark! J?eirra og adgdngi so jordinn Skalf. Fiell 
nu Fdstinus um sidir, vard honum )md til falls, ad hann 
datt um eirn daudan biik, vard Gamaliel nu ofan honu, 
enn hafdi eingin vopn hj ser, greip fvi firir hdls 
Fdstinusi og vildi kyrkja hann, var honum ]?d fiortjon 

40 biiid, en nser heidingjar litu herra sinn svo staddan, 
Jmsti )>dngad meigin fjoldi lidsins, handt6ku Gamaliel 
og vildu drepa hann ; enn Fdstinus bannadi J>eim svo 
ad gjora, var Gamaliel fjotradur mjog hardlega, og fserdur 
i herbiidir heidingja, og feingin frselum til geimslu, dtti 

45 hann st6ra ofraun i fjotrunum, ])vi ilia var vid han gjort. 
Fdstinus komst nu enn d, Essid sitt, og var styrdur miog 
af Greifans miklu &tokum, enn ]>6 sokti hann hardan 
bardaga vid k6ng; kongur vardist mjog leingi vel, og 
var ordin nsersta lidfd,r, naut hann ilia vopna sinna }>vi 

50 faug dugdu ekki ad bita. 

8 Capttuli, 

It; var fdtt eptir lid k6ngs, v6ru )md alls 1 1 manna er vigir 
v6ru, J>eir filgduk6ngi]?adbesta feirkunnu. Fdstinus 
3 



that they broke up and fled. Faustinas seeing this, struck 
his spurs into his horse, and rushed upon Gamaliel, and 
in fierce rage raised his sword against the earl, but he 
shot his shield before him so that the blow did not harm 
him, and in his turn he raised his sword and struck the 
helm of Faustinus in the middle, but an "Adam-stone" 
was set there in the middle of the helm, and the sword 
broke against it. The earl wist now that things could 
not bide long thus, and he leapt from his horse, and 
swept Faustinus from out the saddle ; they took now to 
wrestling, and their play was the fiercest. The viking bore 
the earl to and fro, and drove him on before him, yet might 
not get him off his feet, and great thuds resounded from 
their hard play and onset, so that the very earth shook. 
But Faustinus fell at last, and this was the cause of his 
fall, namely, that he tripped over a dead trunk. Gamaliel 
was at once atop of him, but he had no weapon beside 
him, and he caught at Faustinus' throat, meaning to 
throttle him, and then death was ready for him. Now 
when the heathens saw their lord in this sorry plight, the 
main throng of the force rushed thither, seized Gamaliel 
and would have slain him, but Faustinus forbade them, 
and he was cruelly put in fetters, and brought into the 
heathen camp, and given in charge of thralls, and he 
suffered great trials in the fetters, for he was right hardly 
used. Faustinus then mounted his horse again ; he was 
very stiff after the earl's fierce handling, yet he kept up 
a hard fight with the king. The king guarded himself 
well for a long space : he had now a scanty host about 
him, but his weapons stood him ill in stead for they would 
not bite. 

Chapter 



there were few left of the host of the king ; in 
all there were eleven who could still fight, and 
they followed the king as best they might. Faustinus 

31 



CH. vill. septi mi F61k sitt til ad veita k6ngi adfor, j6kst far 
fling orusta, k6ngur og menn hanns drapu fjolda af 

5 heidingjum og hroktu fa\ K6ngi bitu ei vopn sin eptir 
fvi sem nornin hafdi meelt, hafdi ban Mnga staung i 
hendi og digra, og lagdi hann f61k med henni til dauds, 
vard fyrir fad margur haus og litlimur brotinn, msettust 
feir mi Salman k6ngur og Fdstinus i bardaganum, enn 

10 Fdstinus feilar sdr ad maeta k6ngi, k6ngur mselti : til 
einvigs bid eg f dr fu* hid arga 61 ! og held eg fig grei 
hundum ragari ef fii f orir ei ad berjast vid mig. Fdstinus 
seigir : fess skal mi vid neita sem hamingjan mdr ad 
gagni gjorir fad eg er fe'r fjolmenari. Baud hann enn 

15 adfor eina ad auka; sestust nu heidingjarnir og s6ktu 
hardlega ad k6ngi, hafdi kongur nu i hendi oxina Risa- 
naut, og gjordi monnum hardkeypt so eingin komst lifs 
undan sem oxin snerti ; eins var hann tidur i bardaga 
sem hvirfilvindur og svo grimur sem Ii6n ; kappar bans 

20 filgdu honum vel og drdpu 6tal manna, f 6 fiellu f eir 
flestir um sidir. 2 menn lifdu leingst eptir med k6ngi, 
he't annar Faber enn annar Tellus ; Faber msetti Cimbal i 
bardaganum, og d,ttust f eir S6knir vid, var f eirra adgangur 
mikill, hj6 Faber til Gimbals ad liktum med Sverdinu, so 

25 hoggid nam heegri oxlina og alia brinjuna d hlidinni, 
hne'ske'lina af Fsetinum og jarkan med hdlfri Ristinni, 
f 6kti f etta frsegdarlega hoggvid, enn Cimbal brd, Sverdi og 
hi6 hofud af Faber med vinstri hendi ; I6t so f essi kappi 
lif sitt vid g6dan ordstir. Nu ser k6ngur men sina fallna, 

30 fiell honum mikil grimd i hjarta, og bardist med mesta 

dkafa, Idu daudir manna bukar sem hris i Sk6gje fallid 
32 



shouted now to his folk to make an onslaught on the 
king, and there fell a heavy fight ; the king and his men 
slew a many heathens, and drove them all about, but the 
king's weapons would not bite, even as the witch had 
said. He had in his hand a long and stout pole, and 
therewith he thrust men through to death, and by it 
many a skull and limb was maimed. And now they met 
in the fray, King Salman and Faustinus, but Faustinus 
fought shy of the king. The king said : " To a single 
combat do I charge thee, thou craven fool. I hold thee 
more cowardly than a cur if thou darest not fight with 
me." Faustinus said : " That shall avail me now which 
fortune places to my profit, to wit, that I am more 
numerous than thou." And he bade them make another 
onset. The heathens then raged and made hard for 
the king. The king had now in his hand the axe, the 
giant's treasure, and made men abuy it dearly, so that 
no one whom the axe met might escape with life : he 
fared in the fight swift as a whirlwind, grim as a lion : 
his warriors stood by him nobly and slew men number- 
less, but in the end most of them fell. Two men lived 
longest beside the king, Faber and Tellus. Faber met 
Cimbal in the fight and they had fight together. Their 
combat was fierce : at last Faber hewed at Cimbal with 
his sword so that the stroke cut through the right 
shoulder and all the hauberk on that side, and took 
the knee-cap off the leg, and the outer part of the 
foot to half the instep ; and this was deemed a famous 
blow; but Cimbal drew his sword, and cut off Faber' s 
head with his left hand. And so this champion lost 
his life with great renown. The king saw now how 
his men were fallen, and great madness seized his heart 
and he fought most fiercely ; and the trunks of the 
dead lay now like faggots of wood strewn all about, 



CH. VIII. allavega, so eingin sa" se*r 6hsett, msetti hann nil Fdstinus 
i bardaganum, lagdi k6ngur Staunginni firir brj6st honum, 
so han hraut Mngt litd vollinn, og kom nidur herdarnar 

35 og Lamadist mjog, J>vi svo ilia var Fdstinus fser, ad ei 
komst hann hjalparlaust i Sodulinn. K6ngur fekk nu ei 
meir adgjort vegna fjolmenis ndlsegdar; Fa"stinus gretti 
sig ilia, J>vi hann hafdi feingid hdlsrig mikinn, og ur J>vi 
var hann ei i bardaganum, og attust J>eir ei Soknir vid 

40 fremur, enn Fa"stinus eggjadi menn sina til framgaungu 
og baud Folkinu med grimd ad ssekja ad k6ngi, J>usti nu 
allur herinn ad k6ngi, v6ru fad 6000 manna sem J> lifdu 
af heidingjum, k6ngur og Tellus msetti ollum Jessum her 
med st6rum frsegdum og geingu merkilega frarn, so nu 

45 var heidingjum 6sjen Sigurinn, Jrvi J>eim baud mjog vid 
6tta ; Fd,stinus s^ fetta og meelti : vondum Skrsemum hefi 
eg ad stira, sem Mta famenni J>etta Sigra sig med hrsedslu 
og dauda. Ssekid fid betur fram og hoggvid fol fessi. 
S6ktu nu heidingjar grimilega ad kongi enn han tok enn 

so hraustlega & m6ti J>eim, kongur drap fjolda manna af 
feim med Spi6ti sinu Carvel sa" nti framgaungu kongs, 
keirdi essid sporum, msetir han k6ngi og hio til bans, 
nam Sverdid vinstri fotinn so hann fiell af k6ngi firir 
nedann kndd, k6ngur reiddi oxina ad Carvel med miklu 

55 kappi, kom hoggid & hestinn og lamdi han til dauds, J?vi 

Carvel var stokkiri iir Sodlinum. Carvel hliop ad k6ngi i 
34 



and no one saw safety for himself. Then the king met 
Faustinus in the fight and thrust his pole at his breast, 
so that he fell far out into the field and came down upon 
his back and was mightily lamed, and was in such sore 
plight that he might not unaided gain his saddle. The 
king could now do nothing more for the host closed 
round him. Faustinus made wry looks, for his neck 
was very stiffened, and henceforth he was not in the 
fight, and he and the king met not again. But withal 
he egged his men to make an onset, and fiercely urged 
them to set upon the king ; and the whole host rushed 
upon him, 6000 heathens being still alive. The king 
and Tellus met all this host with great glory, and went 
forward wondrously, so that now the victory grew doubtful 
for the heathens, smitten, as they were, with mighty 
fear. Faustinus perceived this and he said : "Wretched 
cowards have I to command, who suffer this handful of 
men to cow them with fear and death : set on more bravely 
and cut down these fools." Then the heathens made 
fiercely for the king, but still he met them bravely, and 
slew with his spear a many of their men. Carvel seeing 
the king's advance spurred his horse, and met the king, 
and dealt him a stroke, and the sword smote his left leg 
below the knee, so that it fell from him : the king hove 
his axe at Carvel with great hardihood, and the blow 
lighted on the horse, and lamed it to death, for Carvel had 

leapt from out the saddle. Carvel sprang at the king 

35 



CH. VIII. annad sinn og hj6 hofud af hesti bans; k6ngur stokk af 
baki og sveifladi sdr d einum fseti ad -Carvel, enn hann 
Mdi ; komu J>a svo margir heidingjar og s6ktu ad k6ngi, 

60 k6ngur drap 4 men af Jeim, med sinu Spjoti. J J>vi bill 
brautst Tellus fram ad kongi, stokk af baki sinum hesti 
og setti k6ng uppd, hann, reid k6ngur nil allfrsekilega 
fram, bardist hann med sinni hsegri hendi og felldi 
margan mann. Tellus hliop ad einum digrum heidingja 

65 er sat einu g6du Essi, lagdi hann i g^gn med Spj6ti 
sinu og fleigdi honum til jardar, stokk sidan Essid 
og reid til k6ngs J>vi hann vildi honum sem nserst vera. 
Aldrei hafdi kongur hardari framgaungu haft enn nu, 
ad hann sem mestar hefndir ynni fyrir lif Sitt, drap hann 

70 litilli svipan 100 manna. Fdstinus baud ad bera 
Skjoldu ad k6ngi, og so var gjort ad })eir fjorsettu 
Skjoldu ur hverri tt ad k6ngi, k6ngur og Tellus vordust 
vel og urdu margra manna bani, le*t k6ngur oxina 
Eisanaut g&nga af dkafa, og lemstradi med henni menn 

75 og hesta til dauds, og i feirri framgaungu maetir honum 
eirn grimmur heidingi Add6molus ad nafni, og var leindar 
rd Fdstinusar ; fessi bar fiingan Strids hamar i hendi, og 
laust honum i hsegra armlegg konungs so hann brotnadi, 
var ml koniingur mjog ilia staddur enn Ip6 vardi hann sig 

so med vinstri hendi. Tellus bar Skjold sin yfir k6ng, og 
vardi hann alia vega so hann sserdist ei meira, og drap 
margan mann, t6k nu mikid ad draga af k6ngi, Tp6 vard hann 
enn mi 30 manna bani, i J>essari sinni framgaungu, St6 

hann mi af baki, J>vi kraptar bans t6ku ad minka af b!6drd,s 
36 



a second time and struck off the horse's head, while the 
king leapt down and on his one foot swung himself at 
Carvel, but he fled. Then there came a multitude of 
heathens and sought the king, but the king with his spear 
slew four of them. At that same moment Tellus hurried 
to the king, leapt from his horse, and set the king upon 
it, and the king went buoyantly forward, and fought with 
his right hand and felled a many men. Tellus rushed at 
a certain stout heathen mounted on a goodly horse and 
broached him through and through with his spear, and 
flung him to the earth ; then he sprang upon the horse 
and rode to the king, for he wished to be as nigh to him 
as might be. Never had the king made a harder onset 
than now, for he would wreak the greatest vengeance for 
his life, and in short space he slew a hundred men. 
Faustinus bade men bring shields about the king, and so 
was done : they placed shields fourfold round the king 
on every side. The king and Tellus warded themselves 
well and were the death of many men, and the king let the 
axe, the giant's treasure, go wildly about, and with it he 
lamed men and horses to the death. Now in this onset 
there met him a certain grim heathen, Addomolus by 
name, who was the counsellor of Faustinus : he bore in 
his hand a heavy war-hammer, and smote therewith the 
king on the right arm so that it broke ; and now the king 
was in a passing grievous plight, but yet he shielded him- 
self with his left hand. Tellus brought his shield before the 
king and fended him all about, so that he took not fresh 
wound, and himself slew many a man. The king now 
grew very weak, and yet withal he was the death of 
thirty men in this advance. He then dismounted from 
his horse, for his strength 'gan wane from loss of blood 

37 



CH. VIII. og msedi, so hann fiell um sidir i omeigin til jardar, hugdu 

86 menn ]md bans dauda. Og sem Tellus sd k6ng falla, 
Jjeinkti ha ad forda lifi slim, brast i gegnum Filkinguna 
mikid sdr og m6dur, enn komst J>6 lifs af og hleypti utd 
eidisk6ga, vard nii endir a bardaganum, hafdi hann 3 

90 Daga yfir stadid. Fdstinus hrosar nii storum Sigri og 
vard allgladur, baud hann ad taka Likaina kongs og 
fsera til borgar og so var gjort, 4 adrir lifdu eptir af ollu 
hans lidi, og sem J>reelar baru kong inn um Borgarhlidid, 
raknadi hann vid lir omeiginu, slog hann ]mnn med 

95 hnefanum hogg vid vanga er nserstur honum st6d, so 
hann hraut utaf, og kom hofudid nidur vid murinn so 
J>ad brotnadi og missti sa lifid. Fastinus var neerstaddur, 
og bannadi kong til dauds ad ssera, )>vi J>er skulud hann 
galga heingja, ]?an sama sem Metulus i hdngir, skipadi 

100 hann lp ad ssekja Syni kongs, og so var gjort, Idt hann 
sidan kong uppheingja a Gdlgan. lp mselti Fastinus til 
k6ngs sona : nu skulud fid sja J?ar uppa hvorsu listilega 
konginum Fodur ykkar geingur daudin, let han }) leida 
J>d< ad gdlganum, enn er Sigurdur sd Fodur sinn so 

105 hormulega deya, gret hann sarlega og vafdi Skikkjulafi 
um hofud ser, enn Ambales gdkk all djarflega nser, og 
setti Sion d, Likama Fodur sins er hann var i Fjorbrotunum, 
Ambales hlo mjog ddtt vid hvorn kipp sem Likamin tok, 
og altjafnt vox honum meiri kjsetin sem meir dr6 af. J>etta 

no furdar heidingja so mjog ad }> setti hli6da. J>d, Spurdi 
Fastinus fann eldra Son kongs : hvad sdrt han teeki ad 
horfa d, J>ettal enn hann maelti : mikid hjartans dngur eikur 

J>u mdr med grimd finni, og ma3tti eg nokkra dvol eiga til 

38 



and very weariness, and at last he fell to earth in a 
swoon and men deemed that was his death. Now whenas 
Tellus saw the king fall he thought to save his own life, 
and he broke through the ranks, mightily wounded and 
aweary as he was ; and he got off with his life and 
galloped to the wild woods, and there was an end to the 
fight which had lasted three days. Faustinus triumphed 
now in a great victory and was passing glad. He bade 
men take up the body of the king and bring it to the 
city ; and so it was done. Of all his host but four 
were left alive besides the king, who came out of his 
swoon as thralls were carrying him in through the city- 
gates, and he smote with his fist a blow on the cheek 
of him who stood anigh, so that the man reeled and 
his head struck against a wall and broke, and he lost 
his life. Faustinus was standing near, and forbade them 
to give the king a death- wound, for " Ye shall hang him 
on a gallows, the very same on which Methulus is hang- 
ing." He bade them fetch the sons of the king, and so 
it was done. Then he had the king hanged on the 
gallows. Faustinus said to the sons of the king : 
"Now ye shall have a sight of how lustily the king 
your father meets death." He had them led up to the 
gallows. And when Sigurd saw his father die so griev- 
ously, he wept sorely, and wrapped the skirt of his cloak 
around his head, but Ambales went boldly near, and 
stared at the body of his father while he was in his 
death-throes. Ambales laughed most gleefully at every 
pang that stirred his father's body, and he became 
the gayer the more life waned. At this the heathens 
wondered so much that they were struck silent. Then 
Faustinus asked the king's elder son how sorely 
he took it to look thereon ; but he said : " Great 
grief of heart dost thou cause me with thy cruelty, 
and if I might have some respite before death, and 

39 



VIII. daudans, og dygdi rndr lukkan, sem eg 6ska vildi )>a" 

115 skyldir J>ii fa" frefaldt verri dauda enn Jjennan. }>& I6t 

Fdstinus heingja hann hja Fodur sinum. Alt jok J>etta 

gaman ok kjeeti Ambal. svo hann h!6 hastofum, tok hann 

)) )?ad er finna kunni og gritti sinn brodur med i 

andarslitrunum. Sogdu ]) allir ad slikt grei vseri ekki 

120 ad hitta eda uppleita sem hann vseri ; Spurdi lp hyrdinn 

Fa"stinus ad hvort deida skildi F61 fetta? enn han qvad 

J>ar eingan mun til draga, og sagdi hann til Skdmtimar 

lifa msetti sdr og hofdingjnnum. 

9 Capituli 

TfNUS g^kk med 611u lidi sinu i Storri hugarkjseti i holl 
Salmans k6ngs, og settist i h^sseti hans ; hann baud 
ad Ssekja hertjoldin og herfdngid, lika hreinsa vigvolluna, 
var )>etta svo gjort. Var Gamaliel mi fluttur heim til 
5 borgarinnar, og tekin Skila frd, augum hans. Fa^stinus 
maelti : hvorjum kostum viltii seeta? Gamaljel mselti : 
Daudin J>ikir mer mi lifinu betri, J>vi lilt er heidnum 
hundum ad )>j6na og hlidni jdta, enn J>6 mun ekki i 
ydar valdi tala minna lifdaga. Med J?vi m6ti kys eg Iff, 

10 ad eg haldi Trii minni, audsefum og nafnbotum ollum og 
umdaemum, so og lika allar ])j6dir J>essa lands haldi tni 
sinni, enn gjaldi J>dr Skatt og hlidni alia eptir Sidvana 
og Lands Logmdli ; enn vilje nokkur ei g^/nga ad 
fessum kostum, J)d, skal hann n dvalar strax fdnga. 

15 Fdstinus mselti : manskadi er mikill ad J)er, en Jningir 
eru kostir }>eir J>ii setur, enn J>6 skalt ]?u Sverja mer 

eid h6r uppd, J>in og alls landsins vegna, ad )>essi J)in 
40 



should fortune help me, as I fain would wish, then 
shouldst thou have a death threefold worse than this." 
Thereat Faustinus had him hanged beside his father. All 
this but added to the sport and jollity of Ambales, so 
that he laughed loudly. He seized whatever he might 
lay hands on, and pelted his brother therewith while 
the life was passing from him. All said that such a 
dog as he was could not be found. Then the court 
asked Faustinus whether this fool should be killed, but 
he said it mattered little ; he might as well live and be 
sport for him and for his lords. 



Chapter II* 

AUSTINUS went now with all his host amid great rejoic- 
ing to the hall of King Salman and sat him down in 
the king's seat. He bade his men fetch the war-booths and 
the booty, and clear the battle-field, and so it was done. 
They then brought Gamaliel to the castle, and the bands 
were taken from off his eyes. Faustinus said : ''What 
terms will reconcile thee to life ? " Gamaliel said : 
"Death seems to me better than life, for it is an ill 
thing to serve heathen dogs and yield them homage, 
yet methinks the tale of my life-days is not in thy 
power. On these terms choose I life that I keep my 
faith, my wealth, my rank, and my dominion, and I 
would too that all the people of this land keep their 
faith, and they shall pay thee tribute and yield thee fit 
obedience after the law and custom of the land : and if 
any man be unwilling to yield to these conditions, he 
shall be placed in durance without delay." Faustinus 
said : "Thy death would be a great loss : yet the terms 
thou puttest are heavy ; yet thou shalt swear to me here an 
oath on thine own behalf and of all the land that this thy 

41 



CH. IX. heit skuli standa fyrir alna og oborna. Gamaliel gjordi 
svo, og Sor kongi triinadar eida d })ennan hdtt. Fdstinus 

20 mselti : Kd,d skaltu leggja d, med oss, og vil eg ))er hlida, 
J?vi skulu og minir menn hlida. Gamaliel mselti : J>ad 
skal vera medan trigd ei teemist af Jnnni hendi. Sidann 
le't Fdstinus taka koronu Salmans kongs og 611 koniingleg 
])ing og setti a" sitt hofud )>d kostulegu k6ronu, og t6k 

25 Bikis sprota i sina hond, gjordist hann so k6ngur yfir 
))vi landi og riki Salmans kongs ; hann bad ad saekja 
Drottninguna, og sem hun kom, var hiin mjog dugursom, 
og so gr^t hiin mikid, ad ei gat hiln borid sig. Fa"stinus 
k. bad hana glada vera, og sagdi : vel vil eg vid })ig gjora, 

so og )>ann kost md,ttu af mer J^iggja sem ki6sa vilt ef J>u vilt 
min Drottning heita, enn J>etta f^kk henni enn meira 
angur ; sd, nu kongur ad viljug mundi hiin ekki ad J>essu 
gdnga, leid svo dagurin til pess til hvilu skildi ga"nga. 
Lagdist Fdstinus i Seeng ])d er konilngur hafdi a"tt, og 

35 skipadi med valdi ad Drottning skildi J>dngad fsera. 
J^jonar k6ngs gjordu sem hann firirsagdi, sd, nu Drottning 
ad sinn vilje mundi sist standa meiga, var hiin naudug 
J>ngad borin og af klsedd sidann i Ssengina hia J>essum 
kongi nidurlogd ; gret hiin ])a h^stofum ; enn er kongur 

40 setlar ad sina henni astar hot med fadmlogum og fi61j)reifni 
allri, s6kti hann mikill krankleiki so han redi ser varla 
sjdlfur, kvaldi hann pina J>essi heldst um J>ing sin og 
J)arma, so ad tok fra honum alia edlis krapta, ]?oldi 

hann ilia qvol J>essa, vildi hann ser bata leita, og ste af 

42 



promise shall hold for born and unborn." Gamaliel did 
so, and thus swore he to the king oaths of allegiance. 
Faustinus said: "Thou shalt give us rede, and I shall 
hearken to thee, as shall my men." Gamaliel said : 
" It shall be so as long as faith does not fail on thy 
side." Thereafter Faustinus bade men take the crown 
of King Salman and all the kingly gear, and he set on 
his head the precious crown, and placed the sceptre in 
his hand, and so made himself king of King Salman's 
land and empire. He bade them fetch the queen, and 
when she came she was in sorry plight, and wept so 
grievously as her heart would all to-break. King Faus- 
tinus bade her be of goodly cheer, and said : "I would 
act kindly toward thee, and thou shalt have from me all 
that thou wouldst, if thou wilt be called my queen." But 
this made her grief the greater, and the king saw she 
would not yield thereto. So the day passed till the time 
when folk betake themselves to rest. Faustinus lay upon 
the bed which had been the king's, and he bade the men 
bring the queen thither by force. His servants did as he 
bade them. The queen now saw that her will was of 
no avail : she was carried thither by force and unclad, 
and thereafter laid down beside the king, weeping aloud. 
But when the king was wishful to come anigh her with 
his wooing, a great sickness fell upon him so that 
he might scarcely hold himself; all strength of being 
passed away from him. He bore the pain ill, and arose 

43 



CH. IX. Saenginni ; og sem hann var lir Ssengur herberginu 

46 geinginn fekk hann albata ; enn nser hann hugdi til 
Ssengur Drottningar ad gdnga, j6kst honum fad sama 
mein, og fvi meir qvelst hann sem hann kom nser henni. 
Ad morgni ge'kk hann til hallar og settist i hdsseti, sagdi 

50 hann J>& frd, frautum sinum sem hann d,tti ad reina um 
n6ttina, og hvornin honum voru hviluvistirnar bannadar ; 
h!6u margir ad fvi i hljodi, sogdu petta af brogdum 
volvunnar. Kdngur spurdi Gamdl. hvorju hann feinkti 
J)etta mundi g^gna? enn hann qvad honum annars eiga 

55 audid verda, J)vl md/ttu kongur af huga verda ad fadma 
Drottningu, gjor J>ii henni heldur allann S6ma og Mt 
hana naudungar lausa lifa, og hlid henni ))vi hun er vitur 
og vel ad sdr, og viljer }>u i nddum lifa, so mattu lika 
minum rd,dum hlida eins i J>essu sem odru. Kdngur vildi 

60 ei ad heldur afMta, og reindi til i 3 nsetur, ]>vi honum 
J)6tti sneipa ad fetta spirjast skildi, og for alt d, somu leid 
sem ddur, og neer hann vildi i Ssengina stiga, qvelst han 
meir og meir, so hann um sidir hlaut af ad lata ; fekk 
honum ]?etta storrar hugarsorgar, og af rd,dum Greifans 

65 I6t hann Drottningu vegleg herbergi fa og femur hennar, 
og hielt hana i besta haldi til alls kostar. hennar fjonusta 
lindti k6ngi vel, Saumadi hun honum kominglegan 
Skriida med miklum kostamentum. ei md/tti k6ngur 
hana augum lita, )>vi svo opt sem honum fiell g^d i 

70 hug til hennar, listi s6tt um hans lif, settist hann J>& 
ad Sti6rnan F61ks og landa. 

44 



from the bed in hope of remedy, and as he was come 
from out the room he was restored ; but when he was 
minded to return to the bed whereon the queen still lay, 
the torture grew the more the nearer he approached the 
queen. In the morning he went to the hall and sat 
adown in the high seat : he told of the pangs he had 
endured at night. Many laughed thereat within them- 
selves ; " it was the witch's tricks," they said. The king 
asked Gamaliel whence he thought it came. He said it 
was fated otherwise for him, and the king must therefore 
give up all thought of holding the queen in his embrace ; 
" show her rather all honour and let her live untroubled, 
and listen to her, for she is wise and gifted ; and if thou 
wouldst live in peace, thou must needs hearken to my 
rede in this as in all else." The king was nowise ready 
to desist, and he tried three nights, for he thought it?a 
shame that the story should get bruited about, but things 
went the same way as erewhile, and when he would 
ascend the bed, his pains grew more and more ; at last 
he was forced to yield, though the matter vexed him 
greatly, and following the counsels of the earl, he let the 
queen and her maidens, too, have noble dwelling, and kept 
her in the best in all she needed. Her service pleased the 
king well ; she stitched for him a kingly robe of great 
price. But he might not look into her eyes, for as often 
as it befell him to think of her, he was smitten with sick- 
ness throughout his frame. He betook himself then to 
rule his folk and his land. 

45 



10 Capttulu 

CH. X. H( FYRSTA ari rikisstj6rnar Fastinusar kongs, fdkk k6ngur 
*^ mikils hattar ahiggju, so hann vard J>ratt ))6gull og 
fdldtur. Greifi Gamaljel spurdi hvad honum beeri til 
aliiggju? enn ban qvadst )>einkja til hefnda af Balant 
5 k6ngi i Hispanja eptir braedur sina, vil eg J>vi fara d 
fund Malpriants brodur mins, og med mer taka her 
mikin lir J>essu landi, og vid brsedur bddir sofnum lidi 
til bardaga, J>vi vid munum badir jafnsekir haldnir, og 
skulum vid ad firra bragdi til verda vid Balant kong. 

10 Cimbal og Carvel skulu m^r filgja, enn J)ii skalt firir 
riki voru sj4 d, medan. Enn er Greifinn heirdi ]?etta, 
J>agdi hann nokkra stund, sidan svarar ban her til d 
pessa leid : vel er ]?6 kongur rddi, enn ovist er um Sigur 
ykkar brsedra nema ofmikil Svik eda audmileysi adsaeki 

15 Bdlant k6ng ; bj6st kongur nu d, stad med lid sitt til 
J>essa bardaga, urdu ])eir kristnu eirnig med ad fara i 
herfor J>essa J?6 naudugier veeru, hafdi hann nu allmikid 
lid, og Idtti ei ferd sinni firri enn han-kom vid Spanien 
4 fund Malpriants kongs brodur sins, seigir Fdstinus 

20 honum ad hann vill J>eir fseri ad Balant k6ngi med allan 
sin her, enn Malpriant kongur seigir se'r J>etta leingi i 
hug verid hafa, og qvadst til reidu vera, og gjordi hann 
herbod ollum Iidk6ngum er honum ])jentu ad safna sem 
mestu lidi J>eir kynnu ; dreif }?vi ad k6ngi mikill her, so 

25 ]?eir brsedur hofdu alls 80,000 vigra mana, og )>ar ad auki 
sina fenara, drogu so af Stad med allan J>ennan her alt til 
borgar Balants kongs, og gjordu honum tven kosta bod med 
miklu drambi, ad hann skildi annadhvort verja land sitt 

eda uppgefa, og peim Skatt afgjalda. Balant kongur 
46 



Chapter 

the first years of the rule of King Faustinas, 
there fell on the king some great trouble, so that he 
was ofttimes silent and sullen. Gamaliel asked whence this 
trouble came ? He said he feared that Balant, King of 
Spain, would take vengeance for his brothers : "Where- 
fore I would go and meet Malpriant my brother and take 
with me a great army from this land, and we two brothers 
shall both muster a host for battle, for we are both alike 
held guilty, and we two must anticipate King Balant. 
Cimbal and Carvel shall follow me, but thou shalt mean- 
while rule our kingdom." When the earl heard this he 
was silent for a time ; thereafter he answered thus: " The 
king may well have his will, yet it is not sure that thou and 
thy brother will have victory unless some great treachery 
or ill-fate beset King Balant." The king now gets ready 
with his army for the raid. The Christians were also 
forced to go on this war-raid, though unwilling. He had 
then a great host of men, and he stayed not till he reached 
Spain and met King Malpriant his brother. Faustinus 
tells him that he would they should go to King Balant 
with all their host ; Malpriant says this has long been 
in his mind, and declared himself ready, and he sent the 
war-message to all the vassal-kings that served him to 
gather together the greatest possible force. There drove 
thus a great army to the king, so that the brothers had 
in all 80,000 able-bodied men and their servants be- 
sides. They set off with all that host to the city 
of King Balant, and with great disdain gave him a 
choice of two things, that he should either defend his 
land or give it up, and pay them tribute. King Balant 

47 



CH. X. vard bistur vid J)essi tidindi, bsedi af falli brsedra sinna og 

""31 )>vi st6ra rembilseti og ofsa k6nganna, stefndi hann ollum 

sinum monnum til bardaga er hann fd, kunni, og fdkk 

aungvanvegin so miklu lidi safnad sem hann med Jmrfti 

sokum nalsegdar 6vina sinna og naums tima, hann hafdi 

35 alls I9,ooo um ad sdr safnad vopn fserra manna, J>ar i bland 
pess lids v6ru 12 kappar Balants k6ngs, og ])ar med 
margir adrir vaskir Biddarar er ad vistum s&tu med k6ngi, 
J)6 4 ]?eirra heldst af beeri til frsegdar og framgaungu er svo 
hietu : Vilhjdlmur, Didrik, Dixin og Karl ; J>essir md,ttu 

40 vel kallast Skjoldur Landsins, og J>6kti flestum 6arennilegt 
Eiki k6ngs J>ar med 6vinnandi medann J>eir'v6ru i Lidi 
hans. Ldt nil k6ngur bMsa i sina herludra med hvellum 
hli6dum, og stefna ollu sinu lidi litaf borginni d sliettar 
grundir er J>ar Idgu neerri. Nil sem k6ngarnir urdu fessa 

45 visir, ad Balant k6ngur var til Bardaga kominn, le'tu ))eir 
sepa hr6p med miklum adg^tngi, voru ]>eir nil biinir ad 
skipta lidi sinu i tvser Filkingar, var sidan i herliidra bldsid, 
og t6kst ])ar straung orusta med skeitum og handbogu, 
Skotspj6tum og allskyns vopnum, g^kk su hrid langan 

50 tima med mesta dkafa, so allir hofdu n6gu ad gegna lifid 
ad verja, voru ]?eir braedur k6ngarnir hinir dkofustu og 
menn J>eirra, J>vi ])eir feinktu sdr Sigurinn visan, og af J>vi so 
mikill lidsmunur var sem d,dur er gdtid, enn Balant k6ngur 
baud monnum sinum kyrrum fyrir ad standa og verjast svo, 

55 J)ess neittu J>eir og vid, enn drapu J)6 6tal manna af her 
J>eirra brsedra, so heldur halladist bardginn d, J>d heidnu, 
fl6du ])d, b!6dl8ekirnir allvida er menn beittu Sverdum, 

Spj6tum, Strids homrum og allskyns vopnum, var fessi 

4 8 



was wroth at the message, both because of his brother's 
death, and of the king's great haughtiness and pride. 
He arrayed all those he could get together for battle ; he 
might in nowise muster as great a host as he needed, for 
the enemy was at hand and the time was short. He had 
in all 1 9,000 weapon-bearing men gathered around him : 
amongst that host there were twelve champions of King 
Balant, and therewithal many other valiant knights who 
eat the king's bread, amongst whom four were the most 
renowned for bravery and dauntlessness ; their names 
were : Vilhjalmur, Didrik, Dixin, and Karl : these might 
well be called the shield of the land, and most men 
thought the realm of the king unassailable and un- 
conquerable while they were in the king's army. The 
king then ordered the shrill war-blasts to be sounded on 
the trumpets, and all his army to be led out of the city 
to level plains which were near. And when the kings 
became aware of this, that King Balant was come dight 
for battle, they had the war-whoop raised with much ado, 
and they had now divided their army in two divisions. 
Thereupon the war-trumpets were blown and a mighty 
fight befell with shots from hand-bows and spears and 
every kind of weapons, and that brunt raged for a long time 
with the greatest fury, so that each man had work enough 
in guarding his life. The brother-kings and their men 
wrought great havoc, they thought that the victory was 
sure, because of great disparity in the numbers, as has 
been said before. King Balant bade his men stand 
quiet and keep on the defensive, and this they did ; 
yet they slew an untold number of men of the army 
of the brothers, so that the chances of the fight were 
rather against the heathens, and the blood -brooks 
flowed far and wide where the men were plying swords 
and spears, war-hammers and every sort of weapon, 

D 



CH. X. bardagi hinn adgdngs mesti. Kongarnir s6ktu hardt fram 

60 i dkafa, og voru badir hinir adgjordamestu. Mdlpriant 
k6ngr var i brjosti sinnar Filkingar, og gjordi Bdlant 
k6ngi hinn mesta Skada d monnum sinum beedi d lifi og 
heilsu. J>etta feer sdd Karl, og reid a" moti Malpriant, 
reiddi k6ngur J>d, upp Sverd, og hugdi kappan sundur ad 

65 snida, enn Karl hafdi Spjotskapts brot i hendi, og s!6 )?vi 
& moti hoggi kongs, svo ])ad kom a" midt Sverdid i loptinu 
med svo miklum hasti, ad Sverdid hraut ur hendi honum 
langt burt vollinn, tok pa" Karl sverd sitt og reiddi til 
hoggs mjog roskmannlega, so fad kom d midjann hjdlm 

70 k6ngs, so J>ad tok i sundur hjalminn allan er J)6 var mjog 
traustur, hvad monnum J>6kti stsersti vodi, enn kongur 
sserdist litid ad eins sdr og fekk ovit, enn af ])eim 
mikla brest sem vard af J>essu fiinga hoggi, brd Essid 
kongsins so vid mjog, og tok akaflega ras med kdnginn 

75 burt iir bardaganum, svo Karl gat her ei meira adgjort. 
Enn er Fastinus sdr fetta, peinkti hann brodur sinn til 
dauda sserdann, }>vi honum voru Tallinn 611 vopn, fylltist 
hann J>a grimdar og jok bardagan med sedis framgaungu, 
setjandi essid endilangar filkingar i gdgnum og drap 

so fiolda mana, svo daudir menn lagu alia vega. )>etta ser 
Dixin, og reid honum a moti, lagdi hann Spjoti sinu til 
kongs, so i gegnum skjoldin gekk, renndi Spjotid med 
vinstri Sidu, svo kongur fekk Sar mikid, reiddi ]>a kongur 
Sverdid med mikillri reidi, kom hoggid a kappan so 

85 aftok bardid af hjalminum, og skar brinjuna a brjostinu 
og kom i Skjoldinn, ]>vi kappin bar han undir, og 

hlifdi ser so sarum og lifi hestsins. Dixin hjo pa aptur 

50 



for the battle was fought with great vigour. The kings 
pressed on hard and eagerly, and both of them were men 
of mighty doing. Malpriant was in the van of his army, 
and did scathe to Balant's men in life and limb. Seeing 
this, Karl made for Malpriant, who raised his sword, 
wishful to cut the warrior asunder, but Karl had a broken 
spear-handle in his hand, and met therewith the blow, so 
that it suddenly caught the sword aloft, and the sword 
leapt from the king's hand far out into the field ; then Karl 
took his own sword, and therewith aimed so stout a blow, 
that it struck even in the middle of the trusty casque, 
and cleft it all asunder, strong though it was, and men 
now deemed the peril very great ; yet the king was merely 
slightly wounded, though he fell into a swoon. The 
mighty crash of the heavy blow startled the king's horse, 
so it rushed off with the king away out of the battle, and 
Karl might do no more this while. Now Faustinus saw 
this and thought his brother wounded unto death, for he 
had lost all his weapons ; and he was filled with wrath, 
and stirred the fight anew with mad onward rush, spurring 
his horse right along the battle-lines and slaying a host 
of men, so that dead men lay all about. Dixin seeing 
this rode against the king, and thrust his spear at him, so 
that it went right through his shield ; the spear flew along 
his left side, and he got a great wound ; the king raised his 
sword then with great fury and the blow struck the warrior 
so that it cut off the rim of the casque, and cut the burnie at 
the breast, and struck the shield, for the warrior raised his 
shield to parry the blow, and this saved him from wounds, 
and saved too the life of his horse. Dixin then dealt 

51 



OH. X. til kongs, so tok 1 sundur Skjoldinn allan, og djupt i Leer 
kongs kongur greip J>a krokaspjot og lagdi }>vi so sterklega 

90 til kappans ad festi i brinjunni a vinstri oxlinni ; kippti 
hann pa kappanti ur Sodlinum og fdkk varla haldid 
honum, kom honum }>6 uppa Sodulbriggjuna firir framan 
sig, reid so med hann til sinna landtjalda, og fekk hann 
prselum til voktunar, enn er Balant kongur og kappar 

95 hans sdu )>etta, urdu ))eir mjog odir og akafir i bardaganum, 
bad kongur J>a vel duga, en ]>eir gjordu svo og juku 
stranga hrid, med miklum framgangi, var kongr sjalfur 
hinn adgjorda mesti, hafdi hann Spjot og Sverd sitt i 
hvorri hendi, svo hann gat i senn bsedi lagt og hoggvid, 
100 hlaut J?a margur skjotann og skadlegan dauda, valk^stir 
daudra biika v6ru margir og hair so J>eir numdu vid axlir 
manna. Vilhjalmur komst nserst kongi i frsegd og 
framgaungu sinni, allir bordust feir med akdfd sem med 
kongi voru, svo heidingjar toku ad flia, }>viad })eir voru 

105 hronnum drepnir baedi d vigvollunum og i flotta- 
rekstrinum, so landid vard hulid i daudra manna biikum. 
Kongarnir kalla nu herin a flotta, og hlutu J?eir landtjold 
sin naudugir eptir lata med filgjandi audeefum ])vi J>eir voru 
langt a leid frd, hraktir. Balant kongur rak flottann 

no medan dagur vannst til, enn sem Sol var undirgeinginn, 
sn^ri hann aptur og bad menn sina hastta flottarekstrinum, 
ridu J?eir mi heim til Borgarinnar, enn vegna mirkurs og 
vaktarinnar, reid hann ekki i herbudirnar, tok hann nil 
hvild um nseturtimann i sinu kominglegu herbergi. Ad 

115 morgni baud kongur monnum sinum ad seekja herfang og 
52 






a back blow at the king, and cleft his shield atwain, and 
wounded him deep in his thigh, whereupon the king 
seized a barbed spear and thrust it so hardly at the cham- 
pion that it fastened on the burnie at the left shoulder ; 
he then pulled the champion from off his saddle, and 
though scarce able to hold him, he brought him on to his 
saddle in front of him and so rode with him to his war- 
tent, and delivered him into the charge of thralls. Now 
when King Balant and his warriors saw this they became 
exceedingly mad and raged in the fight. The king bade 
them be right doughty, and they were so, and eked out a 
mighty war-brunt with vigorous onset, wherein the king 
himself was the keenest, with a spear and sword in either 
hand, so that he might cut and thrust at the same time. 
There many a man gat him a swift and direful death. The 
piles of dead trunks were many and high and reached up 
to the shoulders of men. Vilhjalmur came nearest the 
king in renown and valour. All the men who were with 
the king fought keenly, so that the heathens began to flee, 
for they were slain in heaps both on the battle-field and 
on the route, so that the country-side was covered with the 
trunks of the dead. The kings had now perforce to call 
upon their men to flee, and they had unwillingly to 
leave their camp behind with all the wealth thereto 
belonging, for they had been chased far from it. King 
Balant drove the rout while day lasted, and when 
the sun had set he turned and bade his men desist. 
And they rode home to the city, and by reason of 
the darkness and of the watch, he did not ride into 
the camp, but rested the night in his palace chamber. 
In the morning the king bade his men fetch the booty 

S3 



CH. x. herbiidir, var so gjort og bjuggust ))eir ad drepa vaktina. 
Toku J?eir nu allt herfangid, med Tjoldum beggja 
konganna, var Dixin og ur fjotrum fserdur og heimfluttur, 

120 fundust }>eir kongur og hann med hinni mestu blidu og 
storri sigurhrdsan, vard monnum katt af Flotta konganna. 
Balant kongur baud ad hreinsa vigvolluna, og Idt kasta 
kroppum daudra manna i djiip votn, og Siki, og J>vo 
vollinn med vatni og sa yfir hann Salti. Settist kdngr 

125 nu um kyrrt med storri gledi, og skipti herfanginu med 
])eim gersemum er }>ar voru ad fa medal sinna manna, ])vi 
ban feinkti ottalaust i nd,dum sinu Riki ad halda. Nu vikur 
Soguni aptur til konganna, ad J>eir hofdu leigid med her 
sinn allan undir berum himni, og foktust Smd-narferd 

130 farid hafa, ]?einktu ])vi um hvqrnin J>eir skildu sinnar 
Svivyrdingar hefna, qvadu J>eir Balant kong osigrandi 
vera, fiell ])eim J>ad i gdd sam]?ikkilega, ad gjora landi 
bans enn meiri Skada med eldi og jdrnum. Malpriant 
var um landid frodari ad kunnugleika, og seigir brodur 

135 sinum ad eitt agjsett hdrad leegi utaf Hispanja til austurs 
dttar, skulum ver ])dngad stefna her vorum ollum seigir 
hann, og leggja fennan landspart undir oss, mun kongi 
fad verda meiga til mesta Skadrsedis, J>vi hann hefur 
verid sem ein hurd firir landi fessu; kann vera ad oss 

140 verdi sidar audsoktara ad vinna fetta. J>6kti Fastinus og 
odrum ]?etta efnilegt rad, og stefndu nu fdngad med allan 
sinn her. 

U (ZTapitult, 

heradi J)essu var jarl rikur til yfirstjornar 
Calitor ad nafni, og sat i agjsetri borg er Anga 
he't, hun var ramlega biggd med gilltum murum og 
54 



and the war-booths, and they did so, and prepared to slay 
the watch. They took now all the booty, and the tents 
of both the kings ; Dixin was freed from his fetters and 
brought home, and he and the king met with greatest joy 
and triumph, and the men made merry at the king's 
flight. King Balant bade the battle-fields be cleared, and 
had the bodies of the dead thrown into deep waters and 
ditches, and the fields washed with water and bestrewn 
with salt. The king then settled down to peace in great 
delight, and shared the booty and the precious things 
found therein among his men, for he deemed that he 
could then fearlessly enjoy his realm in quiet. Now the 
saga turns to the kings, and tells how they had lain with 
their army beneath the open sky, and they judged they 
had gone on an errand of shame, and they cast about in 
their minds how they could avenge their ignominies. 
They said that Balant was invincible, but they both were 
at one in this, to wit, that they would do the country still 
greater scathe with fire and sword. Malpriant had greater 
knowledge of the country, and he told his brother that 
out of Hispania to the east there was a choice territory. 
" Let us thither with all our host," said he, " and make this 
part of the land subject to us ; it may prove the greatest 
scathe to the king, for it has been to the country even as 
a gate ; perchance we shall hereafter more easily gain it." 
The plan seemed goodly to Faustinus and the rest, and 
they now made their way thither with all their host. 



Chapter XL 

this land there ruled a certain mighty earl, 
^^ Calitor by name, and he dwelt in a noble city 
called Anga. It was a stoutly built city with golden walls 

55 



CH. XL Turnum. 3 Dsetur dtti Jarlin voru tveer af ])eim heiman 

5 gefnar, a"tti Balant kongur adra er Dyla het ; fessi Jarl 
var gamall madur, enn hafdi verid enn mesti frsegdar 
madur um daga sina, og )>ann tima er Donrek kongur 
belt Hispaniam, hafdi hann bans Lid kongur verid. Med 
Jarli var eirn Biddari ungur er Vallanus he't s& hafdi 

10 litlaegur gjordur verid af Balant kongi firir agirndarsakir 
kongs, )>vi Vallanus hafdi d-tt kostulegan gard med dirum 
Landkostum, hvorn hann hafdi ad erfdum tekid eptir 
Fodur sinn, enn kongur vildi halda Jennan gard eign sina 
med odru J>ar nser er til landsins kom. Vallanus vardi 

15 sitt mal med rettindum fad frekasta hann kunni, 
gramdist J>etta konginum so mjog, ad hann gjordi hann 
fridlausan i landinu ; komst hann lp til Calitors jarls, J>vi 
Fadir hanns hafdi leingi Felagi Jarlsins verid, feinkti 
Jarl med Tidinni ad ssetta Vallanius vid kong, og na 

20 aptur hans eignar r^tti. Mjog ovart komu Vikingar 
Borgar lid fessum, var J>ad firri um morgunin en vaktin 
kalladi ; brutu feir )?egar upp borgar hlidinn ad vikinga 
vana og drapu vokumennina, enn sumir fludu undan og 
gjordu jarli kunnugt um hernad vikinga. Jarl klaeddist 

25 skjotlega og qvaddi men til lids sdr, J>vi hann vildi heldur 
med fraegd falla enn sitt med ossemd uppgdfa voru J>ad alls 
300 vigra manna er med honum til varnar voru, sleest nii i 
bardaga, og verst Jarlin ovinum sinum med storum freegdum 
og gjordi feim allmikid manntjon, so a" skommum tima 

3D fjellu 60 manna firir hanns vopnum, og er Fdstinus kongr 
56 



and towers. The earl had three daughters, of whom 
two had been given away in marriage, one being wife of 
King Balant ; she was named Dyla. This earl was now 
an old man, but in his day he had been most famous, and 
at the time whenas King Donrek had held Spain, had 
been his vassal-king. With the earl there was a young 
knight called Vallanus ; he had been outlawed by King 
Balant through that king's avarice. For Vallanus had 
had a noble castle with lands exceeding choice which 
he had got as a heritage from his father. The king 
desired this castle for his own with all the country sides 
thereto belonging. Vallanus defended his cause, justly, 
to the utmost of his power, and thereat the king grew so 
angry that he made him an outlaw from the land. He got 
him then to Calitor, for his father had for a long time 
been a comrade of the earl ; and the earl planned to bring 
about peace between Vallanus and the king as time went 
on, and to obtain for him the right of his property. Now 
the vikings came very suddenly upon the men of this 
city ; they reached there in the morning-tide before the 
watch was called. They forthwith broke up the gates of 
the city, after the wont of vikings, and slew the watch, 
though part fled and made known to the earl the raid 
of the viking army. The earl dressed quickly and called 
men to his aid, for he chose rather to fall with glory 
than dishonourably to yield his own. Three hundred 
doughty men in all gathered round him for defence, 
and now a battle befell, and the earl defended him- 
self against his foes with great glory, and caused 
them much loss of life, so that in a short time sixty 
men fell before his weapons ; and when King Faustinus 

57 



CH. XI. s& framgaungu Jarls, for hann til mots vid harm, og 
bio af bans vinstri bond, enn Jarl hafdi Sverdid i ha3gri 
hendi og hjo til kongs so aftok eirad, far med mikid af 
hjdlminum so kongur fiekk Sar a oxlina, greiddi nu 

35 kongur aptur hogg, og setti Sverdid a hals Jarli so aftok 
hofudid, so jarl fell daudur til jardar, enn feir menn sem 
eptir lifdu badust fridar, var feim fa ollumm lif gdfid. 
Vallanus var nu i bland fessara; leiddi hann kongana med 
hernum ollum i boll og haseeti Jarls, og jatadi feim hlidni 

40 ad veita og triia fjonustu ; toku feir fa undir sig alt land 
Jarls med ollum bans auda3fum, og er Vallanus gjordist 
feim bandgeinge, sogdu feir honum fra sinum oforum og 
vidureign feirra vid Balant kdng. Vallanus mynntist nu 
a gjordir kongs vid sig, og foktist nu sja rad til ad launa 

45 honum vondsleg vidskipti, fvi nserst meelti hann vid 
kongana : Balant kongur a Skuld i minn gard, og vseri 
gott henni ad luka, mun eg vist beeta meiga Skada ykkar 
ef mdr hlida viljed. feir qvadust honum hlida skildu. 
Vallanus mselti : Eg vil nu f egar rida a fund Balants 

50 kongs med fjolda manns og marga goda Fjarhluti, og 
kungjora honum, ad Calitor jarl magur bans komi a 
fund banns ad frem dogum lidnum, og fvi mun kongur 
vist trua ; a f eim deigi mattu, Fastinus kongur ! taka 
a fig buning jarls, og rida med 500 manna til 

55 borgarinnar, alia buna ad landsvana, mun fa Balant 
kongur ei annad setla en fad se jarl med sina 
menn, uppsla fegar hlidum og brurnar nidurlata, fii 

munt fa med miklum fagnadi innrida i Borgina, en 

58 



saw the earl's advance, he went to meet him and smote 
off his left hand, but the earl had his sword in his right, 
and he struck at the king, so that he took off his ear 
and therewith a good deal of the helmet, and the king 
got wounded on the shoulder. And now the king dealt 
another blow, and set his sword at the neck of the earl, 
and it took off his head, and the earl fell dead to the 
earth. The men who were still alive asked for quarter, 
and life was granted to them all. Now among these was 
Vallanus ; he led the kings with all their troops into the 
hall and to the high-seat of the earl, and he promised to 
yield them allegiance and faithful service. They then 
took to themselves all the land of the earl, together with 
all his wealth. Now when Vallanus had become their 
right-hand man, they told him of all the disasters in their 
dealings with King Balant. Vallanus called now to mind 
the doings of the king towards himself, and thought he 
saw now a way to pay him for his wrongs. Eftsoon said 
he to the kings : " King Balant is in debt for my castle, 
and it would be well to have it paid, and I may assuredly 
mend your loss if ye will but obey me." They said they 
would do so. Vallanus said : " I shall now forth- 
with ride to meet King Balant with a host of men and 
many goodly things, and make known to him that Earl 
Calitor his father-in-law is coming to meet him within 
three days, and the king will surely believe it. On that 
day do thou, King Faustinue, take upon thyself the garb 
of the earl, and ride with five hundred men to the city, all 
arrayed after the fashion of the country, whereby King 
Balant cannot but then believe that it is the earl and his 
suite : forthwith he'll throw open the gates and let down the 
drawbridges, and in great glee thou'lt ride into the city, but 

59 



CH. XI. meigin herin skal filgja Malpriant kongi, og vera Fjalla 

60 a millum i einum f raungum dal sem far er, og bida far ; 
enn fegar fu ert komin i borgina, skaltu lata blasa 
frisvar i fin ludur, fa skal Malpriant k. bregda vid og 
stefna sinu lidi heim til borgarinnar. Balant kongur 
mun vilja ykkur motstodu veita, enn fii Fastinus skalt 

65 f vi hamla ad ban kuni borgina aptur ad lata, edur blidum 
Isesa, far til finn brodur ke'mur med sinn her, og munud 
fid fa fa hefnt ykkar a f essum kongi. Kongarnir sogdu 
fetta allgott rad, og sogdu hann skildi fessa sina trigd 
med seerum festa; enn ban sor hdr traustan eid uppa. 

70 Foru J?eir nil ollum ]?eim radum fram er Vallanus hafdi 
gefid, og tokst J>eim J>etta alt med bans radum, og sem 
Balant kongur J>einkti gledilega veitslu ad gjora jarlinum 
magje sinum, vard lir heni hinn mesti ofagnadur og 
mannfall hid mesta, kom ollum fetta ovart, vard far 

75 mikid mannfall i borginni. Balant kongur og kappar 
bans vordust med vopnum sinum fad besta f eir kunnu, 
enn af fvi eingin brinja huldi likami .feirra, barust sar 
a fa. Vilhjalmur brautst fram hid frsekilegasta, og drap 
lid se*r til beggja handa, so hann hrakti fa ad borgar- 

80 hlidunum til baka ; enn er f etta sa Malpriant kongur, snist 
hann ad Vilhjalmi, hljop hann fa ad kongi og greiddi 
honum hogg mikid med Sverdinu yfir f verar herdarnar so 
i sundur tok brinjuna, fjell kongur af fessu mikla hoggi 

flatur til jardar, en fekk fo ekkert sar, olli fvi hid 
60 



let the main army follow King Malpriant and keep be- 
tween the mountain-passes in a certain narrow dale 
which is there, and abide there. And as soon as thou 
art come within the city, thou shalt cause the war-blast 
to be blown three times, and then King Malpriant shall 
bestir himself at once and march home with his army 
to the city. King Balant will make a stand, but thou, 
Faustinus, shalt hinder him from shutting the city and 
locking the gates till thy brother come with all his 
host, and then shall ye be able to wreak vengeance on 
the king." The kings said 'twas excellent counsel, and 
ordered him to pledge his faith in the matter by oaths ; 
and he swore a mighty oath thereon. Now they acted 
withal on the counsel Vallanus had given, and things 
befell even as he had counselled, and when King Balant 
weened he was to give a joyful banquet to the earl his 
father-in-law, it turned out a sorry welcome, and the loss 
of human life was great in the city, since this befell all 
men unawares. King Balant and his champions defended 
themselves with their weapons as best they might, but as 
their bodies were not covered with burnies, many a wound 
fell on them thick and fast. Vilhjalmur rushed forward 
most dauntlessly, and slew the host on either side, so that 
he drove them back to the gates of the city. Now 
when King Malpriant saw this, he turned to Vilhjalmur, 
who rushed at the king and dealt him a great blow 
with his sword athwart the shoulder, so that the burnie 
was cut through, and the king fell by the mighty 

stroke flat to earth, yet without being wounded, because 

61 



CH. XI. f ikkva dirsledur sem kongur bar undir klsedunum. 

~~88 Fjoldi af heidingjum voru nserstaddir, toku kongin ilia 

fseran og settu ban uppi sinn Sodul. Enn Wilhjalmur 

sa nil menn sins kongs allfaa, enn Balant kong og Dixin 

sa hann hvorgi; i fvi kom Didrik til bans, spurdi 

90 Vilhjalmr ban ad Balant kongi, enn hann sagdi hann 

fangin vera. Sagdi Vilhjalmur honum fa, hvornin hann 

hefdi Malpriant k. af hesti komid. Kom fa Karl til 

f eirra ; kom ])eim f & ollum saman ad flya og forda lifinu, 

og so gjordu J)eir, ad J?eir brutust frani alt ad Borgar 

95 hlidum og drapu otal mana, komust so med stserstu 

J>rautum i borgina um sidir, J?eir attu ad borgum og lands 

bigdum ad gja3ta, far konur J>eirra og born voru inni, 

fora feir fangad, var og Dixin i sina atthaga kominn, 

l^ttu nu kongarnir orustu, enn Balant kongur var fdngiri, 

100 og gdfu feim ollum grid sem eptir lifdu utann Sonum 
Balants kongs sem a barnsaldri voru J>a drd,pu feir, voru 
feir 3 ; Drottning kongs sprakk af harmi fvi htin vard ad 
sja uppa dauda barna sinna. Kongarnir settu Vallanus 
yfir Land og borgir, enn foru sjalfir heim til sinna landa 

105 med storri Sigurhrosan, og fluttu Balant kong med se*r i 
Spanja fangin, og frjatiu af bans monnum med honum 
J?eir toku og dottir Jarls med ser J)^ sem oge*nnn var, og 
mikid af voldum Fjdrhlutum. 

12 Capitulu 

EGAR Kongarnir komu nu heim i Spania, J>d 
bad Fdstinus brodur sinn Malpriant kong ad 
feir msettu drekka far briidkaup bans, fvi hann 

vildi taka ser til Drottningar dottur Calitors jarls ; 
62 



of a thick deerskin which the king wore beneath his 
kirtle. A multitude of heathens standing near took the 
disabled king and set him in the saddle. Vilhjalmur 
saw now right few men of the king's host, and as for 
King Balant himself and Dixin, he espied them nowhere. 
But anon Dixin came up to him, and asked him after 
King Balant ; he said the king was now a prisoner, and 
told him how he had brought King Malpriant from off 
his horse. Soon after Karl came up to them, and they 
were all agreed to save their lives by flight, and they did 
so, by rushing forward all the way to the city-gates, and 
they slew a countless number of men. At length after 
greatest perils they got into the city, and they proceeded 
then to guard the citadels and road-side homesteads 
wherein their wives and children abode; thither they 
went and Dixin got back to his home. Now the kings 
stinted their combat, seeing that King Balant was their 
prisoner, and they gave quarter to all those left alive, 
save to the sons of King Balant who were still in child- 
hood ; they were three in number, and they slew them 
all. The queen burst for very grief, having to witness 
with her own eyes her children's death. The kings made 
Vilhjalmur their seneschal of the country and cities there, 
and went home to their own lands in mighty triumph, 
and they took King Balant with them as their prisoner 
into Spain, and thirty of his men beside, and the earl's 
unwedded daughter, and much choice treasure. 



Chapter 

iow whenas the kings were come to their home in 
Spain, Faustinus asked King Malpriant that they 
might drink his bridal there, for he was minded to take 
the daughter of Earl Calitor unto himself as his queen. 

63 



H. XII. ])essu jdtar Mdlpriant kongur blidlega, og bjo til hina 

6 seemilegustu veitslu, og baud ollum hofdingjum sins Eikis 
)>ar til. Mdlpriant kongur atti eina dgjseta dottur er Fyris 
hdt, hun var ad aldri 15 ra, og nam iprottir og 
qyennlegar listir, var hun fremri ollum meyum i Spanja, 

10 eingin fannst henni fridari, somasamari, sidferdisbetri ne 
vitrari, kongur unni dottur sinni mikid, hun sat ad 
veitslunni med sinum fjonustu meyum. Kong Balant 
hofdu }?eir brsedur sett i mirkva stofu d/samt hans Sveinum, 
er ]>eir komu i Spanja, sat hann )>ar i jarnvidjum og 

15 fjotrum. Fyris kongs dottir spurdi Fodur sinn ad hvar 
Balant kongur vseri ? enn hann svaradi henni svo : eingu 
skiptir J>ig ]md. J>^ meelti Jomfriiin : fess bid eg }>ig, 
Fadir elskulegur! Ld,t J>u Balant kong niota fagnadardags 
med oss so hann sitje her i holl J>inni, og so eg sjai hann. 

20 Kongur mselti : neer veitsla J>essi er afstadin, dottir ! }>& 
skal J)^r J>ad veitast hun qvad ]?ad ofseint vera og maelti : 
higg ad ])vi Fadir min ! hve volt hamingjann er, so sem 
J>ii matt nu sjd, og sanna d, Balant kongi, ad honum J?enti 
stor lukka fyrir ske'nistu, J>ar med manvirding og mikil 

25 frsegd, enn nu situr han i mirkvastofu hriggur og vessell, 
og kann ykkur sidan lika hid sama ad henda J>6tt nu 
se stor ydar gledi og lukka allmikil, J>a" kann J>essi 
ydar velgeingni i skjota Sorg ad um smiast ; kongur 
bistist vid ord hennar, enn hun lagdi bddar hendur 

30 um hals honum og bad hann veita ser J>a been. J>d, 
dignadi ge"d kongs, og baud ad ssekja Balant kong og 
menn hans, var so gjort. Var ]>& Balant kongur 
leiddur i hollina og men hans, og fjotur af J>eim 

leist. Malpriant kongur mselti : kosti vil eg gefa J>er til 
64 



Kfng Malpriant assented blithely, and let purvey for a 
great feast, and he bade thereto the chieftains of his 
realm. Now King Malpriant had a goodly daughter 
hight Fyris ; she was at this time fifteen years of age, 
apt in all the grace and lore of womankind, and she far 
excelled all other maidens in the land of Spain. There 
was not to be found a damsel fairer, worshipfuller, more 
modest, nor wiser than she, and the king loved his 
daughter much. She sat there at the feast, her maidens 
with her. But as for King Balant, when King Malpriant 
and his brother had come to Spain, they placed him in a 
dark dungeon, together with his men, and there he sat 
in iron chains and fetters. Fyris asked her father where 
King Balant was. He answered, "It concerns thee in 
nowise." "Yet," said the maiden, "I beg thee, dear 
father, let King Balant share with us this day of joy, and 
let him sit here in this hall that I may see him." Said 
the king, "When the feast is at an end, my daughter, 
thy wish shall be conceded." " 'Twill then perchance 
be all too late," answered the maiden. "Bethink thee, 
father, of the fickleness of fortune which thou mayest 
see and learn e'en from King Balant's fate. Fair fortune 
was his vassal but awhile agone, and therewithal worship 
among men and great renown, but now he sits within a 
dungeon, sad and bereft ; and a like fate may sithence be 
thine ; tho' now thy cheer be goodly and thy lot so fair, thy 
bliss may quickly turn to grief." The king frowned then 
at the maiden's words, but she put her arms around his 
neck and begged him to grant her prayer ; and the king's 
mood softened, and he bade them fetch King Balant and 
his men, and so 'twas done. King Balant was then led 
into the hall, his men along with him, and their fetters 
were loosed. " On these terms," said King Malpriant, 



CH XII ^ s l ausnar > g vilier fu lofa fvi og med eidi stadfesta 

36 J)ina lofun : ad vera vorri herralegri magt undirge'fin alia 
fina lifdaga, og gjalda oss d-rlega Skatt af finum londum 
og eignum, fd, vil eg fdr lif og lausn gdfa. Kongur vard 
miog hriggur vid fetta, enn lofadi J>6 fessu ; I6t fa Mal- 

40 priant mykja sar bans med kostulegum Smyrslum, klseda 
konglegum sknida, og leida i hid osedra ondvegi. Balant 
kongur var mikid fridari alytum enn allir hinir. leid svo 
dagurinn var fa Balant kongur leiddur til Seengur og 
menn bans med honum, hofdu J>eir allir eitt Herbergi, og 

45 sem menn allir voru i svefni, gdkk Fyris kongs dottir i J>ad 
herbergi sem Bd,lant kongur var, og sem bun kom in fang- 
ad, gjordi bun kong advaran, og dttu ]?aug samtal i 
miklu kjserleika um nottina. Hiin mselti til kongs : Jmnn 
kost seigi eg J>dr vel soma, ad J)ii bidjer min J)^r til eigin 

50 ords af Fodr minum. Kongur mselti : J>ad er mikil lifs 
hsetta firir mig. Jomfruin mselti : Eg mun rad til sjd, ad 
Jjer skal fad einginn heetta. Alt tekst sem audid skal 
verda, seigir kongur, og gladdist her vid storlega. Bundu 
J>aug nu fenna sinn triinad fastmeelum, og skildu ad so 

55 meeltu med kjserleika. Dagin eptir geingu menn undir 
bord, og settust kongar i Seeti sin; Fyris kongs dottir 
kom i Hollina og fognudu benni allir vel. Balant kongur 
vard furdu hyrleitur, og hafdi kongs dottir jafnan augu sin 
d bonum ; fetta sa Fadir hennar og ssetti hann fad mjog 

eo litt, toku menn ad gjorast gladir af drykkju. Balant 
kongur drakk miog litid. Hann meelti fd til Mdlpriants 
kongs : Hvorsu tekur kongur ordum minum f eim eg vil nu 

frambera firir ydur, sem er : Eg vil bidja dottur ydar 
66 



" I would grant thee life and liberty, if them assent 
thereto and fortify thy promise with an oath, to wit, 
that thou be subject to our lordship all thy lifedays, and 
pay us yearly tribute from thy lands and wealth; on 
these terms I grant thee life and liberty." At this the 
king grew heavy, but withal he promised. Malpriant 
bade his men then salve his wounds with choicest 
unguents, and he had him dight in royal array and led 
to the seat of lesser dignity, the high seat opposite the 
king's, and King Balant was by far a goodlier man to look 
on than all others there, and so the day went by. King 
Balant was led then to his couch, his men with him, and 
they were altogether in one chamber. Now when all 
men were fast in sleep, Fyris the king's daughter fared 
to the chamber where King Balant lay, and when she 
was come therein, she made the king ware of her 
presence, and they conversed in great love through all 
the livelong night. Said she to the king, " 'Twere best, 
methinks, to ask my father for my hand." " 'Twere 
great peril of my life," said the king. "I shall find 
rede," said the maiden, " that it shall peril thee nought." 
" Things fated fare forward," said the king, and he was 
much gladdened ; and they bound their secret troth by 
mutual pledges, and parted in great love. On the morrow 
the men ranged themselves about the board, and the kings 
sat on their seats, and Princess Fyris too came to the hall, 
and all men gave her goodly greeting. King Balant was 
wondrous blithe of cheer, and the king's daughter rested 
her gaze on him throughout; her father espied it; it 
pleased him little. Men grew merry then with drink, but 
King Balant drank little, and anon he spake thus to King 
Malpriant : "How will the king receive the thing I will 
now disclose ? yea, I ask of thee thy daughter for my wife, 

67 



Cn. xii. til eiginn ords, svo mm Herleiding fdi nokkra bot, mdske' 

65 ekki minki vid J>ad fremd ydar og frsegd. Mdlpriant 
kongur brdst vid afar reidur, og baud monnum slnum ad 
taka Bdlant k. og heingja hann firir ofdyrfd sina. )>egar 
F^ris k6ngs ddttir heirdi J>etta, bliknadi hennar yfirlitur, 
ge*kk bun fyrir Fodur sinn og mselti : minnstu, Fadir ! d 

70 )>ad sem eg firri sagdi J>dr um valta Lukku heims pessa, 
ei kann )>ig sidur ogjsefan henda en pennan storfrsega k6ng, 
Jjvi J>ad veitstu sjalfur, ad meiri frsegdarmadur er Balant 
k6ngur enn Jje'r erud, J>vi med Sviku einum er hann af 
ykkur Brsedrum yfirunnin, og med J>essum hsetti neitar 

75 })d tign J>inni og hamingju, J>vi ad bans teingdum er Eiki 
]>mu mikil upphefd, ef ])id med kjserleika haldid ydar dst, 
munid ])id st6ran sigur hafa, og lond og riki jafnan unnid 
gdta. Allir hofdingjar er par sa"tu, qvd,du J>etta alt satt 
vera, sem J6mfminn hafdi sagt. Malpr. k6ngur J>agdi 

80 leingi, en um sidir maelti hann : med J>eim heetti. jdta eg 
J>er D6ttur mina ad J>u takir trii hennar, en kastir Jnnni, 
og vora trii leidir J>ii allt f61k i landi finu enn J>6 peinkti 
eg })ig til annarar litfarar lir landi J>inu enn i fadm dottur 
minnar. Bdlant k6ngur meelti : ovisir eru veigir bins 

85 audnusama, enn allskostar mun eg til J>ess vinna, sem 
m6i berst 1 beetur, mina trii skal eg afleggja og minum 
monnum til J>ess halda, s6r ban nii sterkan eid uppd, 
J>etta, }>a gladdist Mdlpriant k6ngur, st6d upp og lagdi 
sina bond i bond Balants kongs, og festi honum dottur 

90 sina, og Idt nii auka veitsluna med vistum og fjolmeni, 
68 



that my captivity may find some recompense, and, per- 
adventure, thy fame and worship will not thereby be 
lessened." King Malpriant waxed exceeding wroth, and 
bade his men seize King Balant and hang him for his 
overweening pride. The Princess Fyris when she heard 
all this grew pale of face, and she went to her father, and 
said to him : " Remember, father, the words I spake to 
thee erewhile of the fickleness of this world's fortune ; 
evil may no less cross thy path than that of this most 
famous king ; as thou thyself best knowest, King Balant 
is a man of greater fame than thou, and by mere treachery 
has he been vanquished by thee and by thy brother, and 
by this deed thou must needs lose thy glory and thy 
fortune ; but an he be thy son-in-law, thy power would 
be mightier, and if thou keepest faithful friendship with 
him, glorious triumphs will be thine, and thou wilt ever 
win victory o'er foreign realms." The nobles present said 
the maiden spake aright. King Malpriant was long time 
silent, but at last he spake : " On this term will I give to 
thee my daughter, that thou take her faith, and cast away 
thine own, and turn too to our faith the folk of all thy 
land; certes I deemed thy exit from thy realm should 
biing thee elsewhere than to the bosom of my daughter." 
King Balant said: "Little he heeds whom fortune 
speeds," but at all hazards I would gain that which shall 
better my plight; I cast away my faith, and shall 
urge my men to do the like," and he swore a mighty 
oath thereon. Then King Malpriant was full glad, and 
he stood up and laid his hand in the hand of King 
Balant, and plighted him to his daughter, and now he had 

the feast renewed with goodlier cheer, with rich supplies, 

69 



CH XII var nu drukkid briidkaup beggja k6nganna med mestu 

vid hofn og veraldar prjali; ])ar allnser st6d goda hof 

Mdlpriants k6ngs, J>d,ngad geingu k6ngarnir daglega med 
st6rum ftfrnfaeringum og baenagjordum, Balant k6ngur 

95 filgde ])eim til goda Hiissins ad votta sinn dtrunad, og sem 
hann kom firir Jmug, fiell hann fram fyrir J>aug og s6r )>eim 
dtrunad med Jmkkleetis f6rn og beenagjordum, og til sannrar 
Jmkkargjordar kysti hann d J>eirra hendur og fsetur, en er 
Mdlpriant sa audmykt Bdlants k6ngs, gdkk hann til bans 

100 og mynntist vid han af st6rum kjserleika, og sagdi hann 
skildi sjalfur Londum, Skottum og ])egnum sinum rdda, 
v6ru brudkaupin endud med st6rum fiegjofum af k6ngun- 
tim og J>eirra rddaneiti ; f6ru nii allir heimleidis. Fyris 
k6ngs dottir f6r mz k6ngi sinum heim i Hispanja, og filgdu 

105 ])eim enir tignustu menn ur landinu, sem J)eim v6ru til }>j6n- 
ustu gdfnir med miklum audeefum ; enn sem Balant kdmur 
heim, verda lands menn gladir, en sem J>eir vissu hann 
frd, kristinni tru geinginn, abladi J>eim J>ad stdrrar hriggd- 
ar, ])vi hann kugadi men til heidni med pislum og 

no dauda, og l^tu margir lif sitt firri en kristni, enn fioldi 
manna neitadi kristinni Tru ; kongur le't brenna allar 
baekur heilagrar skriftar, og bri6ta myndir Drottins ur 
kyrkjum og helgum husum, enn setti ]?ar aptur mynder 
Mah6mets og hans kenningu ; enn J>eir fjdrir kappar sem 

115 firr umge'tur fliidu med ollum sinum J>dnurum og teingda 
monnum til Frakklands undafi ofridi og ilium dtriinadi 

Bdlants kongs, og gjordust far lendir menn til daudadags 

70 



and with multitudes of men, and the bridales of both 
kings were drank with greatest circumstance and with 
all pomp. Close anigh stood the temple of King Mal- 
priant, and the kings went thither daily with rich offer- 
ings and with prayer. With them went now King Balant 
to the house of their gods to testify his faith, and when 
he came afore the gods he fell before them prostrate and 
avowed his faith, and offered thank-offerings and prayer, 
and in unfeigned thankfulness he kissed their hands and 
feet ; and when King Malpriant beheld King Balant's 
humbleness, he came to him and kissed him with great 
love, and said he should himself rule all his lands, his 
tribute, and his subjects. And these bridales ended with 
great gifts from the kings and from their counsellors, and 
all folk went then to their homes. Fyris, the king's 
daughter, fared with her king to his home in Hispania, 
and the highest lords of the land went with them, to wit, 
those given them for service, and they had, too, much 
wealth. Now when King Balant reached his home his 
folk were right glad, but when they learnt that he had 
turned from Christianity great misery fell on them, for he 
cowed them into heathendom with torture and with death ; 
and many liefer left their life than cast away their faith, but 
a many men forsook their Christianity. The king let burn 
all books of holy writ, and let break the images of the 
Lord in churches and in holy houses, and placed therein 
images of Mahomed and books of his teaching. The four 
warriors afore-named fled with their servants and their kin 
to Frankland away from King Balant's hate and treachery, 
and they lived as barons there unto their death-day. 



CH.XIII. Vallanus og Balant seettust ad forlagi Malpriants kongs 
og ]>eirra brsedra, k6ngur fekk honum eignir sinar aptur, 
120 Vallanus let kristni, og stirdi Kiki Calitors jarls, pvi ban 
atti d6ttur Jarls ; og var heidni i Hispanja alt til daga 
Karls bins mikla er firstur vard keisari fyrir nordan 
Grikklands haf. 

13 Capituii. 

D endudum pessum briidkaupum hieldt Fastinus heim 
med drottningu sina i Cimbria og settist ad Kikimi ; 
Ceta he't Drottning bans og var bun stird i samforum 
peirra um langa tima, pvi bun hafdi naudug verid, kon- 

5 gungur unni henni vel, og let flest ad vilja hennar, sefadi 
pad ge'd Drottningar mikid, sem og pad ad bun umge'kkst 
med kristnum monnum; samfarir peirra hj6na vom 
adgjordalausar ]>vi J>aug attu eingin born Iandstj6rn g^kk 
med storum obsegdum enn aungvum vsegdum, Gamaliel 

10 still ti J>ad hann kunni, og mselti monnum bjargvsetti, ei 
sist Amba Drottningu og Syni hennar. Vikur nu pangad 
Sogunni sem Ambales 61st upp med hyrd Fastinusar, 
ollum monnum 61ikur ad hegdan, ban sindist og hinn 
liotasti ad limaburdum lit og lundarfari, ban hafdi jafnan 

15 vist og dvol i eldaskala, og mettadist af rettum )>eim er par 
gjordust, og haetti ei firri enn fullur var, J>6kti pa flestum 
i skarda, enn ef pj6nustu konur rettana vildu par nokkud 
mdtmsela, jos hann eldi og beitu sodi a pser, og pad le't 
hann jafnan framfara par til hann var mettur ordin, andlit 

20 bans var og bofnd fullt opekktar, Saurinda og annara 

72 



Vallanus and King Balant made peace together at the 
instance of King Malpriant and of his brother, and the 
king gave hack to him his own, and Vallanus cast away 
the Christian faith and ruled the realm of Calitor, for he 
was wedded to the daughter of the earl, and heathendom 
obtained in Spain all along unto the days of Charles the 
Great, the first emperor north of the sea of Greece. 



XffiL 

HEN these bridales were over, Faustinus went with 
his queen to his home in Cimbria, and settled 
there within his realm. His queen bight Ceta ; she was 
longtime hard in her manner towards him, for she had 
wedded him maugre her will, but the king loved her 
well, and did much to please her, and so softened her 
mood, and moreover, she had converse with Christian 
men. Their wedded life was fruitless ; they had no 
child. The land was governed with great rigour, and 
no mercy was shown. Gamaliel sought to quiet things 
as best he might, and pleaded for the lives of men, but 
first for the life of Amba and her son. And now the saga 
turns to Ambales, who grew up in the court of Faustinus 
unlike to all men in his conduct ; he seemed the ugliest 
in gait and look and temper. He kept mostwhile in the 
kitchen-stead, and fed on whatsoever was there, and he 
stayed there till he was glutted, and folk deemed he 
made a huge hole in the dish he tasted ; but when the 
maids said aught to him, he bespattered them with fire and 
with hot swill, and stinted not till he was sated. His face 
and head were most uncanny, what with dirt and filth ; 

73 



CH. XIII. ohreininda, en ef nokkur vildi bans rdd rsekja og )>vo 
bans andlit og klsedi, J)d, kvoladi hann J>ad jafnskjott med 
Skarni og opekkt, mselti honum nokkur godyrdi, fan ord- 
skdmdi ban J>ar a* mot, enn J>eim sem honum hatur mselti, 

25 sindi hann blidlindi, allfrekt; aldrei fdkkst hann vid 
vinnustorf, nema taiga langar spitur, og bra* oddum )>eirra 
i eldsloga, eingin ])6ktist kunna i huga sinn ad festa til 
hvors peer mundu J)6na ; barna husa bigging var J>ar vid 
eldaskdlan sem borgar manna born attu, ]?ar med var 

so hreisishola afskrsemileg sem Ambales a^tti, i hana l^t 
hann Spitur sinar, og bjarghurdadi fyrir framan. A 
vinnumanna i J>rottir horfdi hann akaflega, enn eingu 
ordi skipti hann ef nokkud tokst ilia, meiddi sig nokkur 
)>a* hlo ban af sedi, enn fseri vel, I6t hann sig stiggan 

35 sja ; J ollum hlutum sindist hann fiflum likur, enn ad 
vexti og abli var hann umfram alia sem i borginni vdru, 
lidu nil timar par til hann taldist 12 a*ra gamall, hann 
var i blaum kubli daglega, med ledur belti um sig, med 
hatt eptir Hofdi Skaptan, sem klaedasnid var J>ar i landi. 

40 Amba Drottning J>oldi stora ofraun af syni sinum, og 
hriggdist miog J)ar af, enn Greifi Gamaljel fdkk henni 
jafnann fognud og syni hennar audsyndann, Eitt sinn 
var ]>ad ad Fa"stinus kongur gjordi gdsta bod mikid med 
storum kostnadi, og baud land sins hofdingium J>ar til, 

45 pokti ollum sa vsensti kostur ad J>iggja bod kongs, og J>a 
veitslan stod i besta bloma, baud kongur ad Ambales skildi 

og pdngad koma, og voru Sveinar kongs sendir eptir honum 
74 



and if a man strove to mend his ways and washed his face 
and clothes, forthwith he befouled them anew with dirt 
and filth. If one spake kindly to him he spake evil in 
return, but to a man that showed him hate he was passing 
kind. He plied no other work than the wittling of long 
wooden spits, and he stuck them with their points into 
the glowing fire, and none could tell for what these spits 
were destined. Anigh to the kitchen-stead there was a 
children's playhouse for the children of the townsmen, 
and beside it was a wretched hovel belonging unto Am- 
bales, and therein he kept his sticks, and he closed it 
with a huge stone. He cared greatly for the servants' 
sports ; he said nought when things went amiss ; if one 
hurt himself he laughed right madly, but when things 
fared well he showed himself full wroth. He seemed 
withal most like unto fools, yet as to growth and thews 
he excelled all others of the town ; and so time passed 
till he was twelve years old. He was wont to dress in a 
blue cloak, with a leathern girdle round his waist, and a 
hat fitted to his head, as was the guise then in the land. 
Queen Amba was greatly troubled for her son, and she 
grieved mightily for him, but through Gamaliel kind- 
ness was always shown to her and to her son. Once 
on a time King Faustirms made a goodly feast at 
greatest cost, and bade thereto the chieftains of his 
realm, and all men deemed it a right welcome thing 
to be bidden of the king. Now when the feast was at 
its height, the king bade that Ambales should come 
thither, and servants of the king were sent for him. 

75 



CH. XIII. peir sdu hvar pikkur madur og Herdabreidur sat vid 
eldinn a St61i og var ad matast, enn konur voru honum 

50 mjog motsniinar, og vildu ei Idta skema matgjordina, 
jos hann eldi og sodi peer, septu pser pa hastofum og 
lomdu hann, matti p heira hrinur Skoll og Skreeki; 
pokti sendimonnum gaman ad vidskiptum peirra, og 
horfdu dkaflega a hann, og p6kti peim hann stormannlega 

55 matast, so ei mundi hans lika meiga finna. J>eir sogdu 
honum med hastyrdum ad hann eetti ad ganga til kongs 
hallar ; hann bls vid og setti raudan, stod upp og hljop 
undan J?eim og st^ fast til jardar so dundi undir, kom han 
ad hallardyrunum og gekk inn, rauk J>d aska og 6J>efur af 

60 honum, og pokti flestum odaun mikill filgja honum ; 
eingvum heilsadi hann ; hann skimadi vida um bekki, 
og sd, Greifa Gamaliel sitja i Hdsseti, )?a*ngad hli6p hann 
skindilega og S16 Greifann mikid hogg, og J>6kti pad 
flestum svivyrdilega gjort sinum velgjorda manni. Am- 

65 bales tok ad lata ollum olatum, og hlo f61k ad honum. 
Addomolus maelti vid kong : grei J>etta er fullt flserdar og 
falskleika, og hylur heipt sina med limskunni, J?ad fseri 
betur ad )>u kongur letir sem Skjotast drepa hann, annars 
stundar hann per dauda. Ambales heirdi hvad hann, 

Vo sagdi, hliop ad honum med fagnadar Mtum sem pa barn 
fagnar modur sinni, og tok ad leika d als oddi fyrir honum, 
hann svipti brokum og brolti berleeradur um g61fid, og 
hristi ping sin med miklum yndis proska ad konum er par 

satu veitslu, so peim p6kti mikid um pad gaman. Skemtun 
76 



They saw where a big and broad-shouldered fellow sat 
by the fire on a chair and eat, and the kitchen-wenches 
were at quarrel with him, for they would not have him 
spoil their dishes, and he was pelting them with fire and 
swill, and they screamed aloud and made for him, and 
cries and howls and shrieks might then be heard. To 
the messengers their dealings seemed good sport, and 
they watched him closely, and deemed he fed for all the 
world like to an alderman, so that his like could not be 
found for gluttony. They told him in commanding voice 
to make for the king's hall. He growled thereat and his 
face grew red, and he stood up and sprung before them, 
and stepped hard upon the earth so that it trembled. 
He came to the door of the hall and went in, and ashes 
and filth reeked off him, and men deemed a most foul 
stench came with him. He greeted no one, but glared 
about the benches, and when he saw the Count Gamaliel 
on a high seat there, he sprang thither swiftly and struck 
him a great blow, and people judged that in this he had 
ill repaid his kindly friend. Ambales began then to 
disport himself in foolish fashion, and folk laughed much 
at him. Addomolus said to the king: ''The cur is 
full of guile and falsehood, and hides his anger under 
wiliness ; 'twere best for thee to have him slain with all 
dispatch, ere he compass thy death." Ambales heard 
what he said, and ran up to him with all blitheness, 
even as when a child cheers up unto his mother, and 
he pranked right merrily before him, and he doffed 

his hose, and barelegged gambolled upon the floor. 

77 



CH XIII. gjordist mikil af fessu i kongs hollinni, margir hlou ad 

76 hanns latum, enn hann geingdi aungvu ordi nokkurs 

mans. K6ngur talar til bans og seigir : viltu med 

nokkrum Ssemdum vera, n6 gjseta ad hvad fer sjalfum 

s6mir? nii mun eg drekka fer til, en fu munt adrykkj- 

80 unni halda, og so gjordi kongur, Skeinkjararnir Idtu 
eirn kosta drikk eitt mikid Staup, og bdru k6ngi, ban 
t6k vid, og baud Ambales vid ad taka, Ambales t6k vid 
an allrar vyrdingar vid k6ng, og drakk halfan Sk^rf 
Staupsins, gdkk so ad Add6molus med storri kurte^si 

85 og vyrding, re'ttandi Staupid ad honum. Addoni61us 
^gldi briin vid, enn tok J>6 vid Staupinu, Spurdi k6ng 
hvort ban drekka skildi, k6ngur qvad svo vera meiga. 
Drakk bann af Staupinu og rdtti aptur ad Ambales, tok 
bann vid J>vi kurteislega, hielt a fvi og mselti : )>ess 

90 gdldur nu kongurin ad her er ekki i minu valdi fad eg 
vildi og vid J>arf, pvi efnalaus orkar ei neins J)6 vildi, 
mje hann nii staupid ad mestu fullt, setti J>ad so a bord 
firer k6nginn ; )>a vard kongur miog reidur, greip Sverd 
sitt, og reiddi J>ad til Ambalesar, enn bann hopadi ur 

9 5 bogg fserinu svo Sverdid nam bann ei, en oddurin kom i 
golfid, Ambales sveif jafnskjott ad kongi, freif eptir 
Sverdinu med hsegri hendi, og greip fad af kongi, heldt 
hann um odd Sverdsins, en hafdi Hjoltin frama, }> J)6kt- 
ist konungur i daudans hsettu vera, J>vi Ambales sn^ri 
io Sverdinu i hendi ser. Kongur heimti vopn og menn 
til sin ad drepa Ambales, enn Ambales rdtti fa Sverdid 
ad kongi, runnu J> tvser grimur kdng ad lifld-ta Am- 
bales eda ei, enn hyrdmenn sogdu kongi ena mestu smd/n 
78 



At this the folk there in the hall had great delight, and 
many laughed at his doings, but he paid no heed to the 
word of any man. The king spake to him and said : 
"Wilt thou not behave in seemly fashion and remember 
what becomes thee ? I will drink to thee now, and thou 
shalt drink to me." The king did so : the cup-bearers 
poured out a costly drink into a large goblet and bore 
it to the king, who took it, and bade Ambales to take 
it of him. Ambales did so, but paid no courtesy unto 
the king, and drank to half the goblet, and went then to 
Addomolus, and with all courtesy and reverence reached 
him the cup. Addomolus frowned thereat, but yet he 
took the cup and asked the king if he should drink. 
The king replied that he might do so. And he drank 
of the cup and gave it back to Ambales, who took it 
in his hand with all due courtesy, and held it up and 
said : " The king may be thankful that there is not in 
my power that which I wish and he doth merit ; without 
the means a man can do nought though he would." He 
spat then in the cup and placed it on the board afore the 
king. The king grew mightily wroth, and seized his 
sword, and raised it at Ambales, but he sprang away, 
out of the reach of the blow, so that the sword touched 
him not, but stuck in the floor. Ambales swung him 
anon toward the king, seized the sword with his right 
hand, pulled it from the king, and holding it by the 
point he reached him the hilt ; but soon enough the 
king deemed he was in jeopardy of death, for Ambales 
turned the sword. The king called then for weapons, 
and bade men come and put Ambales to death, and then 
Ambales gave back the sword unto the king, and the 
king doubted whether Ambales was to be slain or not ; but 
the courtiers said unto the king, 'twere greatest shame 

79 



CH.XIII. Ambales ad drepa, qva"du 1 bans valdi verid hafa, baedi 

105 koniinginn og marga adra ad drepa, far hann nddi svo 
bans noktu Sverdi, og msetti ])ad sannlega seigja, ad 
Ambales befdi kongi og bans monnum lif gefid. Kongur 
slidradi fa Sverdid, en alt fangad til hafdi Amales stadid 
i boggfaeri kyrr og mjog blidlegur, enn fegar ban sa kong 

no Slidra Sverdid, hliodnadi hann allmikid. p Spurdi 
komingur hann : hvar tdk fig Sarast er f u sast Fodur 
f inn deia 1 Enn Ambales hlo f mjog ddtt og svarar : rett 
i rassinn ; ad fessu blou men mikid, og var allstor gledi 
i Hollinni ; men sogdu fvilikar athafnir og framferdi 

,115 Ambalesar fiflalegt vera, med ord og verk, enn krist- 
nir menu briggdust mjog, ]?eir satu allir i eirnri rod 
saman, til feirra feerdi Ambales leikin og for a Setur 
sinar fyrir fotum feirra og gjordi Jmr sin farfindi. fd, 
lagdi olikt mikla um hollina so men hieldu firir vit sin, 

120 magnadi fetta kjsetina i Hyrd kongs, enn margur bad 
bonum dauda, sogdu fd, sumir hann lifa msetti monnum 
til Ske'mtunar, og vid fetta gdkk Ambales ur Hollinni til 
Elda Skala. 

14 Capituli. 

>u sem Amlodi kom i elda-skd-la, var modir bans far 
kominn, og Drottning kongs, og femur hennar 
sa"tu vid eldsgleedur d, Stolum, enn katlar voru ei ad 
seidi, greip Ambal. upp modur sina med stolnum og 
; 5 setti hana d, katla hlodir, so svidna toku kleedi hennar, 
hliop C6ta Drottning fa ad med femur sinar, fryfu 
upp Ambu Drottningu og bdru til dyra, en Stollin 

brann allur, skundudu f aer nu med felmtri miklum 
80 



to put Ambales to death, since he had had it in his power 
to slay the king and many others too, for he had had in 
his grip the naked sword, and it might be said with 
truth that Ambales had spared the king's life and his 
men's. The king then sheathed his sword; till then 
Ambales had stood in reach of it, quiet and of friendly 
aspect, but when he saw Faustinus sheathe his sword, he 
grew full sullen. The king said to him : " Where didst 
thou feel sorest when thou sawest thy father die ? " Am- 
bales laughed heartily and answered : " In the buttocks." 
At this the folk laughed merrily, and there was great glee 
in the hall. Men said that in word and in deed Ambales 
was passing droll, but the Christians there were sore 
aggrieved ; they sat together all in a row, and thither 
Ambales now brought his play, and his sport before 
them was of the foulest, and thereat the merriment in 
the hall waxed mightily, though a many wished him 
dead. But men said he might as well live for the sport 
of men, and Ambales went from the hall into the kitchen- 
stead. 

Chapter 3BEU. 

ow when Amlode came in to the kitchen-stead he found 
his mother there, and Queen Ceta and her maids 
sat beside the gleeds on chairs, but the cauldrons were 
not then a-boiling, and Ambales seized aloft his mother 
on her chair and placed her on the cauldron-hearth, so 
that her clothes began to singe. Then Queen Ceta 
together with her maidens rushed thither and caught 
up Queen Amba, and bore her to the door, but all the 
stool was burnt. And now they rushed in great terror 

F 



CH. XIV. til Hallar k6ngs, og sogdu af verkum Ambalesar alt hvad 
"~~io gjorst hafdi, enn allar qvddu hann hid argasta Fifl vera, 
og alldrei mundi hann inannvitsku nd eda neinum mentum, 
og ekki J>yrfti neirn hann ad 6ttast ad hefndum, kom fad 
f d ollum saman ad Idta hann lifa monnum til Skamdsegris. 
K<5ngur var strdngur mjog 1 yfirbodan, ei sist vid lata og 

is illgjordasama, setti han fd i frseldom, enn hina er ekke 
vildu neita sin, til fj6nustu, le't hann drepa. Eitt sinn 
maelti hann vid hyrd sina: )>ad fikir mier ad 6skilum 
fara, ad Ambles hefur hina bestu kosti og listir sem 
honum llkar, enn vinnur ])6 ekkert gagn far med, fvi 

20 vil eg Idta til reina hvort hann gdtur ei med Fjdrhyrdurum 
verid, hjardar vorrar ad gjseta. Enn Gamaliel og rddid 
seigir J>etta re^na msetti, var fa* Fjarhyrdurum skipad 
hann med sdr ad hafa til ferdar, feir geingu J>d ad Elda- 
skdlanum, og var Ambales ad taiga Spitur sinar med 

25 sama hsetti sem firr, feir spurdu til hvors J>8er duga 
skyldu ; enn han qvad : til Fodur hefnda og ekki til 
Fodurhefnda. peir kvoddu hann til ferdar med sdr, og 
s6gdu honum skipun k6ngs og vilja ; en hann stod upp 
skindilega og f6r med feirn ; so var mikil for d, gdngi 

so hans ad feir sdu ei eptir honum, enn 1 re'tta a"tt stefndi 
hann ad einu Fjalli far ed fjdrins var von, var f ^ lidid hid 
haersta dags er feir komu 1 Fjallid, var fd mikid heitt 
vedur med hsegum vindi, vatn eitt Id annarsvegar med 
Fjallinu, grunnlaust og mikid myrkt, far beid Ambales 

35 Forunauta sinna, og far fundu f eir hann, sveif hann 
fa ofann ad vatninu og lagdi sig nidr vid fad, setjandi 
Hlustir slnar vid fad d, bddar hlidar sem til einhvors 

hlustadi, sidann stod hann upp og sagdi til sina 
82 



to the king's hall, and told of Ambales' doings, all as it 
had befallen, and they all said he was the wretchedest 
fool, and would never come to the wit of man, or to any 
breeding, and no one need fear vengeance from him. 
And then all there agreed that he should live to be the 
sport of men. Now the king was most stern in his 
rule, and not the least so with lazy folk and evil-doers ; ' 
he made slaves of them for the most part, but those 
that would not bestir themselves he had slain. Once 
he spake with his courtiers and said : " It seemeth 
wrong that Ambales with skill and prowess to achieve 
whatso he lists yet doeth naught of any profit. Where- 
fore I would try whether he cannot stay with the 
herdsmen and guard the herds." Gamaliel and the 
other counsellors said it might well be tried. So the 
herdsmen were told to take him with them. They 
went to the kitchen-stead where Ambales was whittling 
at his spits, as was his wont, and they asked him of 
what use they were. "For father-revenge and not for 
father-revenge," he said. They bade him go with them, 
and told him the king's bidding and his pleasure. He 
rose swiftly, and went with them ; but such was the speed 
of his walking that they soon lost sight of him ; yet he 
took his course in the right direction toward a certain 
mountain where the herds were to be sought ; when they 
reached the mountain noonday was passed, and the weather 
was very hot, with a gentle breeze. There was a water 
on one side of the mountain, bottomless and very dark. 
Ambales awaited there his comrades, and there they found 
him. Swiftly then he went down to the water, and lay 
flat beside it, turning his ears now here now there, as he 
listened for something ; then he stood up and said to his 

83 



CH. xiv. F6runauta : vindur er komin i vatn, og vindur setlar ur 
~~40 vatni. Enn pessi ord he'ldu J>eir galinnskap, geingu 
sidan d Fjallid, voru ]?eir 6, enn hann s 7 undi enn sem 
])eir komu d, Fjollin, t6kust upp Sauda-leitirnar, fundu 
}>eir hnoppum saman nokkud af Fdnu, hliop )>a* Ambal. 
i gonur med skringilegum hli6dum og 61atum, elti hann 

45 og Stiggdi fed allavega ur J>ess atthogum, so ad fjdrhyrd- 
arar feingu aungvu vid J>ad ra^did, J>vi Ambales hli6p 
)>eim miklu hardara, so feir feingu ekki til bans sed n 
Saudanna, gjordist J>eim nil flit i Skapi, er J>eir leitudu 
Mngt yfir vana sinn og sdu J)6 hvorki fied nd sinn 

so Forunaut, hofdu J>eir J>^ Mngt gdingid yfir mdta til nordur- 
dttar, fundu }>eir J>d, Fdd alt ad heilli tolu med einni 
Fjallshlid, en Forunaut sinn Ambales sdu })eir ekki 
heldur, hamrar voru J?ar med hlidum nordur leingra, 
par sa"u J)eir Hellir vera mundi eigi litill, J?ar heirdu 

55 feir Skraf og hdreisti, gyrnti J>a ekki dvol ad eiga Idnga, 
og rdku hjordina heimd, vid med kappi miklu, sja" J)eir 
nu hvar madur geingur d Fjallinu, mikill vexti og hafdi 
Svedju mikla i hendi, kienna peir nu Forunaut sinn, og 
skundar ban undan )>eim heimleidis, litlu sldar sjd, J>eir 

60 1 8 menn hlaupa urn sarna veg, voru J>eir allir st6rir enn 
])6 tveir af peim staBrstir, stefndu J>eir beint ad byrdur- 
unum, petta v6ru Hellirsbuarnir, eirn af J>eim mselti 
med altyungu Skapi : Hvar er nu sd, er Sverdi minu 
stal? Hyrdarar seigja ad bans sd leingra ad leita 

65 enn J>ngad. J>d mselti Blamadurin : J>er skulud allir 
bans gjalda. Hellirsbuarnir bofdu tvenn vopn bvor 
um sig, Hyrdararnir h6fdu fd,ir Sverd, enn handboga 

hofdu )>eir ; Foringi feirra he't Batellus, hann skaut 
84 



comrades : " Into water wind has come, out of water wind 
will go ; " but these words they deemed were madness, and 
they went up to the mountain ; there were six of them, 
and he was the seventh ; and as they came up on the moun- 
tain, the gathering of the sheep began, and they found some 
of the sheep clustering together here and there. Then 
Ambales ran heedlessly about with weird screams and with 
wry looks, and he pursued and drove the sheep in all 
directions out of their haunts, so that the herdsmen could 
not muster them, for Ambales ran much faster than they 
could, and they might not see him or the sheep ; and they 
grew ill-tempered, being forced to search afar, much farther 
than was their wont, and yet they saw nor sheep nor their 
companion. They had gone far to the north, when they 
found their sheep, the number fully told, along a certain 
mountain-slope, but of their comrade Ambales they saw 
nothing. Along those slopes still further to the north 
there were steep rocks, and they thought they espied there 
a cave, by no means small. They heard, too, talk and loud 
bickering, but they had no wish to stay there long, and drove 
the herd homeward at their quickest. Suddenly they be- 
held a man walking along the mountain ; he was of large 
size, with a mighty knife in his hand ; they recognised their 
comrade ; he stalked along ahead of them homewards. 
Short while thereafter, they saw eighteen men running in 
the same direction, all of them huge, yet there were two 
tallest of all ; they made straight for the herdsmen ; they 
were the cave-dwellers. One of them asked them in a 
fierce temper: "Where is he who stole my sword?" 
They told him they would have to go farther than there to 
find him. " Ye shall all pay for him," said the cave-man. 
The cave-dwellers had each two sets of weapons, but few 
of the herdsmen had swords with them though they had 
their hand-bows : their leader hight Batellus ; of all men he 

85 



CH. XIV. manna best af boga, neitti hann nri listar sinnar, og 

70 skaut ad Hellirsbuunum vel og leingi, og so gjordu feir 
allir hvor sem meira matti inn til )>ess 12 le'tust af 
Stigamonum, var J>eim vid hssttu biiid er eptir lifdu, 
og i J>vf kom sa sem Sverdid hafdi tekid, og re'tti J?ad 
ad Stigamanninum enn hann bra ]>vf ad Ambales, hann 

75 brdst undan hogginu, hliop sfdann aptur ad Stigamann- 
inum greip hann i fdng sitt og bar hann um vollinn, 
kisti haft og klappadi honum mikillega, hafdi so d 
harda Skeidi med hann, og so fast he'lt hann honum ad 
han kunni ei um ad brjotast, en er han hafdi leingi med 

so hann um v611una hlaupid, bar hann hann heim ad Hellir- 
num aptur ; nu sem hinir Hellirsbiiarnir sdu J>etta, skaut 
feim skelk i bringu og kom sedra mikil i hug J>eirra, 
hlupu J>eir burtu frd hyrdurunum, sem ])d feingu fjor- 
lausn med }>essu, fiyttu nii Ferd sinni og Hjordinni. Enn 

85 er Ambales kom ad hellirsdyrunum, le't hann byrdi sina 
lausa ; dolgur s& sem han bar hdt Karon, hann var foringi 
Hellirsbuanna, en broder hans he't Actamund er nu kom 
aptur med feim er lifdu af Hellirsbuunum. Karon mselti 
)>a vid Ambales, abl og hreysti vantar J)ig ei, so ad eingin 

90 trui eg ])inn jafningi se, ]rvi er ])6i fad Skadi enn mdr Skomm 
J)ig ad deida, Jm hefur nil frisvar att ra"d d lifi minu, og 

md, seigjast pii hafir mdr lif ge'fid J>ar svo hefur sked. 
86 



shot best with the bow, and now his cunning served 
him, and he shot at the cave-dwellers well and long, and 
they all did as best they could until twelve of the robbers 
had been done to death, and those who were left were in 
great peril ; at the same moment he who had taken the 
sword came up to them, and he gave the sword to the 
robber, then he brandished it at Ambales, who turned 
from under the blow and sprang upon the robber, and 
caught him up and bore him about the field and fondled 
and patted him, and ran about with him with all speed, 
and clutched him so firmly that he might not wrest him- 
self free, and when he had run with him for some time 
about the fields, he bore him back into the cave. Now 
when the other cave-dwellers saw this, fear shot through 
their breasts, and great dismay seized upon their hearts, 
and they ran from the herdsmen, whose lives were thus 
saved, and they speedily went on their way together with 
the herd. When Ambales came to the door of the cave 
he let down his burden : the fellow he was carrying hight 
Caron ; he was the leader of the cave-dwellers ; his brother 
hight Actamund; he now came back with those of the 
cave-dwellers who were left alive. Caron said to Am- 
bales : "Thou wantest neither strength nor prowess; 
methinks thy equal liveth not ; wherefore 'twere pity and 
shame for me to kill thee ; thou hast had my life thrice in 

thy power, and I grant that thou hast given me my life." 

87 



CH. XIV. I fessu sama bill kom Actamund J>&ngad og bans Felagar 
hli6p hann fegar ad Ambales med nakid Sverd, og greiddi 
95 honum hogg um J>verar Herdarnar, fdkk Ambales f> Sdr 
mikid, sndrist bann vid allreidur, og freyf hann upp med 
miklu abli, fleigdi bonum d lopt sem haerst mdtti, so bann 
kom nidurd Herdarnar J>ar klettarnir v6ru undir, og brotn- 
adi i bonum hvort bein, d, somu leid foru allir bans Felag- 

100 ar ; Hliop nu Ambales ad Karon, greip hann upp med 
sama hsetti og vildi hann lifi Svipta, enn Karon badst 
fridar og llfs, let Amb. hann J)d lausan og gaf honum lif. 
Karon bad hann hja* sier dvelja, og baud honum alia fa* 
Ssemd ad figgja er hann kyni, enn Ambales qvadst ad 

105 sinni ei )>ann kost J>iggja mundu, en seirna mun eg J>ig 
ad Sdttum ssekja. Skundadi nti Ambales beimleidis, 
og nddi brddt Fjdrhyrdurunum ; var Hjordinn J> bdgrsek, 
]>vi ])eir voru fdir; beindi J>d Ambales ad med ))eim og 
dugdi sem J>eir kj6sa mundu, alt far til ad hjordin kom 

no af Fjollunum, }> aptradi Ambales gaungu Fja'rins, og 
st6d i stignum sem i Fjallinu var ad g&nga, enn J)d, var 
miog dimt ordid, J>vi i loptinu tdk ad fikkna og vedur 
um ad bri6tast, fokti byrdurunum J>essi bans gjorningur 
hinn versti. Lsekir fiellu vlda af Fjollunum med straungu 

115 bliodi og storum fossum hliop Ambales nu ur Fjar-st65- 
dunni ad einum fossi er mestur var, hlo mjog ad gdngi 
vatnsins, d-ttu hyrdarar J>ar leid allnserri, Ja kom Am- 
bales til feirra og mselti : I kvold renna fossar sem 
ddur v6ru allir upp aptur enn eingin nidur. J>etta maelti 

120 hann Jdsvar og let hid d milli. Edku nu Hyrdararar 

88 



In this same nick of time Actamund and his fellows came 
up to them, and he sprang forthwith at Ambales with a 
naked sword, and dealt him a blow athwart his back, so 
that Ambales got a great wound, but he turned in great 
wrath and caught him up with all his strength and flung 
him aloft as high as he might, so that he fell upon his 
back among the rocks, and every bone in him was broken, 
and thus it fared with all his fellows. And now Ambales 
rushed at Caron and caught him up in like manner, mean- 
ing to kill him too, but Caron prayed for peace and life, 
and Ambales let him loose and gave him life. Caron 
begged him to dwell with him, and offered him all homage 
that he could give, but Ambales said he would not then 
take what he offered, " but later I shall make my visit of 
peace to thee." Ambales turned now homeward, and soon 
he reached the herdsmen; the herd was hard to drive, 
for the men were few. Ambales lent them his help and 
served them to the best of their wishes all along till that 
the herd was come from off the hills ; then Ambales 
hindered the drove of sheep, and blocked the mountain- 
path they had to pass ; and by now it had grown dark, 
and the sky was overcast and a storm was brewing ; the 
herdsmen deemed that now his conduct was of the worst. 
Streams ran far and wide adown the mountains with great 
noise and mighty torrents ; and Ambales sprang now from 
where the herd was standing toward one of the greatest 
of the torrents, and laughed loudly at the rush of water : 
the herdsmen had to pass close thereto, and Ambales 
came up and spake to them : " To-night the falls that 
were before all run up and none adown." Thus spake 
he thrice with a pause between. Now the herdsmen drove 

89 



CH. XV. Hjord sina ad birgjum sinum, og geingu sidan til biggda 

og fundu kong, spurdi J>a kongur og Hyrdin ad forum 

)>eirra sem og Forunaut, enn peir sogdu alt sem farid 

hafdi um gjordir bans, J>dkti kongi og monnum bans 

125 ad J?eir befdu i stora ofraun komid. 



15 Capttuli* 

gdkk ad vana til Eldaskala, og settist J?ar nidur 
er bann var ei yanur, beldur innar leingra, konur 
fdktust sj hann dasstari enn bann var vanur, baru pser 
bonum fd, mat, J>ann peer vissu honum haga, enn hann 

5 at sem bonum gdgndi best Hirdararnir v6ru i H611 kongs, 
og sogdu bonum og monnum bans frd Ambales, bvorsu 
mikla adstod hann hefdi gjort feim i frammgaungunni 
med mikillri ablraun. Kongur Spurdi ]>d ad ordum 
bans, eda bvort hann hefdi ekkert talad, enn }>eir sogdu 

10 bonum allt hid sanna. Kongur mselti pa : Amlodi mselir 
ord af viti og af oviti. Dagurinn var }> runnin, enn storm- 
ur var ur ollu h6fi, so vida hrundu turnar. K6ngur 
mselti : opt gdfast Fiblinn ge'tspokust, enn af Msogn 
Hirdaranna dsemdu flejrstir ]?ad um Ambales, ad hann 

15 mundi aldrei vis madur verda, heldur fifl og afglapi so 
leingi lifdi, og eingin J>yrfti ban ad ottast. Kongur 
qvadst ei mundi framar fad til ohagnadar gjora ad lata 
hann med J>eim fara, qvadu men J>ar stora naudsyn 
til vera. Nu er ad seigja fra Amloda, ad hann eptir 

20 mdltid gdkk ur eldaskdla, og vildi leita sdr ad nddug- 
um hvildarstad um nottina, hvorju ad olli Sar bans, 
var J)d; dimt ordid miog, enn 6vedur med Stormi og 
regni gdkk ad, enn sem ban var Skamt fra eldaskdla 
geinginn, meetir honum madur mikill vexti ; hann bar 

25 Sverd i hendi, Jmd var buid vel og listi af J?vi i mirkri 
90 



the herds to the pens, and thereafter they went to their 
homes, and they saw the king, and the king and the 
court asked after their journey and of their comrade, 
and they told everything as it had come to pass concern- 
ing his doings there, and the king and his men thought 
they had been in a most sorry plight. 

Cfiapter IU* 

QTMLODE went to the kitchen-stead and sat him down in 
Xl an unwonted spot, somewhat nearer to the upper 
end of the place, and the women thought him even more 
dazed than at other times ; they bore to him the meat they 
knew he best liked, and he fed to his heart's content. The 
herdsmen were in the king's hall, and told him and his 
men what great help Ambales had been to them in the 
fight by reason of his mighty strength. The king asked 
about his words, or had he said nothing, and they told 
him all the truth. The king then said : " Amlode's 
words are wise and witless." The day was then spent, 
but the storm raged beyond all measure, so that towers 
fell far and wide. The king said : " Oft in sooth, fools 
guess truth," and from the story of the herdsmen, many 
deemed this true of Ambales, for he would never grow to 
the wisdom of man, but remain a fool as long as he lived, 
and none need fear him. The king said he would not 
again put them to such trials by sending Ambales along 
with them ; the men said 'twas to be hoped so. Now it 
is to be told that Amloth after his meal went from out 
of the kitchen-stead, and sought a quiet spot to rest in 
for the night, for he was wounded ; it had then grown 
dark, and tempest and storm and rain was abroad, and 
when he had been gone some short way from the 
kitchen- stead a man of huge size met him ; he bore 
in his hand a sword of goodly make, and it shone 

91 



CH. XV. sem af fogru liosi, hvorju valda mattu gimsteinar og 
gullbuningur Sverdsins, J>ad var miog st6rt, kilfu bar 
hann mikla i hendi, i lodnum kubli var hann; hann 
hafdi 8 karla abl, illkendur var hann mjog af morgum, 

30 sokum )?j6fnadar og mandrapa, J)vi hann mirdti menn um 
naetur, var hans heldst ad vsenta J>a illvydri voru ; kongar 
hofdu f^ lagt til Hofuds honum, J>vi hann hafdi leingi ad 
slikum illvyrkjum kdndur verid, J>essi madur he't Drafn- 
ar ; Nil sem hann se*r Ambales, hradar hann gaungunni 

35 og vildi drepa hann, reiddi kilfuna til hoggs, en Ambal. 
]>6ktist vita Skap hans, hliop hann ad honum og preif 
i vinstri handlegg hans i hvorri hendi Sverdid var, og 
kreisti miog fast, og Sveifladi honum so vid falli var 
biiid, vard honum nu laust Sverdid af Stirdum atokum, 

40 )>reif nu Drafnar til Ambalesar og urdu Sviptingar miklar, 
attust J>eir fang vid all leingi, var nu ymsum vid falli 
biiid; Ambales ])6ktist finna ad ei mundi Jmrfa vsert 
ad bj<5da, og gjordi honum hardan adgang og J>reyf hann 
upp med hrigg spennu og bar hann ad hallar dyrunum, 

45 enn af umbrotum J>eirra Skulfu Streetin, enn brestir og 
brak urdu so mikid ad flestu baud vid otta, dyraverdir 
Hallarinnar Mdu af hrsedslu, ]?6kti Drafnari frama litid 
po hann nti mgetti koma i k6ngs hollina, bar nu Ambales 
hann inn i Hollina, og I6t hann lausann fyrir kongs 

50 bordi, v<5ru menn }>a ad vistum, gekk Ambales sem 
snarast ilr Hollinni og Isesti flidtlega dirunum, var nu 
st6r stans a k6ngi og monnum hans, kongur kalladi 

a menn og baud J>eim ad fanga gestin, J>vl hann var 
92 



in the dark, perchance by reason of the precious stones 
and its golden fittings ; it was of large size ; he bore, 
too, a mighty club in his hand, and wore a shaggy 
cowl ; he had the strength of eight churls, and was held 
in great dread by many men, for thefts and manslaying ; 
he murdered men at night, and was mostwhiles to be 
met with when evil weather was abroad. Kings had 
put a price upon his head, for he had long been known 
for his evil deeds ; this man bight Drafnar. Now when 
he caught sight of Ambales, he quickened pace and 
thought to slay him ; he raised his club for the blow, 
but Ambales guessed his purpose, and leapt at him and 
clutched him by the left arm, in which hand was his 
sword, and he grasped him very tightly and swung him 
that he was nigh a-falling, and his sword was loosened 
from his strong grip. Drafnar clutched hold of Am- 
bales and great wrestling befell ; they grappled each 
with the other long time, and each was on the point 
of falling. Ambales felt that no slight clutching of 
his foe would now avail, and made for him with most 
fierce onset, and caught him by the back and bore him 
to the doors of the hall, and the ground shook with 
their tussle, and the crash and din were so great that 
folk were afraid, and the warders of the hall fled in 
dismay. Drafnar deemed it but little honour tho' now 
it were granted him to enter the king's hall. Ambales 
bore him therein and freed him before the table of the 
king ; the men were then at food ; Ambales went then 
with all speed from the hall and quickly shut the doors, 
and great fear fell upon the king and his men, The king 
called to his men and bade them seize the guest ; he was 

93 



CH. XV. mjog hreeddur. pusti nu F61k ad honum med vopnum. 

55 Drafnar sa nu lif sitt i hsettu og mundi hann fad verja 
eiga, Skok hann, nu kilfuna, og drap skindlega med henni 
12 men, tok nil F61k ad flia og miog hrsedt ad verda, og 
i sama bill var Hallardyrunum upplokid, kom Ambales 
inn og greip Drafnar upp aptur og bar hann fangad 

eo sem feir fundust fyrst, og liet hann far lausann, tok 
Sverd Drafnars sem far la og fe*kk honum fad aptur. 
Drafnar mselti : f dr ma eg framar odrum hsela, og byd 
eg f<3r mina vinattu, filgi og Fjdraflat eignar og adtektar. 
Ambal. meelti : Ei f igg eg fad, enn f u matt finna mig 

65 adra ndtt i f essum Stad, og fad ei bregdast lata, annars 
er frot d vindttu minni og filgi vid fig, jatadi Drafnar 
fessu, og Skildu feir med kjserleika. Amlodi hitti firir 
sdr kastala, far var i Herbergi modur hans og gdstanna 
fagad med skrautlegu bunlngi, gkk hann i Herbergi 

70 modur sinnar ; far voru margar Sasngur forkostulega 
biinar, lagdist Ambales nu i eina og afkleeddist Fotum 
sem adrir menn og t6k fastan svefn. K6ngi og hans 
monnum fiell allur 6tti vid burtfor Drafnars, og f6ktust 
st6ra vansemd hlotid hafa af hans komu, og hvorsu litid 
! 75 f eim vard ad vegi er feir urdu af honum sigradir, sogdu 
margir sa veeri sekur ens versta dauda sem feim hafdi 
6vorum i fessa daudans haettu komid, og sogdu han her 
med kongi hafa hugad daudans hefnd. f & maelti Gamaliel : 
fott oss s6 mikil serusman ordin i fessu, fa meigum \6i 

so vidurk^nna, ad fjofur fessi hefur urn langa tima stolid fd, 
og myrdt svo marga menn ad ei veit tolu a, hafa konungar 

94 



much afeard. The men rushed at him with their weapons, 
and Drafnar saw that his life was in great peril, and that 
he must needs guard it well ; he brandished his club, and 
in a trice slew twelve men therewith. The folk took now 
to flight, for they were greatly adread ; but in that same 
moment the hall doors were thrown open, and Ambales 
came therein, and caught up Drafnar and bore him 
thither where they first had met, and let him loose 
there, and took Drafnar' s sword which lay there and 
gave it him again. Drafnar said : " I honour thee 
before all men, and I offer thee friendship and rule 
over all my wealth and riches." Ambales said : " Nay, 
I wish it not, but meet me this next night here on this 
spot, and fail not therein, else there is end of friendship 
and of aid." Drafnar assented, and they parted in 
friendship. Amlothe came now to the castle, where his 
mother and her guests abode in noble state. He went 
into his mother's chamber, and there were many couches 
there all richly dight, and Ambales lay adown in one, 
undressed withal even as other men, and he slept soundly. 
The king and his men lost all their fear when Drafnar 
left, and it seemed to them that they had gotten great 
shame from his coming thither, seeing they had done 
but little, while he had triumphed over them. Many 
said that he should be doomed unto the worst of deaths, 
who had plunged them unawares into this death-peril, 
and they deemed he had intended thereby dire vengeance 
on the king. Then said Gamaliel : " True we have 
gotten us great shame in this, yet must we remember 
that this thief has long time robbed us, and has murdered 
men, so many that the tale may not be told. Our kings 

95 



CH. XV. vorir lagt stdrar utlogur peninga til hofuds honum, f vf 
hann var sa" versti vidureignar, og hefur ad vitund allra 
manna flest og verst nidings verk gjort, og fvi var hann 

85 af ollum Land Herrum utlsegur gjordur, enn mi sem hann 
var oss f Hendur feingin, vogadi eingin ser vid hann ad 
hsetta, hvorki kdngur sjalfur ne Hyrdinn sem fo mestar 
vidlogur hofdu stadfest um hann, fvi raunar st6dum ve*r 
allir i daudans hsettu, hefdi 6vinur fessi margra bani 

90 vordid firr enn sigrast hefdi, enn far hann var af eimim 
manni sigradur er f6 var a"n vopna, md, oss minkun 
fikja, fvi J>a Fifl J>etta skynjadi vort atburdaleysi, og sa 
dauda vorra manna, hjalpadi hann oss ilr J>essum daudans 
voda, hvornin skyldi hann J>& hafa daudan forskuldad? 

95 Kongur maelti : fetta er satt talad, og ma oss J>ikja 
Skomm ad oss, far vr letum grei fetta sigra oss. Fjellu 
nu fessar rsedur nidur, og geingu menn heldur daprir 
til Hvlldar. Amba Drottning gdkk hrigg til ad Hatta, 
og sem hun kom i sitt Svefnherbergi, litast hun um, og 
100 ser hvar madur liggur mikill vexti, fangad gekk him og sd, 
fad var Sonur hennar. Kubl Mf ar, hoggvinn sundur um 
fverar Herdarnar, hun dr6 heegt klsedi ofann af honum, og 
ser hann saran mjog, fvi hann sneri baki vid henni, hun 
bar agjeet smyrsl a S^rid og m^kti fad, sidan gdkk hun ad 
305 sofa, ad morgni klseddist hun aria, og vildi greeda Son sinn ; 
hann var fa vaknadur, og qvadst fad ei figgja vilja, la 
hann leingi fangad til menn v6ru til umsvifa geingnir, 
reis hann fd upp og sa aungvan nema modur sina, hann 
mselti : Lif f itt og mitt mun vidliggja ef eg figg graedslu 

no ffna d Sarum mlnum, og fvi vil eg fad ei, klsedi vil eg af 
96 



placed a great price on his head, for he has always heen 
the most terrible of men to deal with, and as all know 
has done the worst and wickedest of deeds, and he was 
made outlaw by all the lords of this land ; but now when 
he was put into our hands not one of us was bold enough 
to risk encountering him, neither the king, nor the court, 
tho' they had vowed the direst vows against him ; yea, we 
all stood in very fear of death, and our foe would have been 
the slayer of many a man before he had been vanquished ; 
but he was overpowered by one single man, and he un- 
weaponed ; verily we must deem it our shame that when 
this fool beheld our helplessness and the slaughter of our 
men, he saved us from the jeopardy of death. How then 
does he merit the punishment of death ? " " 'Tis rightly 
spoken," said the king; "we must needs deem it our 
shame that we suffered this dog to vanquish us." The 
talk ceased then, and men fared somewhat heavy to their 
rest. Queen Amba went to her chamber, sad of mood, 
and when she came there she looked around and saw a 
man of huge size lying there, and she went up and she 
saw it was her son. A cloak lay there ; it was cut 
athwart from shoulder to shoulder. Gently she drew the 
coverlet from him, and saw that he was sorely wounded, 
and he lay with his back toward her ; she salved the wound 
with goodly ointment and soothed it, and went then to rest. 
On the morrow she dressed her early, wishful to tend 
her son, but he was awake then and said he would not 
have it. He lay there long till the men were gone unto 
their work ; then he rose up, and seeing none there save 
his mother he spake with her: "Thy life and mine 
will be in peril if I take cure for my wounds from thee, 

G 



Ca. XVI. ])6i Jriggja, og hid fdr mun eg d nsetur dvelja medan eg er 

i raunum J)essum, ber fii J>ig vel, Ip6 eg J>er ofraun gjori, 

fvi alt mun um sidir enda taka. Veglegan kubl og kirtil 

gaf hiin honum ; mynntist hann mi vid m6dur sina med 

us is tar atlotum. 

16 Capttuli* 

QTMBALES Id Idngt fram & dag i Herbergi m6dur sinnar, d 
^ m6ti kvoldi klseddist hann og ge'kk i eldaskdla, toku 
konur honum vel, og hieldu honum mdltid, ])6kti )>eim 
hann af vana sinum bregda og J>einktu til batnadar berast 
5 mundi um Sidi og Ssemd ; han neitti sem vanur var ; enn 
ad gjordri maltid gekk hann ur eldaskdlanum J>dngad sem 
J>eir Drafnar hofdu mselt m6t, var Drafnar J>ar komin eptir 
sinni lofan, og fundust feir med kjserleika. f>d mselti 
Ambal. vid hann, nu skulum vid ferdast d Fjall upp i 

10 n6tt ; Drafnar jdtadi J>vi, hann hafdi ])d Sverdid Sigur- 
lioma, dr6 fad lit og hofdu feir Ii6s af J>vi d heidunum, 
liettu J>eir ei firr gaungunni enn J)eir komu ad Hellir 
Karons, var hann J>ar fyrir og t6k J>eim allskostar vel 
med miklum kjserleika, leiddi J>d i Hellirinn, og hugdi ad 

is sdrum Ambales og bar d ]>aug dirmset Smyrsl so lir J>eim 
dr6g verk allan, spurdi hann ad hogum Drafnars, enn Am- 
bales sagdi honum hid sanna, ad hann vseri sinn Felagi, 
og bad hann gjora vel til hans sem framast hann kynni. 
Karon jdtadi ])vi, og sagdist mundi reynast honum 

20 kjserlega eins og hann vseri Ambales skyldugur ad 
audsyna, })6 so ad hann reynist m^r trtir, seigir hann, 
i ollum samforum. Ambales mselti : vist mun ha J>er 
triggur reynast og J>arfur i ollum vidlogum, og vilie 

hann mseta minum godvilja, J>d J>einki hann so ad gjora ; d 
98 



wherefore I will take nought ; but I fain would have gar- 
ments from thee, and I would tarry with thee at night- 
time while in this plight : bear thyself well, though I put 
thee to greatest trials ; everything at last has ending." 
She gave him then a rich cloak and a kirtle, and he 
kissed his mother with great love. 

Chapter IFI. 

QTMBALES lay long into the day in his mother's chamber ; 
v toward evening he dressed him and went unto the 
kitchen- stead ; the women gave him blithe welcome and 
prepared a meal ready for him ; they thought him changed 
from his wonted way : and deemed that in mien and 
manner he was turning to the better : he took to his 
food as he was wont, and when his meal was ended, he 
went from out the kitchen- stead thither to where he and 
Drafnar had fixed on as their meeting-place. Drafnar 
was come there as he had promised, and they met in 
great friendliness. "We two must journey to the fell 
to-night," said Ambales to him. Drafnar agreed; he 
had with him then the sword hight Victor-gleam, and he 
drew it out, and they had light upon the heaths : they 
stinted not their journey till that they reached the cave 
of Caron. Caron was within, and gave them blithe wel- 
coming with great show of friendship, and led them into 
the cave ; he looked at the wounds of Ambales, and bore 
precious ointment thereto, which drew forth all the pain : 
he asked then what Drafnar was, and Ambales told him 
all ; how he was become his fellow, and bade him do for 
him all that he could. Caron assented to his wish, and said 
he would show himself kindly toward him as behoved him, 
at least on Ambales' account: " On this condition, iwis, that 
he be true to me in all our dealings." "Be assured," said Am- 
bales, "he will be true to thee and helpful in all thy straits ; 
an he wishes my goodwill, 'twere best for him to do so." 

99 



CH. XVI. ))vi liggur okkur bddum seigir Karon. Ambal. mselti ; fid 

26 meigid badir saman halda i fessum Fjallbigdum, og abla 
fjr med frelsi en ei sem fj6far, fvi rdttfeingid fe lukkast 
vel jafnan, enn 6digd og J)jofnadur fser og forfdnar eetfd 
versta last, haldandi feim i dauda sem fad hondla ; Enn 

30 fai eg aptur mins Fodurs riki, og gdti eg drepid fann 
k6ng sem fvi nu heldur, f& kannskd fid meigid meira 
frelsi fd i landi fessu. Drafnar baud honum lid sitt til 
Hefnda vid k6ng, og audsefi sin i uppdkostnad. Ambal. 
qvadst fad ei ad sinni figgja mundi, enn kubl finn ma'ttu 

35 m^r falari Mta. Drafnar seigir honum kublin og Sverdid 
til reidu, Ambales t6k vid kublinum og klseddist honum, 
enn f^kk Drafnari sinn kubl, sem m6dir hans hafdi gelid 
honum, er ]>6 var ]>lng gott, enn Sverdid vildi hann ei ; 
sidan qvaddi han ])d med kjserleika, og skundadi heim til 

40 borgarinar aptur, var hann nu mjog trollslegur vordinn, 
og sii mesta 6syn, Ipvi sd, grdi kubl gjordi hann mjog 
skringilegan, J>6 ei fsekti ddur illu ad spilla ; veik hann 
nu ad eldask&la, og sem konur sd,u hann, urdu J)ser mjog 
6ttafullar, og fordudu s^r, en hann t6k til sinna firri leika, 

45 og dt ]>ad eitt af rdttunum er hann sjdlfur vildi, alia sina 
fornu Sidi hafdi han, og enn j6k hann vid spiturnar, var 
)>ad hans tidarsta ydja ad smida fser; margir gjordu 
gis ad smidi )>essu, enn han gaf sig fdtt ad J>vi ; jafn- 
ann h^ldt hann nee turgi sting i Herbergi m6dur sinnar. 

50 Eitt Sinn ske'di fad, ad marger af vinum hennar v6ru 
komnir ad finna hana, J>eir ed hofdu kdngs erindi, 
og hieldu naeturgisting i feirn Sal er Arnba Drottning 
hdldt, ttu feir vingjarnlegt Samtal vid hana; enn 



100 



"Twere best for both of us," said Caron. "Ye two 
shall dwell together in this fell-land/' Ambales said, 
"and ye may freely gain wealth, but not as thieves; 
for wealth gained honestly prospereth well, but knavery 
and thieving bring, and merit too, the worst reproach, 
and deliver them to death who traffic in them : and 
when I succeed to my father's kingdom, if I achieve 
to kill the king who holds it now, know well ye two 
shall have more freedom in the land." Drafnar proffered 
him his help for vengeance on the king and his riches 
too for achieving it. Ambales said he needed nought 
then, "but thy cloak I would have from thee in pur- 
chase." Drafnar said the cloak and sword were at his 
service. Ambales took the cloak and wrapped himself 
therein, and gave to Drafnar his own cloak, the which 
his mother had given him, and it was of great price ; but 
the sword he would not take : sithence he bade them fare- 
well and speeded home unto the city. He was now a weird 
troll to look on and most ugly, for the grey cloak made 
him of strange aspect, though at no time had folk ever 
deemed him a goodly thing to spoil. He fared now to the 
kitchen- stead, and when the wenches saw him they were 
adread, and hurried off. He took to his old ways and eat 
whatsoever he liked best, and kept, too, to his former habit, 
still increasing the number of his spits, and it was his chiefest 
work to whittle at them. Many mocked at this craft of his, 
but he paid no heed. He took his night-abode in his 
mother's dwelling. Once on a time it befell that many of 
her friends were come to see her ; they were vassals of the 
king, and they stayed in Queen Amba's hall throughout the 
night and had friendly converse with her ; but when night 



101 



CH. XVI. er ndttadi, kom Ambales pangad, sem hann var vanur, og 
55 let ollum J>eim verstu Mtum er hann kunni, so aldrei hafdi 
hann meira vidhafst edur verr Mtid, 611 sin skilningar 
vit afmyndadi hann med miklum Skripagangi ; af fessu 
kom Stans alia ; enn J>d er honum leiddist, lagdi hann 
sig til Svefns, og gjordi sdr hrotur miklar og ovenjuleg 
60 Svefnlseti, so monnum stod J>ar af bsedi 6tti og 6nd,d, svo 
menn gdtu eigi Svefn fest firri enn dagadi, og urn Am- 
bales var hli6dt ordid. Um morgunin geingu men firir 
k6ng, og vard J>eim Jd tidast ad seigja frd, J>vi er Ambales 
hafdi adhafst um n6ttina, og hofdu margir men gaman af, 
65 er heirdu af hans apaverkum. Kongur mselti J> : vondur 
er hann, allt jafnt hinn sami, og J>6 enn verri. Hirdin 
sagdi 611 einum romi : ad hann vseri eitt skamar grei, og 
aldrei yrdi hann s6i til Soma. 



17 Capitiilt 

Ofe ONGUK atti 6000 Svina, og voru 7 Hyrdarar Jjeirra, 

oddviti feirra h6t Silla, hann do I5 da dri Am- 

balesar. K6ngr taladi vid menn sina hvorn mann velja 

skildi i hans Stad ad stiorna J>eirra vokturum. Gamaliel 

5 gaf pad rdd, ad Ambales skildi ])ar til skikkast, og svo 

var gjort, t6k nu Ambales ad ser Jjetta Embsetti, og 

t6kst honum fad vel, g^kk hann umm daga Sk6ga 

og merkur, og drap villudir og Hross og bar J>eirra 

hrae heim, enn er kvold var komid, t6k hann Sod alt 



102 



fell, Ambales came thither as was his wont, he was then at 
his worst, he had never made greater show of folly nor 
had behaved as badly, and all his visage was distorted 
and awry, and at his lewdness all men were aghast. 
Yet withal he grew tired and he went to sleep, but his 
snoring was so loud and he made such ugly noises in 
his sleep that men were both afeard and vexed, for 
they got no sound sleep until it dawned, when Ambales 
at last was quiet. In the morning the men went before 
the king, and their main talk was of Ambales and of his 
conduct in the night, and many men had sport therefrom, 
when they heard his apish pranks. The king said : 
" He is bad as ever, if not worse," and the court with 
one voice declared he was a shameful cur, and would 
never come to good. 



Chapter . 3BJH. 

HE king had 6000 swine, and there were seven swine- 
herds over them ; their chief hight Silla ; he died 
when Ambales was in his fifteenth year. The king spake 
now to his men as to whom he should choose in Silla's 
place to watch the swine as chief swineherd. Gamaliel 
counselled that Ambales be chosen ; and so 'twas done. 
Ambales undertook the charge then, and things went 
well. During the day he was wont to go to woods 
and forests, and he slew there wild deer and horses, 
and bore their corpses home ; and when evening 

came he took all the swill that he could find, 

103 



CH. XVII. sem til fekkst, hj6 Hrsein i sundur i Stikki, l<3t i ke'til all- 

11 storan, og kyndti Eld J>ar undir, og sem volgt var ordid, 
I6t hann hina vaktarana ]?etta svo tilbilid Svinunum fsera ; 
ad ]?essu var hann langt fram & nsetur. T6ku mi Svinin 
bradan Jroska J?6ktu og Storf bans ollum 61ikindum 

15 fjserri, enn J?ess d, milli belt hann vid sina gomlu Sidi, 
bsedi til matfanga og margbreitni fdbeirdrar fiflsku. Eitt 
sinn la k6ngur i Hvilu sinni eptir middags mdltid, Svaf 
og I6t allilla i Svefni, vildu men vekja hann, enn Drott- 
ning maelti : ad gott vseri ad konilngr nyti drauma sinna, 

20 um sidir vaknadi k6ngur med miklu umbrotum, og qvad 
s^r heill manna horfna er eingin hefdi aumkad Sorg sina. 
Drottning mselti : Oss ]?6kti mikils umvert, ef >er vitrast 
maetti 6farir 6komnar, edur gjeefugeingi ; enn ban kvadst 
fyrir 6f6rum ilia drauma ]?olad hafa ; enn Drattning h!6 

25 i Huga sinum. Gamaliel mselti : Seigja muntu oss 
draum J>inn? K6ngur mselti: " Eg ]?6ktist vera uti 
staddur, Mngt frli 6drum monnum, vard mier til Himins 
litid, Sa eg S61ina mer allnserri vera, hun }?6kti mdr mjog 
raud ad liti, eg >6ktist sjd lir henni Sverd falla er ^ 

so mitt Hofud stefndi, enn eg bra mer undann, og nam 
Sverdid mina Hsegri bond af, en eg kendi ei eptir 
vonum til, og var mdr J?d horfinn S61inn, en i henar Stad 
komid St6rt og 6gnarlegt Sverd, >ad sama stefndi 
Hofud mitt og var g!6andi sem Eldsofn, undan >vi saC 

35 eg eingann veg ad komast edur mer neitt til Hjalpar 

verda meiga" enn J>6 vil eg ad vitrir menn raCdi draum 

104 



and hewed the carcases in pieces, and placed them in a 
huge cauldron, and kindled fire thereunder, and when it 
was warmed he let the swineherds take it, thus prepared, 
unto the swine ; he went far into the night at this. The 
swine grew quickly fat ; this thing seemed to folk by far 
the strangest of his doings, but withal he followed his old 
ways, both in the matter of his food and all his unheard 
of follies. Once the king lay a-bed after the midday 
meal ; he slept, but his sleep was restless ; men wished 
to wake him, but the queen said 'twas well that the 
king should dream his dreams. Anon the king awoke 
in great alarm and said his good luck in faithful folk 
had left him, for not one of them had taken pity on him 
in his sore plight. "We set great store thereon/' said 
the queen; "if perchance thou wast to have a vision 
of some mishap not yet befallen, or of some good fortune." 
But in her heart the queen laughed. Gamaliel said : 
" Wilt thou tell us thy dream ? " The king said : " Me- 
thought I stood without, far from other men, and I looked 
toward the sky and I saw the sun very near to me, and it 
seemed very red in hue, and methought I saw a sword fall 
from it, and its point was turned towards my head, and I 
drew myself away, but the sword took off my right hand, 
yet I felt not such pain as one might ween ; the sun had 
then vanished from my sight, and in its stead there came 
a huge and fearful sword which was also pointed at my 
head, and it was glowing like a furnace, and there was no 
way whereby I might escape, nor saw I aught that might 
then help me : and I would that wise men might interpret 

105 



CH.'XVII. J>enna. Greifi Gamaliel mselti : S61inn sem J)ii sdst er 
Gud sjalfur Skapari allra hluta, enn roda hennar Skaltu 
bans reidi J>ida, og J>er allneerri vera, enn Sverd J>ad er 

40 J>u sa"st a" )>ig ur henni falla er pinn likhamlegur daudi, 
sem per mun ei sdrbeittur verda, J)vi J>u munt drukkin 
ddja; enn J>ad pii leitst upp aptur, og sa*st ekki S61ina, 
skaltu vita, ad eptir ])itt likamlegt andla"t, muntu ekki 
sja" miskunsemi Guds, heldur finna bans eyllfa grimdar 

45 reidi, sem merkir )>ad mikla og hrsedilega Sverd er iir 
henni st6d og d J>ig stefndi, og sri pina mun e^liflega 
ad ]>6i Jreyngja ; enn svo Jrti fdir umMid J>^ eilifu qvol 
tapadra manna, ]?d gjor }>u yfirbot so J>ii fair nad firir 
Drottni, ]>vl J)etta er bans vitjun til ])in, J>vi hann vill 

50 ))er enn nu miskun sina. K6ngurin reiddist og mselti : 
])ii bolvadur illsku madur skalt deja hid Skjotasta, og 
vondskufullum daudans bondum reirdur verda. Enn er 
hann taladi J>etta fiell ovit d koniing, og sm Hyrdinn sd 
hann daudvona, safnadist bun fingad 611, enn gat J>6 

55 einga lifs bjorg k6ngi feingid ; ]>d kom Gamaliel J>ar ad, 
og lagdi sina hsegri Hond d brj6st kongs, vaknadi J>d 
bans andardrdttur, svo bann raknadi vid, furdadi ban 
)>a* atburdi J>essa, fekk hann af )>essii st6ran kjserleika d 
Gamalieli. J?d mselti Addom61us Drottseti : Heimskur 

60 ertd mjog kongur ! ad )>ii vyrdir med kjserleika Svikara 
])enan, )?vi falskleiki bans svikur af }>er lifid um sidir, J>ar 
med mun og Amba Drottning i sliku rddi filgja, munu ]>aug 
611 ad }>dr Jjreyngja med slnum fla3rdum, og f61k ))itt til Hel- 

jar heim fsera, eda hvar mun Amlodi gista um neetur ? far 
106 



this my dream." Gamaliel said : " The sun which thou 
didst see is God Himself, the Creator of all things, and the 
redness thereof must thou interpret as His anger, and know 
too that it betokens vengeance against thee. The sword 
which thou sawest fall therefrom on to thy head is thy 
bodily death, which will not be brought about by a wound, 
for thou shalt die when thou art drunk with wine ; and 
in that thou lookedst up again, and sawest not the sun, 
thou must know that after thy body's death thou shalt 
not see God's mercy, nay, rather His anger fierce and 
eternal, as is shown by the great and fearful sword which 
stood from it and was pointed toward thee, and torture 
shall harass thee for evermore ; but an thou wouldst 
escape the endless torment of the damned, make thou 
amends that thou mayest gain grace from the Lord, for this 
is His visitation to thee, and He will yet show mercy 
unto thee." The king grew wroth and said : " Accursed 
man of ill ! thou shalt die forthwith and shalt be bound 
in wretched bonds of death." And as he said this he fell 
into a swoon, and when the courtiers saw him look like 
unto death they came thither, but no cure was found. 
Then came Gamaliel, and he laid his right hand on the 
bosom of the king, and therewith he again drew breath, 
and he came to himself again, and he wondered at'this mis- 
chance, and conceived great love toward Gamaliel. Then 
said Addomolus, the steward of the king : "Verily, O king, 
thou art foolish to regard this traitor with thy favour, for 
his treachery will in the end betray thee of thy life, and 
Queen Amba will join him in that plan, and with their 
wiles they will encompass thee and bring thy people to 

destruction or where is Amlothe wont to bide at night? 

107 



CH. XVIII. skal eg brddt forvitnast urn, so eg viti J>eirra 611 vond rdd- 

66 K6ngr pagdi vid, J>vi honum var vel til Greifans ; ]>6 sagdi 

han : hvornin kann Gamaliel ad hata mig, par hann mer 

samstundis frd, daudanum bjargadi? og mundi hann ei 

so gjort hafa ef hann girntist dauda minn. Add6m61us 

70 mselti : par fseri ad maklegleikum, enn eg skal vid sliku 

gjora ad peir fdi oss ei audveldlega Svikid. 



18 Capftult 

T kvold gdkk Addomolus i Herbergi pad er Amba 
Drottning dtti, og leindist undir Seenginni, var Drott- 
ning i Svefni og hennar pj6nustu me^ar, enn er Mn vakn- 
adi I6t hiin qveikja Ij6s, J)vi hiin beid komu Sonar sins, 

5 )>vi hann var ad storfum sinum ad matgjora i eldask^la, 
sidann g^kk hann ad vita hvornin skipad var seetum i 
H611 k6ngs, og sem hann vard J?ess var, ad Addomolns 
sat ei ad mdltid koniings, gekk han i Herbergi m6dur 
sinnar, og par ad sem vopn la"u i k<M, preyf mikid Spi6t, 

10 og seddi med J>ad ad pernum Drottningar og lagdi pvi d, 
ymsar Sydur ad peim med 6fagnadi og 6hli6dum svo peer 
hrukku undan, og poktust eiga fotum sfnum fjor ad launa, 
sidann veitti hann modur sinni piingar d,r^sir, og otadi tf dura 
ad henni Spjotinu, enn hun heldt samt kyrr vid hvilu sina, 

15 lagdi hann ]>& Spj6tinu i ymsar dttir, og utum gluggana, 
enn i J>essu umsvifa vastri, poktist hann var verda ein- 
hv6rs undir SaBnginni uppi lp Saeng hli6p hann, og lagdi 
Spj6tinu nidur i ge'gnum hana, og i pvi heirir Drottning se ! 

vidqvedid, enn Ambales herdti d, hliodin so paug alt 
108 



I shall soon ferret the matter and learn their wicked plans." 
The king was silent, for he was fond of the earl. He said : 
" How can it be that Gamaliel hates me, seeing that he 
has saved me from death this very moment ? He would 
not have done this had he been wishful of my death." 
Addomolus said : " Nay, he merits it, but I shall beware 
they do not easily betray us." ^ 



Chapter 

one evening Addomolus went to Queen Amba's 
chamber, and he hid him 'neath the bed. The 
queen was then asleep, as were her serving-maids, but 
she awoke anon and bade them kindle light, for she 
awaited the coming of her son, who was then a- sodding 
meat in the kitchen-stead. When he had done his toil 
he entered the king's hall to note what men were seated 
there, and when he was aware that Addomolus sat not 
at the king's table, he hied to his mother's chamber, to 
where his weapons lay heaped all together; and he 
clutched a huge spear and raged with it at the queen's 
serving-maids, and thrust it at them in all directions, 
with hideous jeers and ugly noises, so that they huddled 
away, and deemed they owed their life then to their feet. 
He then made wild onsets at his mother, and at whiles 
pushed at her with the spear, but she kept quiet in her 
bed, while he thrust his spear here and there and all 
about, and even through the windows, but in the midst 
of all his madness suddenly he seemed aware of some- 
thing 'neath a bed there, and he leapt on the bed 
and thrust the spear right through it, and that same 
moment the queen heard a cry of " Ah ! " but Ambales 

strained his voice louder, so that they drowned the cries, 

109 



CH. xviii. yfirt<5ku og lagdist d Spi6tskaptid, og Id d ))vi svo leingi 

21 sem ban belt ad duga mundi, dro J)ad sidan ad sdr og 
sier b!6d d ]?vi, ]?d hlo hann mikid, og let Spjotid aptur 
1 kerfid i sitt lag, hafdi ban >d heldur geimsmikid gaman, 
so vida heirdust bans Iseti um Herberginn, og J>usti ]?dng- 

25 ad fjoldi folks, t6k Ambales >eim ollum blidlega, og dtti 
leikfdng vid ]?d, og J?6 ]?rir msettu i senn, bafdi ban jafnan 
betur, eingin vard var bins dauda, gkk >etta svo framm 
undir dag, f6ru menn }?a ad Sofa ; enn er Ambales vissi 
ad allir v6ru i Svefn komnir, for bann d fsetur, t6k kropp 

30 bins dauda, bar hann ad Svinabselinu, bio bann i Stikki, 
I6t i beitt Sod med odrum hrseum, og gaf Svinum ad eta, 
so ]?aug dtu ban upp med ognum ollum, enn klsedi bans 
bre'nndi hann 611, sidan >vodi hann blodid ur bselinu, og 
J?erradi med eldsglsedum, g^kk sidann til Ssengur; enn 

35 um daginn J>egar men voru til Ssetis komnir, saknadi 
kongur Drottsetans, var bans vida leitad og fanst hann 
hvorgi. Ambales gekk i Eldaskdla ad matast, bann 
mselti ]?d hann vid glsedumar sat : mann sd eg stiingin, 
midt undir kerru, man eg ]?ad ei, sd h^t svinum vid 

40 saelkjorum, sd eg J>ad bvorki. Sidan f6r hann leid sina d 
merkur og Skoga eptir vana. K6ngur var ihugasamur 
um hvarf Add6m61usar, var bans leitad i manud og fanst 
ei minsta til bans ; konungi barst til eirna hvad Ambales 
bafdi talad i eldaskdla, let J?vi kalla hann firir sig, og 

45 spurdi ad Addom : enn hann taladi somu ord og fyrri, 
J?6kti ollum 61ikindi ad Ambales hefdi drepid Addo- 
molus, J?vi hann var binn mesti kappi, vard sii dlyktan 
um sidir, ad Drafnar mundi bann myrdt hafa, enn 



no 



and he laid him then on the shaft of the spear, and lay 
on it as long as he thought would suffice, and then 
he drew it out and saw blood thereon, and laughed 
loudly, and put the spear into the bundle where it 
was wont to lie, and he made mirth out of all mea- 
sure, and his glee was heard through all the dwelling. 
A multitude rushed thither, and Ambales welcomed them 
with blithe cheer, and sported with them, and even where 
three were matched with him at once, he came off best ; 
but no one knew of the dead man there, and things were 
thus until near dawn when men betook themselves to 
rest. Now when Ambales saw that all men were asleep 
he got up and took the corpse of the dead man, and bore 
it to the swine-place, and cut it into bits, and put it 
into the swill with other carcases, and gave it to the 
swine to eat, so they eat him up to the last morsel ; but 
his clothes he burnt. Afterwards he washed the blood 
from the spot where he had killed him, and dried the 
spot with glowing gleeds, and then he went to bed. 
During the day, when men had gone to their seats, the 
king missed the steward, and he was sought for all about, 
but was nowhere to be found. Ambales went to the 
kitchen-stead to take his meal. As he sat beside the fire 
he said : 

" & matt safo pmnelr rit$t unfcer a car, 31 rememfcer ft not : 
Sfcune lift fje tento fcrftfj a tiaintg morsel, nor fcio see tfjat." 

Then he went into woods and wastes as was his wont. 
The king was much troubled at the disappearance of 
Addomolus, and they searched for him a whole month, 
but no trace of him was found. Word reached the king's 
ear of what Ambales had spoken in the kitchen-stead, 
and he had him called to him, and asked him after 
Addomolus, but he spake the same words as before. Men 
thought it all unlikely that he had killed Addomolus, 
for he was the greatest of warriors, and folk were of one 
mind in deeming that Drafnar must have murdered him, 

in 



CH. XIX. Ambales mundi hafa gdfid kroppin Svinunum og var hdr 
50 ei fleira tillagt. 



19 Capttulu 

Kongur tidkadi jagtreid a" Skoga i sama mund 
hverju ri, og dvaldist ad J?vi tvo ma"nudi. Eitt 
sinn er Ambal. gekk urn Skogjen, sa" hann hvar Flagd 
eitt mikid og ognarlegt g<3kk, og bar lltid Sveinbarn a* 
6 Handlegg sjer, hann heirdi ^lur miklar hja" Bergi emu, 
>dngad gdkk hann og sd ]?ar Dverg gra"tandi, er tja"di 
honum sitt rauna efni, ad trollkonan hefdi fra ser tekid 
Son sinn, og bad hjalpar og Hefnda. Ambales hliop 
eptir Skdssunni, og er hrin sd hann, skdlmadi hiin mjog, 

10 allmikid Hdr hafdi hiin, svo J?ad t6k ofannd lendar henni. 
Ambales sigradi Skessuna a* gdnginum, og >reyf i Ha"r 
heriar og rikkti ad sdr, enn hiin st6d kyrr i somu Sporum, 
}?d std hann fseti i kndsbot henni, og rikkti enn ad sdr so 
fast ad Ske'ssafi datt, vard henni >a" laust barnid, kom J>a" 

15 Dvergurinn og tok Son sinn allshugar feigin ; tok nii kdrl- 
ing ad brjdtast um fast, og komst a* Fsetur, lagdi Mn 
hremsur sinar ad Ambales, og vard hann Idttur i fdngi 
hennar, dttust J?aug leingi vid, meeddist hiin J?d um sidir, 
fiellu ]?aug bsedi og bar hiin leegri hluta, \& kom Dverg- 

20 urin, og rdtti sverd ad Ambales, enn hann vildi ei 
vidtaka, greip hann J>a fyrir Hals Skessunni, og hugdi 
hana svo lifi Svipta, J?a bad hun Fridar og baud honum 
gjafir og adra gjsefu ; >ad Hg Ambales og Idt hana 



112 



but that Ambales had given his corpse unto the swine, 
and so the matter rested. 



C&apter 

QTT the same season each year King Faustinus was wont to 
** go into the woods to hunt, and he spent two months 
in sport. Once on a time Ambales strolled through the 
woods and saw where a huge and fearful ogress went along 
and carried on her arm a small man-child ; he heard, too, 
great shrieks beside a craggy rock ; he went thither and 
saw a weeping dwarf who told him the cause of all his 
dole, to wit that a troll-woman had taken his son, and 
he asked him for help and vengeance. And Ambales 
ran after the troll, and when she saw him she strode on 
the harder ; her hair was so great that it reached down 
to her loins. Ambales came up to her, seized her by the 
hair and pulled her toward him, but she stood firm and 
immovable ; he planted then his foot into her knee-bight 
and pulled her toward him again, so hard that she fell, 
and the child fell from her in her fall ; and the dwarf 
came up and took his son, right glad of heart. Now the 
carline began to writhe and she got on her feet, and dug 
her clutches into Ambales, and he was light in her arms ; 
their tussle was a long one, but at last she grew weary and 
they both fell, yet she fell undermost. The dwarf came 
then and reached a sword to Ambales, but he would not take 
it, and he clutched the troll-woman by the throat to bring 
her to her death ; then she begged for peace, and promised 
him gifts and good luck ; and Ambales yielded, and let her 

H 



CH. XX. uppstanda, leit hiin J> blidlega til Ambalesar og mselti : 
"~~25 Eingan veit eg fremri ad digdum nd frsegari en Jig, vil 
eg Je'r alls g6ds unna, til minna bigda ertu velkomin, enn 
he'r er Sverd og Steirn er eg vil gefa Je'r, hann hjalpar 
gjsefu manna og gdfur vitund af 6vordnum skada, Am- 
bales ma3lti : Steininn mun eg Jiggja og med mdr flytja, enn 
30 biggdir Jinar mun eg seirna heimssekja ; Jid skulud seettast 
Dvergurin og Ju, Jang gjordu sem Ambales beiddi ; hann 
mselti : haldid mi bsedi trausta vindttu, og gjorid aungvum 
illt. Jau qvMu ser kisert svo ad gjora qvaddi nil killing 
Ambales, og f6r heim. 

20 Capituli. 

QTMLODI f6r nii med Dverginum til bans biggda, og var 
** hjd honum um n6ttina, enn um morgunin bj6st hann 
til Heimferdar, Dvergurin baud honum gersemar og vopn 
g6d, en Ambales bad hann geima Jar til hann sjalfur hafa 

5 vildi, enn eina Skikkju vil eg af J>er Jiggja, sem ad J>eim 
kostum s^ gjor, ad sd, henni kleedist s^nist odrum fridari, 
so og vil eg ad Ju filgir m6i heim til borgar og breitir 
yfirlitum Jinum og synist sem adrir menn, smidat61 J)in 
rnattu og med ])6i hafa. Dvergurinn gjordi so, og fekk 

10 honum Skikkjuna, enn J>eir umbreyttust ad ollum yfir- 
litum, sidan geingu Jeir heim til borgar, og sem J>eir 
Jar komu, horfdu menn d, J4 og heilsudu Jeim med 
kndfollum vegna tiguglegs d-lyts sem Jeim syndist, 

og dtti Drottnfng tal vid J, kunnu Jeir og margt 
114 



rise, and she looked blithely at Ambales and said : 
" None know I greater than thee in doughtiness and 
fame, and I would fain grant thee all good fortune : 
thou art welcome to my dwelling, and this sword and 
stone I would give thee now : it furthers the good luck 
of men and gives them warning of dangers not yet come 
to pass." Ambales said : " The stone I accept and take 
with me, but thy abode I shall visit later on ; and thou 
and the dwarf shall make peace together." They did as 
he bade them. "Keep now a faithful friendship with 
each other," said Ambales, "and do evil unto none." 
They said that they would do so right gladly, and the 
carline bade farewell to Ambales and went unto her 
home. 

Cfiapter * 

Amlothe went with the dwarf to his abode, and 
stayed there with him for the night : but on the 
morrow he got ready to go homeward. The dwarf pre- 
sented him with costly gems and goodly weapons, but 
Ambales bade him keep them till he wished for them. 
" But I would fain take of thee a cloak of such virtue as 
would make the wearer fairer to look on than all other 
men ; and I would too that thou go home with me into 
the city, and do thou so change thy mien that thou shalt 
look like other men, and bring thy smithying tools along 
with thee." The dwarf did as he bade him, and he gave 
him the cloak, and they were both changed withal. Now 
they went to the city, and when they came there men 
gazed at them and did obeisance to them at sight of 
their majestic mien. And the queen talked with them, 



CH. XXL af odrum londum ad seigja, se'rdeilis hvorjer Sigur og 

~~16 6sigur hofdu, og hvorjer freegstir kappar vseru. Drott- 

ning baud J>eim vin og vistir ad >iggja, enn })eir neitudu 

J)vi og qvddust ei mettast af mannlegri Faedu, heldur 

baud harm J)dnara sinum ad prida Sseti konungs, og allra 

20 feirra er far Sseti dttu, var ])6 konungs Sseti eitt J)ad tignar- 
legasta, og so hvors eins eptir hans burdum ; enn got 
gjordi hann d, hvors mans Sseti, pridilega utskorinn, 
og er Hofdingin umlitadist, J>6kti honum fullneegt vilja 
sinum, og ad fessu smidi endudu f6ru peir 1 hurt, og er 

25 feir v6ru skarnt frd borgar hlidinu komnir, klseddist 
Aml6di ur Skikkjunni og bad Dverginn ad geima hana, 
f6r hann so til biggda sinna ; T6k Amlodi ad se'r aptur 
Storf sin sem ddur so eingin vissi neitt um Ferdir hans. 

21 Capitulu 

lidnum tima kom k6ngur heim aptur, og er hann 
kom i Hollina s& hann fd, miklu umbreiting er 
henni var ordin, og ssetinn oil pridilegri miklu enn dur, 
spurdi hann hvorju J>ad ssetti? enn Drottning seigir 
5 honum alt af komu gestana og }>aug morgu tidindi er 
]?eir henni sogdu. K6ngur spurdi J>4 ad ha*ttum J>eirra 
og hegdan, hiin seigir alt sem var, og seigist ei slika 
S6mamenn se'd hafa. K6ngur spurdi : hvorju g^gna 
mundi? enn hans Kadgjafar er somu triiar v6ru og 
10 hann, sogdu J>etta vist feirra Gud verid hafa, mun hann 

hafa vor vitjad sogdu )>eir, og vor Sseti med fessum 
116 



and they had much to tell her of foreign lands, of con- 
querors and of conquered, and of most renowned heroes ; 
the queen gave them wine and meat, but they refused 
and said they might not feed on human food ; but he 
bade his servant adorn the king's seat and the seats of 
all who sat within the hall. The seat of the king was 
dight by far the noblest, and the seats of the others 
according to their rank, and in each man's seat he made 
a hole, carved out with great cunning, and when his lord, 
Ambales to wit, looked round he deemed his bidding had 
been done. And when the work was ended they went 
their way, but when they had gone a little from the city 
gate Ambales doffed the cloak and bade the dwarf to 
keep it for him, and went then to his abode, and took 
to his former ways, and none knew of his journeyings. 



Chapter I3HL 

|OW when the time had passed the king came back, 
and as he came into the hall, he saw that a great 
change had come over it, for lo ! the seats were nobler 
far than ever they had been before, and he asked the 
cause thereof. The queen told him of the coming of 
the guests, and of the many tidings they had told her, 
and the king asked her then concerning their bearing 
and their mien, and she told him all as had befallen, 
adding thereto that she had never set her eyes on 
seemlier men. The king questioned as to what this 
might mean, and his counsellors who were of his own 
faith said this must needs have been their god: "He 

must have come to visit us," said they, "and in thus 

117 



CH. XXI. S6ma stadfest, setti honum h^r firir Jmkkir ad vanda. 
K6ngur qvad Satt vera, og baud helgihald sinum afgudi 
til lofgjordar, var sii Hdtid afgudanna haldinn 3 Daga 

15 samfle^tt med fakkleetis fornum og bsenagjordum. Ga- 
maliel gaf sig fdtt ad fessu, J>6 gaf hann af Fd sinu til 
F6rnarinnar. Ambal. heldt fram Sidum sinum sem firri, 
og enn jok hann vid Spiturnar, var fad bans tidarsta 
ydja ad smida fser, margir gjordu gis ad Smidi Jjessu, 

20 enn ban gaf sig fa"tt ad, jafnan belt hann nseturgisting 
i Herbergi modr sinnar. pad var Sidur feirra k6nganna 
M&lpriants og F^stinusar, ad hvor hdldt odrum J61a- 
veitslu, og dtti mi F^stmus kongur ad figgja i Spania, 
sdkti hann fd-ngad med miklu fiolmenni, og sem hann 

25 var J>adan heimkomin, gdkk hann eitt sinn drukkin til 
Ssengur, I6t hann leingi ilia i Svefni J>ar til Drottning vakti 
hann, bids hann J?d msedilega, og qvad sig ilia dreamt 
hafa, enn ad morgni er allir v6ru til Ssetis komnir, og allir 
menn i H611 k6ngs, bad hann sina visinda menn ad 

30 rd,da draumin, og ma3lti : Eg poktist h^r staddur i H611- 
ini, og Mdlpriant kongur br6dir minn med sinum 
tveimur Sonum, hieldum ver samvistir med allskonar 
Skemtun og eptirlseti, J)6kti mdr andi nokkur innbrj6taz 
um Hallar dyrnar, 6s^nilegur ad lita, og hafdi bagga 

35 mikin d, herdum sdr, )>6kti mdr reikur gj6sa af bddum 
endum baggans med miklu eldneista flugje, so far af urdu 
menn blindir og heirnarlausir, lika misstu J>eir mal sitt 
sem neistarnir snertu og urdu sem daudir ; en Gamaliel 
))6kti rndr J>etta umfluid geta, og Drottning vor med 

40 nokkrum odrum, enn sidarst urdum v^r fyrir alilaupum 
118 



honouring us he has made firm our seats : for this we 
should give thanks." The king said that belike 'twas true, 
and he ordained a festival for the glory of his idol, and 
this heathen feast was kept three days with thanksgivings 
and prayers. Gamaliel took little part in this, yet he 
gave his share toward the sacrifice. Ambales went his 
own ways as before, and still increased the numbers of 
his spits, and busied himself with whittling at them, 
and men jested thereat, but he minded not ; his abode 
at night was always in his mother's chamber. 'Twas 
the custom of the kings Malpriant and Faustinus, that 
the one made a Yule-feast for the other, and it was now 
Faustinus' turn to share his brother's feast in Spain. He 
journeyed thither with a numerous company, but when he 
came home again, he went drunk to his bed. For a long 
time he was ill at ease in his sleep till the queen awoke 
him ; he heaved his breath full wearily and said he had had 
an evil dream, and in the morning when all men had gone 
to their seats in the hall, he bade his wise men interpret 
his dream and spake thus : " Methought I was in this 
hall together with my brother and his two sons, and we 
were feasting together with all glee and merriment, and 
then methought a certain sprite broke in through the 
door of the hall, invisible to the eye, and it had a huge 
bag upon its back ; methought smoke came out from both 
ends of the bag with flight of fiery sparks, so that men 
grew blind and deaf thereby, and they lost their speech 
whom the sparks touched, and they became as dead : but 
methought Gamaliel was able to escape, and our queen, too, 

with some other folk, but at last I and the King of Spain 

119 



CH. XXII. andans, k6ngurin af Spanja og eg, og er fetta draumurinn. 
Allir qvddu mikinn Drauminn og ferlegan. Kongur 
mselti : Fram mun koma ]?ad mig leingi uggad hefur, 
ad Ambales mun Andi J>essi verda, fvl skal ei leingur 

45 dauda hans draga, mun falskleiki bans J>vi valda ad svo 
leingi dregist hefur. f>d mselti Drottning, meinar J)ii ad 
pti. ge'tir )rinn dauda umfluid J>ar fyrir? Ipott hann deyi, 
mun )>inn deidandi lifa. Allir qvadu ord Drottningar 
sonn vera. Sefadist kongur ]?d, og bad Gamaliel rdda. 

60 Hann mselti : J>aug rdd vil eg gefa ydur, ad ]?dr Mtid 
Ambales burt ur landi fessu til Malpriants kongs, og 
bid hann taka vara & honum, ef hann heldur vid Somu 
Sidi, md hann Idta hann lifa ser og monnum sinum til 
Skemtunar, enn taki hann umskipti vitsku og vidfangs, 

55 })d, bid J>ii Mta drepa hann. petta fokti k6ngi allgott 
rdd og I6t bilast vid ferdinni. 



22 Capituli, 

sfP\G sem buid var til Ferdarinnar, gekk k6ngur eirn 
^^ morgun af Sseng sinni og rekkju Sveinar hans 
med honum d, br6kar bekk ; og er hann heimleidis gekk, 
sd hann J>rja" menn standa i miklum Ii6ma, likari eing- 

5 lum en monnum })6 bar eirn Idngt af hinum tveimur, 
svo konungur feiladi ser a ad lita, enn J>essi mikli 
madur kalladi d hann og baud honum ad koma. Kong- 
ur lagdi sina C6r6nu af sier d, jord, og fiell fram d 
sina dsjonu til jardar, enn sd mikli madur reisti hann 

10 upp, t6k i hendur hans og mynntist vid hann og 
mselti: Eiki ]>itt mun eg stadfesta med Idngvarandi 

120 



were sought out by the sprite, and this is my dream." 
All said 'twas a wondrous dream. " 'Twill come to 
pass," the king said, " as I have long misdoubted me, that 
Ambales will be this sprite : his death shall no longer 
be delayed ; his wiliness has availed to put it off." The 
queen said : " Dost thou think thou wilt escape thy 
death thereby, should he be slain? though he die thy 
bane will live." All men said that the words of the 
queen were true. Then the king's temper abated, and 
he bade Gamaliel give counsel. Gamaliel said : " I 
counsel thee to send Ambales out of this land unto King 
Malpriant, and bid him watch him : if he continue in his 
present ways, Malpriant may let him live for the sport 
of himself and of his men, but if he change toward 
wisdom and good sense, bid him have him put to 
death." The king deemed this counsel most wise, and 
bade them prepare for the journey. 



Chapter 

QTND now they were ready for the journey: but one 
~* morning the king left his bed, and his pages with 
him, for the "breech-bench;" and when he went back 
again, he beheld three men in great splendour, more like 
to angels than to men, yet one of them exceeded far the 
others, so that the king was too abashed to look at them, 
but the greatest of the three called unto him and bade him 
come near, and the king put down his crown upon the 
ground and fell prostrate to the earth, but the great one 
raised him up and took him by the hands, and kissed him 
and said: "Thy kingdom I shall fortify with enduring 

121 



CH. XXII. fridi og vissum lifdogum ad leingd og velferd. Eg veit 
ad ]>u hefur sett fer i Hug urn fifl J>ad er )>u hefur Mtid 
hj& })6i dvelja, aldrei skal grei fad fer granda, og ei mun 

15 hann ser n6 odrum til Saemdar lifa, ne hefndar Sorg auka, 
Send J)ii hann austur i Skytja Tamerlaus kongi br6dur 
J)inum, ban hefur nylega mist marga menn i orustu er 
hann dtti vid Sarasenis, Jni skalt laia riki J)itt filgja d, 
fennan ha*tt sem Gamaliel fyrr rddi fer, og til stadfestu 

20 J>inu lifi, riki og magt, sem og lika minum ordum, gdf 
eg ]>6i J>ennan rikissprota, var ))ad hid tignarlegasta ]>fng, 
og sem k6ngur hefur vidtekid pessu d,gjaeta fingi, hvarf 
honum Ii6mi J>essi og mennirnir, stod han far eptir ber- 
hofdadur med uppliptum hondum grd,tandi Mngann tima ; 

25 Sveinar bans fserdu honum k6ronu sina, giekk hann sidann 
med gledi til Hallar og settist i H^sseti, sagdi hann monn- 
um sinum frd vitran sinni, sagdi st sinn Gud nu fundid 
hafa, og syndi }>eim hvort teikn bans Seeri filgt hefdi, sem 
var sd tignarlegi Sproti, bann sagdi og hvort ra"d hann 

30 hefdi gefid s6x um Ambales, og hvad hann hefdi um hann 
talad. Oil Hyrdinn qvad vid fagnadar lof, I6t k6ngur mi 
biia fessa Ferd enn ei hina, og kallar fyrir sig Cimbal og 
Carvel og baud feim fessa ferd ad fara, pid skulud, seigir 
hann, hjd, Tamerlaus kongi vera og honum ])j6na mz J>vi 

35 lidi sem eg J>angad sendi. pakklsetis Hatid let k6ngur en 
nu halda godum sinum, og var mikil gledi a" Ferdum. 



peace, and the days of thy life shall be long and pros- 
perous. I trow thou art troubled in thy mind con- 
cerning a fool whom thou hast suffered to dwell with 
thee, but never shall that cur do harm to thee, nor will 
his life bring honour to himself, or to any man, nor 
need he make thee fearful of his vengeance, but send 
him east to Scythia, unto Tamerlan thy brother, who 
has lately lost a many men in battle with the Saracens : 
rule thou thy realm as Gamaliel has counselled thee : 
lastly, to vouchsafe to thee dominion and power, and to 
assure thee of my words, I give to thee this sceptre." It 
was the noblest thing to look on, and when the king re- 
ceived this glorious gift, the men of splendour vanished 
from his sight, and he stood alone there, his head bare and 
his hands uplifted, weeping for a long while. His pages 
brought to him his crown, and filled with gladness he went 
into the hall, and sat upon his throne and told the vision 
to his men; he said he had now met his god, and he 
showed them the token which had accompanied his sure 
word ; it was a most glorious sceptre. He told them, too, 
the rede he had received concerning Ambales, and all that 
the angel said concerning him. The court spake praise 
and joyfully gave thanks; and the king bade them now 
prepare for this journey, and not for the former one, and 
he called Cimbal and Carvel before him and bade them 
to go on this journey: "Ye two," said he, "must stay 
with King Tamerlan and serve him with the host that 
I shall send thither." The king ordained then a thanks- 
giving festival for his gods once more, and there was 

great joy. 

123 



23 Capitulu 

nt TiLREiDfNGAR tima Ferdar fessarar, gdkk Ambales 
** vestur um Fjallbigdir ad hitta vinkonu sina hina 
g6mlu trollkonu, eptir ad hann hafdi talad vid k6ng i 
Skikkjunni Tosta naut, hann kom i miklar Fjallhlidar 
5 med haum Homrum, ]mr ser hann hvar eirn Eisi fer, sa* 
bar tvo menn til baks og eirn i firir, }>eir emjudu mjog 
er J>eir sdu Ambales g&nga, hann fer til Bisans og maelti : 
vinur ! legg Jrti af vid mig byrdi J>ina ad ei purfi eg ills 
ad neita. Bisinn meelti : ei hef eg fyrir meiri monum Mtid 

10 enn ]>&, og ert )>u heimskur, enn fii ert mer velkominn, 
)?vi J)ii ert Stikkja st6r i mfna mdltid, og ei skaltu erindis- 
laus d burtu fara. Bisinn hafdi Svedju mikla i hendi 
og hj6 hann til Ambalesar, enn hann br sdr undan og 
hli6p hun i jord nidur, enn Ambales hli6p ad honum, 

15 J?reif i handleggina og stie i kne'sbsetur honum, og rikkti 
fast ad sdr svo Risinn biltist nidur, vid J>ad mikla fall 
urdu honum lausir J>eir tveir menn sem i baki v6ru, enn 
sd f^kk bana er i Fdngi bans var, enn vopnid hraut ur 
hendi hans, stokk lp Bisinn d fsetur og redust J>eir 

20 med grimd mikillri, var su glima laung med st6rum 
sviptingum, hamadist nii Bisin mjog og J>re^f Ambales 
uppd bringu sdr, og bar hann sem barn vaeri til bigda sinna, 
hvar sem J>eir foru, urdu eikur af Stofnum ad ga*nga, 
gjordist nii Ambales lettur i hondum hanns vard hann 

25 mjog 6ttaslegin, ei sist ad horfa a hans grimlegu dsynd ; 
]?reyf hann nu bd/dum hondum i Ske'gg Bisans sem huldi 
brmguna ad belti nidur, sk6k hann J>ad og hristi svo 

Hdls hans styrdnadi mjog, var J>d Bisin komin ad Hellirs 
124 



Cijapter XIIII. 

PHILE this journey was being arrayed, Ambales went 
westward to the mountain-land to seek his friend, 
the old troll-woman. This befell after he had spoken to 
the king, clad in the cloak, the gift of Tosti. He came 
to a fell- side steep with mighty crags, and he saw how 
a giant strode forward with two men upon his back 
and one in front. They whined aloud when they saw 
Ambales approaching there. He went up to the giant 
and said to him : " Friend, prithee lay down thy 
burden, that I may need no force." The giant spake : 
" I have ne'er yielded to greater than thou ; thou art 
needs a fool, but thou art welcome ; thou'lt prove a goodly 
morsel for my meal, thy journey shall not be all in vain." 
The giant held in his hand a mighty glaive, and he heaved 
it at him, but Ambales drew aside and it stuck fast in the 
earth. Ambales rushed now at the giant, clutched at his 
arm, and pressed on his knee-bights, and pulled so hard 
at him that the giant fell adown, and through his fall the 
two men on his back got loose, but the one in his grip was 
killed withal, and the weapon dropped from out his hand. 
Anon the giant leapt to his feet, and they set upon each 
other with great fierceness. The fight was long and their 
tugging fierce. At one time the giant raged madly, and 
caught up Ambales to his breast, and bore him to his 
dwelling as he were a child ; and where they fared oaks 
were uprooted. Ambales was light in the giant's arm ; he 
was much afeard, and more so when he turned him toward 
his fearful visage. With both his hands he caught at the 
giant's beard which covered his body even to his waist, and 
he tugged at it hard so that his neck grew stiff. The 
giant was come by now to the doorway of the cave, and 

"5 



CH. XXIII. dyrunum sinum, og vildi Ambales far innkoma, v6ru 

so mi umbrot mikil f eirra milli, enn svo lauk, ad Ambales 
reif alt Skegg af Risanum, far med Skinnid og holdid 
af kjdlkunum greip svo i eyru Risans sem mjog v6m sid, 
og spent! ban so til baka, var ml Ambales komin inn 
fyrir Hellirsdyrnar, i fvi heirdi hann fiingt til jardar 

35 stigid, var far fa* komin Skiessan vinkona Ambalesar og 
f reif bddum hondum um lendar Risans, og kippti honum 
Mngt M Hellirsdyrunum, enn Ambal. belt eptir d, eyrunum, 
vard honum f d, litid i Hellirin, sa hann far Sverd hdnga, 
greip hann fad ofan, hliop ad Risanum og hj6 1 sundur d 

40 honum qvidinn so inniflin fdllu lit, i J>vi kom Tosti dverg- 
ur og veitti lid Ske'ssunni ad firir koma Risanum, enn 
Ambales gdkk i Hellirin og fann far mikil audeefi, og 
far med D6ttur Risans fjogra ara ad aldri, Mn grdt 
funglega Fodur sinn, fvi hiin J>6ktist hann daudafi vita, 

45 bun M i eirnri gullbuinni Saeng, og var mensk ad moderni 
hafdi m6dur hennar Idtist neer hana feeddi. Ambales 
tok meyuna i fdng sdr, og feerdi hana Skdssunni og 
bad hana uppfdstra, Mn lofadi J>vi, fora faug so alt 
til biggda kdrlingar, og fluttu fdngad audsefi Risans, 

50 t6k kdrlmg J>eim vel og voru so far um n6ttina, seigir 
hann mi kdiiingu af Hogum sinum, qvadst hann vindttu 
hennar og filgdar von eiga vilja og bad hana se'r gott 
Ess og vopn senda med Tosta Dverg man tveggja 
mdnada til fess lands er hann setti til ad fara ; f aug 

55 lofudu honum f essu ; bj6st hann mi til heimferdar, og 

qvaddi kdrlingu og bad hana firir Mejuna Risad6tter 
126 



he wished to force Ambales therein. There was a fierce 
tussle between them then, and in the end Ambales pulled 
off the giant's beard, and with it the skin and the flesh of 
the jaws ; then he grabbed at his ears, which were very 
long, and pulled him aback. Ambales was now at the 
doorway of the cave, and he heard heavy footsteps there, 
and there came up to him his friend the ogress, and she 
clutched with both hands at the giant's loins and pulled 
him from the entrance of the cave, and Ambales was left 
behind with the giant's ears in his hands. He looked 
into the cave, and saw where a sword was hanging ; he 
pulled it down, and leapt at the giant and hewed his 
belly asunder, so that the entrails fell out. At that 
moment Tosti the dwarf appeared, and he helped the 
ogress to deal the giant his death-bane. Ambales went 
into the cave and found therein much wealth, and eke 
the daughter of the giant, a child of four, who wept 
greatly for her father, for as it seemed she knew that he 
was dead ; she lay in a golden bed ; on her mother's side 
she was of human kind, but her mother died in giving 
birth to her. Ambales took the maiden in his arms and 
bore her to the ogress, and begged her to foster her, and 
she promised it. So they all went to the carline's dwell- 
ing, and carried thither the giant's wealth. The carline 
gave them goodly cheer, and they abode there all that 
night. He told her then how things fared with him, and 
begged her for her friendship and her aid, and bade her 
send to him within two months a goodly horse and 
weapon by the dwarf Tosti to the land he was to 
go to. They promised this, and he now got him ready 
to go home, and said farewell unto the carline, and 
begged her to care for the little girl, the daughter 
of the giant, who said her name was Hair-brow. 

127 



CH. XXIII. er Harbrd qvadst heita. T6k nu Ambales med sdr Skikkj- 

una Tostanaut og le*t hana i Skreppu sina; Signets 

bring gaf Tosti Dvergur honum, ad 611 um merkjum 

likan sem Signets hringur k6ngs var, skildu )>eir so 

60 med kjserleikum. 

24 Capituli. 

;NN er sendimenn vdru albiinir, fekk k<5ngur ])eim Dreka 
allg6dann, er tt hafdi Salman kdngur, bann var 
med gylltum vedurvitum, stofudu Segli og Stalslegin allt 
ad Sj6mali, I6t kongur brdf i Hondur feirra Gimbals og 

5 Karvels, var J>ad & pennan hdtt: "Lukka og velgeingni 
s med ydur og ]?inum J)i6num Tamerlaus k6ngur minn 
brodir! F61k ))etta sendi eg ydur til lidveitslu, og eitt 
Fifl er h6i ad auki, gdtid af Salman k6ngi, d hvorju 
eg bid >ig vara ad taka, hvort nokkud adhefst til orda 

10 edur verka J>ad mannlegt er, og sjaist ]?ad, }> ld.t drepa 
hann, enn pr6fist >ad ei, meigid J?dr Idta ban lifa }>6i og 
monnum J?inum til Skemtunar. Lif vel ! Stigu J?eir so 
& Skip, og f6r Ambales med ]?eim, ge*kk J^eim ogreid- 
lega, enn nddu }?6 um sidir Skytja, og komu ad vid 

is Hamra nokkra enn ei J?aer i6ttu hafnir, geingu J?eir 
J^ar d land, var J?ar firer ein eidimork, um sidir komu 
J?eir ad einum kotbae, >ar var karl utistaddur, honum 
vard 6gott vid gdstakomuna, enn J?eir seddu inni bans 
bse 6bodnir, kona bans sat palli og ]rj6nusta hennar, 

20 Mn seigir ge'sti velkomna, Artes var hennar heiti, 
bun bar kjot 4 bordid firir gesti af Saudum, geitum 

Svinum og Fuglum, og var )?ad Sundurskorid og vel 
128 



Ambales took away with him the cloak which Tosti had 
given him, and hid it in his bag. Dwarf Tosti gave him 
eke a signet-ring, for all the world like to the signet of 
the king, and so they parted with great show of love. 



Chapter 

Iow when the messengers were all ready, the king 
gave them a noble dragon-ship, which had formerly 
belonged to King Salman. It had golden vanes and 
wanded sails, and was all steel-bound down to the sea-mark. 
The king placed a letter in the hands of Cimbal and 
Carvel, which read as follows : " Luck and prosperity 
befall thee and thy folk, King Tamerlaus, my brother ! 
These people send I thee for thy succour, and with them 
send I eke a fool, begotten of King Salman, and I bid 
thee observe whether his conduct in word and deed be at 
all human ; an it be, let him be slain, but if thou art 
convinced 'tis not so, then mayst thou let him live to 
make sport for thee and for thy men. Farewell ! " So 
they went aboard. Ambales accompanied them, and things 
fared ill with them ; but at last they reached Scythia, 
and they put in at a rocky strand, for there was no pro- 
per harbourage there. They went a-land ; a wilderness 
stretched before them ; after a time they found a small 
farmstead ; the carl was standing without ; he did not 
welcome his guests, but they rushed into the dwelling 
all unbidden. The carlin was sitting in the upper- 
loft, her wenches with her : she on her part gave the 
guests blithe welcoming : her name was Artes. She 
set before them on the board flesh of sheep and 
goats and swine and fowl, cut up ready into portions, 



CH. XXIV. vel tilbuid, og grautur gjordur ur geitamjdlk handa ge'stunu 

25 med odrum gddum tilfaungum. Ambales sat vid elld hjd 
Husfreyu og bles ad brondum og tindi agnir ad eldi, 
Hiisfreya horfdi d, hann, og spyr hvad honum beeri til 
dhiggju? enn hann qvad ser sveingd granda, pvi Skip- 
folkid hefdi breitt ilia vid sig. Hun qvad so vera meiga, 

30 enn munu pdr J>6 fleiri ad auk ... So bar hun honum fsedu 
ad kostum nsegilega enn hann neitti sem purfti og qvad 
)>6kk fyrir; v6ru peir par um ndttina, Id, Ambales undir 
rekkju karls vid kubl hans og pad annad sem kerling gat 
d, hann tint; en ad morgni hielt Husfreya J>eim aptur 

36 seemilega m^/ltid, . . . Ambales og svo lika pott hann vseri 
s6x og bordadi einsamall, bjuggust J?eir so i burtu og 
luku launum fyrir gistinguna. Ambal. gaf Husfreiu Stein 
agjsetan er gjsefu mans jok, vyrdtist herii hans gjof vid 
hinna allra ; foru menn nu leid sina ; vedur var hlytt um 

40 dagiri, og dttu Sendimenn )>essir dvol hjd einu vatni, og 
toku middags vord, og eptir maltid logdust )>eir til svefns, 
Ambal. hraut miog funglega, enn sem allir voru i Svefn 
komnir, stod han upp og festi odrum meiri Svefn, tok sidan 
brdf J?ad er Cimbal hafdi, braut J>ad upp, rakti i sundur, 

45 las, sidann batt hann fad vid Steinog kastadi uta vatnid svo 
J>ad sokk par nidur, Skrifadi sidan annad brdf i pess stad og 
setti innsigli kongs fyrir, og bjo so um sem adur var, lagdist 
so firir og hraut meedilega ; enn er dleid dagjin, voknudu 
Vikingar og geingu af Stad, enn Ambales 1 eptir vid 

so bol sitt, geingu peir J)d til Hans og lomdu hann d faetur, 

geingu so padan var pa Skamt eptir til kdngs hallar, og 
130 



and well served. Porridge made with goats' milk was 
eke prepared for the guests, together with other dainties. 
Anibales sat at the fire beside the housewife; he blew 
at the gleeds, and threw small chips into the fire. The 
housewife watched him narrowly, and asked him what 
it was that troubled him ; he was suffering pangs of 
hunger, he said, for his crew-mates had treated him ill. 
She said belike 'twas so, but there was more behind. 
She then brought him food, and there was ample choice ; 
he took whatso he fancied, and thanked her. They tar- 
ried there during the night, and Ambales lay beneath the 
goodman's bed, covered with his cloak and with such 
other garments as the carline Artes had got together 
wherewith to cover him. On the morrow the housewife 
regaled them all again with a goodly meal, the crew and eke 
Ambales, though he kept to himself and ate alone. They 
then prepared to depart, and gave gifts for their guesting. 
Ambales gave the good-wife a precious stone which 
always brought its owner luck, and she deemed his gift 
worth those of all the rest together. And so they went 
their way. Now the day was hot, and the messengers 
tarried beside a stream, and took their mid-day meal 
there, and after the meal they lay down to sleep. Am- 
bales snored heavily for a while until the others 
were all fast asleep, when he got up and made their 
sleep even sounder, and took the letter which Cimbal 
carried with him, and broke it open and unfolded 
it, and read it, and thereafter tied it to a string, and 
threw it into the water, and it sank. He then wrote 
another letter in its stead, and set the king's seal 
thereon, and arranged all as before, and laid himself down 
again and snored wearily. And as the day wore on the 
vikings awoke and they went their way, but Ambales 
remained behind asleep in his lair. They went back to 
him and beat him and set him on his legs, and they all 
went thence together, and they were then not far from 



CH. XXIV. er ])eir komu J>ar, geingu ]?eir firir hann og qvoddu han, 
kongur t6k fvi vel, J>ar eptir frambaru J>eir sin eyrindi, 
og afhendtu kongi brefid, hvort hann medtok og las med 

55 sjdlfum se'r, og er hann hafdi lesid brefid, mselti hann : A 
annan veg hli6dar brdf J?etta enn J>er hafid mer ddur afsagt, 
edur hvar er sa kongs son sem eg er af Fastinus kongi 
umbedinn ad eg mer fyrir Son taki ? peir qva^du ]?etta 
aungvanveginn so dsigkomid vera, og qv^du mi ligi frani- 

60 borna. Kongur maelti : aungvum banna jeg brefid ad sja ; 
Idsu ]?eir J?ad sidann, er so var ordad sem h6i seigir : 
Lukka og velgeingni se med ydur og J)inum fjonum 
Tamerlaus k6ngur minn brodir ! Folk }?etta sendi eg 
ydur, er filgir J>eim agjseta kongs syni Ambales, d honum 

65 er mm kjserleiki, J?vi hann hefur me'r sekum vel reynst 
og J)j6nad og til margra lifgjafa verid J?a eg i daudans 
hsettu staddur var, minu Riki hefur hann og mestan 
S6ma gjort med audsefum dirra hluta, og med )>vi eg 
kann litid hans Soma ad auka edur forframa ad veita, 

70 }> sendi eg hann til ydar, bidjandi um hann sem mitt 
eigid barn, ad J>e*r gjorid honum }>ann Soma sem J>ess 
kjserasta, J>er munud og vist reina ad eg sannindi 
mseli, ad hann mun ydar Rikismagt Stidja, J>vi hann 
er hinn mesti kappi, rikur af visd6mi, og veit marga 

75 leinda hluti firir, enn )>eir men er honum filgja, skulu 
hans Sveinar vera, og ydvarri magt filgja og J>j6na. Lifid 
med agjseti og velferd ! Vid J>etta urdu Sendimenn mjog 
hlj6dir, og undrudust slika hluti. 

132 



the king's hall. When they came thither, they went 
before the king and greeted him. The king received 
their greeting well, and they brought forward their 
errand, and delivered the letter into the king's hands, 
and he took it, and read it to himself, and when he had 
read it all through he said thus : " The purport of the 
letter differs wholly from what ye have told me, and 
where now is the prince whom Faustinus bids me take 
to myself as a foster-son ? " Such was surely not the 
bearing of the letter, said they ; else some lie had been 
brought to the king. The king said : " I forbid no one 
to read the letter." They read it and found it worded 
even as it is here related : " Luck and prosperity befall 
thee and thy folk, King Tamerlaus, my brother ! These 
people send I to thee to- accompany the noble Prince 
Ambales, on whom resteth all my love ; despite my guilt, 
he hath borne himself passing well toward me, and hath 
oft-times done me service, giving me my life when I was 
placed in very danger of death. To my realm, too, hath 
he brought great glory and rich stores of wealth. And 
whereas I know but little how best to advance his 
honour and to further his renown, send I him unto 
thee, beseeching thee, as if he were mine own child, 
to honour him as thy best beloved. Thou wilt soon 
discover that I speak but truth, for he will prove himself 
thy kingdom's stay ; he is a mighty warrior, and rich 
in wisdom, and many hidden things can he foretell ; 
the men who accompany him are to be his servants, 
though they should eke do homage to thy power and 
render thee some service." At all this the messengers 
were struck dumb, and they marvelled thereat greatly. 

'33 



25 Capitutt. 

OH. XXV. /JU^AMERLAUS kongur heimti nu af Jorlunum Svein fan er 
^^ honum var sendur, ella qvad hann )>eim straff biiid, 
fvf vaeri svo ban finndist ei, mundu f eir hafa myrdt hann 
fyrir ofundarsakir, verda mi Jarlarnir rddalausir, og geingu 

6 lir Hollinni, og er f eir komu lit, sau f eir medal vaktar- 
anna eirn oke'nndan mann i hinum mesta Soma, geingu 
Jarlar fdngad og hneigdu enum okunna tignar manni, 
enn spurdu ad Ambales, vaktararnir sogdu hann nefndi 
sig Ambales, og ekki hefdu J>eir vid annan mann varir 

10 ordid og hann hefdi )>d,ngad komid i )>eirra ferd ; ganga nu 
Jarlarnir miog litiMtlega inni Hollina, leidandi hann d 
milli sin berhofdadir, og sem hann kom i Hollina, luta 
honum allir, kdngur sjalfur St6d uppi moti honum, enn 
Ambal. qvaddi hann mjog vyrduglega, kongur tok vel 

15 qvedju bans, og setti hann hid nsersta se'r, og sem J>eir 
v6ru setstir, spyr k6ngur hann heitis og settlanda, enn 
ban seigir k6ngi sem var, so og hvad honum hafi til 
nauda borid einkum Fodurdrdpid sorglegast, hvad hann 
sagdi ser obaetta Sok. Kongur spyr: viltu hefna fins 

20 Fodurs og Londum finum aptur na ? Ambales mse : 
vildi Gud allra Guda fad veita, fa skildi eg hann 
Smanarlegum dauda deida, en vilje Gud fad ei, fd njoti 
hann f ess rikis sem best. K6ngur mselti : af kjeerleika 
vid fig, bidur Fdstinus k6ngur mig fer S6ma og vel- 



Chapter mr. 

TAMERLAUS demanded now the youth who had 
been sent to him, or, said he, punishment was in 
store for them ; forsooth, if it befell that he could not be 
found, belike they had murdered him through jealousy. 
The earls were all at a loss and knew not what to do, 
and they went forth from the hall, and there beheld 
among the sentinels a man of noblest mien ; they knew 
him not. They went forward then and did obeisance to 
this noble warrior, who was all unknown to them. They 
inquired there concerning Ambales. The sentinels told 
them that that very man gave the name of Ambales ; 
they had noticed no one else there ; he had indeed come 
with them in their company. And anon the earls, de- 
jected and humbled, with uncovered heads, entered the 
hall, leading Ambales between them ; and as he came 
into the hall, all men bowed before him, and the king 
himself stood up to receive him, and Ambales greeted 
him right worthily, and the king received his greeting 
kindly, and seated him next to himself; and when they 
had sat down, the king asked his name and country, and 
he told the king all as it was ; and he told him eke what 
had brought him to so sad a plight, namely, his father's 
cruel murder, whereof the guilt was not yet atoned for, 
said he. The king asked him : " Dost thou wish to 
avenge thy father and win thy lands again?" "If the 
God of all gods," said Ambales, " would but grant it, he 
should die a shameful death ; but if God's will be not 
so, let him enjoy his dominion as best he can." The 
king said : " In his love towards thee, king Faustinus 
begs me to honour thee and to aggrandise thee." 

'35 



CH. XXV. gjordir ad veita. Ambales ma3lti : I aungvann mata er 
eg J>ess maklegur af honum nd ydur. Kongur mselti : 
Hvorsu skal med fina Filgjara fara er J>ig fra" liii logid 
hafa ? Ambal. mee : J?eir skulu sum lifi halda i fan 
mdta og med Jrvi moti ad peir sverje ydur og me'r holl- 

30 ustu sina, er ])6 Carvel af mer daudans maklegur, fvi 
hann er sekur i dauda Fodur mins, J)6 skal hann figgja 
lif af me'r vilje hann taka mina Trii og sverja m6i 
hollustu sina, geingu nu Jarlar fyrir kong og Ambal. 
med audmykt, og soru }>eim sina Tru og Hollustu, hvad 

35 kongur leid og let svo vera, gjordust J)eir so Sveinar 
Ambalesar. Var nu veitsla gjor med bestu kostum. 
Kongur hafdi Samneiti med Ambales og Jorlum bdxlum, 
enn Ambales, vildi ekki samneita kongi, og i eingan 
mata bans ddrykkju halda, en annara manna ddrykkju 

40 ]?ag hann ; K6ngur vard far vid slikt, leid svo dagurin, 
var Ambales og sveinum bans filgt ollum i eitt Herbergi 
miog veglegt, midju golfi J>ess var stoll eirn gjor af 
marmara Steini, Sd Steirn var holur innann og, leini- 
gdngur i hann lir odrum husum J>dngad, plagadi k6ngur 

45 niosnar menn ad setja, sem heira ma'ttu leindar rdda- 
gjordir og nymeeli. Og er k6ngs son gekk til hvilu, og 
flestir voru i Svefn komnir, J>a" toku tveir vid hann til 
orda: Hvorju sseta um skipti }>in, aungvan hlut saum 
ver olikari enn J>u ert sjalfum ]?er vordinn, J>vi munu 

50 alogin ein ollad hafa, J?eir spyrja : hvad olli s^rgjsedi 
J)inu ad ])u vildir hvorki eta ne drekka yfir kongs bordi ? 

han ma3lti : Jar eru margar ordsakir til, J>vi braud-akur 
136 



" I am no wise worthy," replied Ambales, " of such kind- 
ness, neither from him nor from thee." The king said : 
" What shall be done with those that accompanied thee, 
who by base lying would have deprived thee of life?" 
Ambales said : " Let them live on this one condition, 
namely, that they swear fealty to thee and to me. Carvel 
deserves indeed to receive death at my hands, for he has 
guilt in my father's death ; yet shall he have life from 
me, if he will but take my faith and swear fealty to me." 
And now the earls came before the king and before 
Ambales with humble demeanour, and they swore them 
fealty and allegiance, and the king was satisfied and 
assented. Thus became they the servants of Ambales. 
A banquet was now prepared with greatest splendour. 
The king and Ambales and both the earls were served 
together, but Ambales would not eat with the king nor 
respond to his wassail ; with other men he drank ; thereat 
the king was sorely vexed ; and thus the day passed. 
Then Ambales and all his men were brought to a stately 
chamber ; in the middle of the floor was a chair of marble 
stone ; 'twas hollow within, and a secret passage led to 
it from other rooms. The king was wont to send spies 
thither to overhear secret talk and to gather news. Now 
when Ambales was a-bed, and when most of them were 
asleep, two of the men began thus to speak with him : 
"Wherefore this change in ihee? We have never be- 
held anything more unlike thy former self than thou 
hast become ; spells alone could have worked it." They 
asked him too : " What meant thy whim that thou 
wouldst neither eat nor drink at the king's table?" 



CH.XXV. kongs er yfir daudra mafia beinum og banvaern, og J>vi 
dt eg ei vid bordid, k6ngur dt af krdsum afgudaf6rna, 

55 hvad kristnum s6mir ei ad eta, enn )>vi hielt eg ekki 
ddrikkju kongs, hvad ]>6 mun mest forsmdn virdst hafa, 
ad harm er Horu-Son, enn eg er i Hjuskap getin J>eir 
seigja: hvorjar Sakir tildr6gu um mismun brdfanna"? 
ban mselti : k6ngur mun sjdlfur skrifad hafa brdf hdr 

60 lesid se'r ad 6vitru, J)vi til Jess eru 61serdir ad blekkja. 
peir Spyrja : viltu hefnda leita vid kong og svo Londum 
J)inum n& ? hann mselti : hvad sem lukkan vill er mer 
J>ekkast, enn hun k^mur ei utan af Gudi. Sidan f6ru 
]?eir ad sofa, ni6snarmadurin veik ur Steininum og sagdi 

65 k6ngi hvors hann var vis ordin ; og sem hann heirdi 
a"d vard hann reidur, og qvad s skildi smdnarlegasta 
dauda deja sem se'r skom maelt hefdi edur m6dur slna 
h6rkdnt, i J>vi kom Ambales i Hollina, og er k6ngur 
sa" ban, sefadist reidi bans, og maelti : veitstu faug upp- 

70 tok hid oss sem vond eru : aukir J>ii eda fram haldir 
sliku, dttu ei lifs von. Ambales meelti : Ssemdarlaust er 
vitrum monnum sannindum ad reidast, enn ei Mist 
ydur )x5 ]>ei vilied hylja m6dur litin, J>ad er og annad, 
Herra k6ngur ! ad hun mun ydur sem alia adra sinum 

75 Skomum leint hafa, en ydur til advorunar hef eg svo 
talad, )>vl ydar brauds-Akur er orsok til drepsottar sm 
hdr J)rdtt yfirgeingur af odaun daudra manna beina upp- 
sprottin, s^ annars, J>d er eg dauda madur. K6ngur I6t 
grafa til braud-akursins, )?ar reyndist })d urd mikil af 

so manna beinum. petta j6k k6ngi st6rrar Sorgar, og ei 
138 



" There are various reasons," said he ; " the king's corn 
grows over dead men's bones ; wherefore 'tis poisonous, 
and so I did not eat thereof at the table : the king par- 
took too of blood-offerings sacred to his idols, and it 
beseems not Christian men to partake thereof; but the 
thing that must have seemed most ill-mannered, to wit, 
that I did not drink with the king, had also its reason ; 
he is the son of a whore, but I am born in wedlock." 
They asked him what might explain the changed wording 
of the letter. He said : " The king himself must have 
written the letter that had been read, not knowing what 
he had written, for the ignorant usually make strange 
errors." They asked him again : " Wilt thou take revenge 
against the king, and so obtain thy lands ? " " Whatso- 
ever fortune wills," said he, "I welcome ; success comes 
but from God." They then went to sleep, and the spy 
left the chair, and thereafter narrated to the king all he 
had heard. And when the king heard it, he grew wroth, 
and said the fellow should die a shameful death who had 
spoken shame concerning him, and had called his mother 
a whore. At that very moment Ambales stepped into the 
hall, and when the king saw him his anger abated some- 
what, and he said : " Thou knowest thy conduct has been 
evil from the beginning : persist therein or repeat it, and thy 
hope of life is gone." " 'Tis ignoble," said Ambales, "for 
wise men to be angered at the truth ; but I blame thee not 
for wishing to conceal thy mother's shame, or perhaps 'tis 
rather to be said, lord king, that she must have concealed 
her shame from thee as from others. Further, 'tis to warn 
thee that I have spoken, for thy cornfield is the cause of 
the dread pest so widespread in this region ; it arises 
from the poison of dead men's bones. An it be not 
so, I am a man of death." The king then had the 
field dug up, and they found there a heap of dead men's 
bones. The king was greatly troubled thereat, but 
he was even more troubled concerning the matter of his 
birth. So he went to his mother's chamber to ask her 

'39 



CH. xxv. sist hriggdist hann af setterni sinu, ge'kk hann J> 1 Sal 
modur sinnar og spyr hana fadernis sins, enn hun skipti 
litum af grimd og meelti : Reingir nokkur Ssemd vora ? 
hafa ei odol )>in eettke'nnt J>ig, edur vilt ))u hafna heidri 

85 J)inum og Idta Lond J)in fyrir ord kongs sonar J>essa? 
K6ngur meelti : J>u skalt hid sanna seigja verda, ella 
mun lif ])itt vidliggja, og )>6tt ei s6 Solddn k6ngur minn 
Fadir, )> skalt }>u J?ess ei gjalda, enn leinir )>u J>vi sem 
Ipd veitst sannara, }> skaltu fess gjalda. Kelling gjordist 

90 st6r i Skapi og vildi sM Son sinn kdngin enn hann hdlt 
henni ; Drottning )>essi h6t Cemiria, og hafdi leingi 
lundstor og lostafull verid, hiin mselti : Til ills ertu af 
me'r alinn, og ilia gdldur Jni mer mina daudlega qvol 
sem eg leid )> eg J>ig fseddi, og fer ])6r sist me'r slika 

95 svivyrding eigna, }>d, fre^ngdi k6ngur ad henni, hiin 
maelti : illt skal nti ilium bjoda, og er })6r ]?ad ei ofgott, 
}>ii fikist minu lifi rdda, en eg skal ]?inu rdda, skaltu 
he'r ekki leingur londum ne lifi halda J>vi ])u dtt faug 
ekki, og attu J>6gn minni ad J>akka heidur J>in, eg skal 

100 Idta brsedur ))ina vita ad Landid Schytja er J>eirra erfda 
eign, peir Skulu J?inu lifi ei J?yrma, og sina eign til sin 
taka. Hertogjen Artax d, Indjalandi er Fadir J)inn og 
honum ertii likur; einusinni hdlt Soldan kongur i her- 
nad, enn Artax gjsetti landa d medan, og gat J)ig ]?d vid 

105 me'r, og Idttu J?er nu linda ad J>ii veitst hid sanna. 



140 



who was his father : she changed colour in her rage and 
exclaimed : "Is there any one here who misdoubts our 
honour ? Have not thy possessions decided thy birthright, 
or wilt thou renounce thy good name and give up thy 
lands because of this princeling's word 1 " The king said : 
" Thou must needs tell me the truth or else thou losest 
thy life ; though King Soldan be not my father, thou 
shalt not pay the penalty ; but if thou concealest what 
thou knowest to be true thou shalt indeed pay for it." 
The woman then grew fierce of temper and rushed forward 
to smite her son, but he held her firmly ; her name was 
Cemiria ; she had long been of fierce temper and very 
lustful. " To my sorrow bore I thee, and ill requitest 
thou the deadly pang I suffered when I gave thee birth ; 
and least beseems it thee to saddle me with such a 
shame." The king pressed her then, and she said : " Let 
ill requite ill ; 'tis not too good a thing for thee ; thou 
thinkest thou hast my life in thy hands, but I shall soon 
have thine in mine ; thou shalt no longer hold sway 
here, nor have thy life, for thou hast no right to either, 
and my silence must thou thank for all thine honour. I 
shall let thy brothers know that the land of Scythia is 
their birthright. They will not spare thy life, and they 
will take what is theirs. The Duke Artax of India is thy 
father, and thou art like unto him. Once King Soldan 
went forth to the wars, and Artax ruled his lands in 
the meanwhile, and then he begat thee on me, and now 

be contented that thou knowest the truth." 

141 



26 Capituit. 

CH.XXVI. QL OLD AN k6ngur d, Indjalandi hafdi ge'fid dottur sina 
5^ Artax Hertoga Fodur Tamerlausar k6ngs, og var 
ban J>ar i mesta agseti. Kongur vard mj6g hliodur vid 
rsedu modur sinnar, enn J>6 let hann hana 1 fridi og 
5 gdkk til Hallar og maelti til Ambal : ofagnad st6ran og 
hugar raunir hef eg af Jrinni hingadkomu feingid. Am- 
bal. mse : Bsetur liggja til alls, ekki muntu gjaefu Jjinni 
sleppa fyrir mlnar Sakir, eg skal J>6r J>j6na med rdd og 
vilja, og ebla fitt Riki sem eg best orka, og md, og ei 

10 munu brsedur f>inir fd landid af J>er tekid, fvi feim 
munu eldsglaedur biinar til banda, enn Gud d Himnum 
rsedur ollu pessu. K6ngur mselti : vitur madur ertu, so 
ad eigi veit eg finn Ilka, mun eg fvi fastmseli vid J>ig 
binda og lofun Jrifii triia. Gjordist nu kongur gladur, 

15 og lagdi mikin kjserleika d Ambales, og f^kk honum i 
Hendur landvorn, vann ban jafnann Sigur og fdkk ofur 
Fjar, hann var vis og forsp&r og soktu margir til bans 
rdd og rdttindi, g^kk hann bid nsersta k6ngi, og gjordist 
mi bjd J)vi sem firr ollum kjser og pekkur, jafnan var 

20 hann dhiggjusamur og sidldtur 1 umgeingni, enn er hann 
var med odrum monnum, var ban hinn gladasti. 



142 



Chapter 



SOLDAN in India had given his daughter to Duke 
Artax, the father of King Tamerlaus, and he was 
held there in great renown. The king grew very silent 
at his mother's speech, but he left her in peace, and went to 
the hall, and said to Ambales : " Mighty sorrow and anguish 
receive I from thy visit here." " There is," said Ambales, 
a remedy for everything ; and thou shalt not lose thy 
bliss through me. I will serve thee with good counsel 
and with right good-will, and strengthen thy realm as 
best I may, and thy brothers shall not avail to wrest thy 
realm from thee ; coals of fire await them. God in 
heaven orders all things ! " The king said : " Wise art 
thou, and the like of thee I know not, wherefore I would 
make a covenant with thee, and will henceforth believe 
thy promises." The king was soon of good cheer, and 
laid great love on Ambales, and entrusted him with the 
land's defence, and Ambales always gained victory and 
won exceeding great wealth. He was wise and fore- 
knowing, and many took counsel with him and sought 
his judgment; he was next to the king. And now, in 
contrast to his previous plight, he was dear and welcome 
to all ; yet was he always brooding, though his manner 
to all men was gracious, and in the company of others 
he was the cheerfullest there. 



27 

CH. XXVII. J]T|ROTTNING Cdmiria Idt nu bref strifa til Sona sinna, 
^^ og I6t J> vita um eignir feirra, sem var Landid 
Schytja, og listi fyrir feim an bligdunar sinum skomum 
ad hiin hefdi fram hj konginum h<5rast, baud hun feim 

5 Tamerlaus kong frd, londum og lifi r^da, og lofadi sinn 
Styrk far til ad leggja, htin segir og af magt og vyrdingu 
Ambalesar, og er Malpriant k6ngur fekk sitt br^f, vard 
hann allshugar gladr, f6r ]>vi a fund Fst. kongs brodur 
sins, og urdu feir samrada i J>vi ad herja d, Eiki Tamerl. 

10 k6ngs. pa maelti Fd,stinus k6ngr : petta hefur minn 
Gud mer fyrirsagt fordu, er hann I6t Eikissprota fenna 
m6r i Hond til stadfestu mfns rikis og sinna firirheita. 
Malprfant k6ngur mselti : 6veent })ikir mdr J>etta efni 
vera, einkanlega vegna J>ess mikla kappa sem far skal 

15 komin vera miog nilega, og af J>dr sendur br6dir ! og 
hefur fig st6r heimska heims6kt ad Jni Idtst hann lifi 
halda, og vogadist til ad eiga hann yfir Hofdi J>dr; enn 
Fdstinus kgr. qvadst slikt ekki hrsedast mundi, og tjadi 
honum vitran sina, daemdu J>eir ser far firir fullkomlega, 

20 Sigurin visann. 



144 



Chapter 

UEEN CEMIRIA had letters written to her sons, and let , 

them know that the land of Scythia was theirs ; 
she revealed to them without shame how grievously she 
had sinned against the king : she bade them plot against 
King Tamerlaus, against his land and his life, and she 
promised to help them therein : she spake also of the 
might and prowess of Amhales. Now when King Mal- 
priant received this letter he was exceeding glad, and he 
went to meet his brother King Faustinus, and they were 
agreed together to win the realm of King Tamerlaus. 
Said King Faustinus : " My god foretold this in days 
gone by, when he placed this sceptre in my hands 
as a token that he would strengthen my dominion, and 
as a pledge of his promises." King Malpriant said : 
"The matter does not seem altogether hopeful because 
of the mighty warrior who is said to have come there but 
lately, sent even by thee, brother. Great folly must have 
possessed thee to let him have his life, and thou hast 
dared too much in having him over thy head." But King 
Faustinus answered that he was nowise afeard ; and he 
then repeated his vision to Malpriant, and they both 
deemed that signal victory was assured them. 



28 Capituit, 

CH.XXVIII. /H^AMERLAUS k6ngur gj0rdi herf0r mikla til Grikklands 

^^ og Ambales med honum ; le't hann nu ssekja Skip 

J>ad er hann kom J>ngad d, ))vi hann vildi sjalfur i 

Herforum J>essu Skipi Stira, Eitt sinn var k6ngur og 

5 Ambales utan borgar, J>a kom til )>eirra madur litill 

vexti, og qvaddi )>a blidlega, han faerdi kongssyni Ess 

mikid og tignarleg reidtygi, J>an Hest hafdi att kongur 

a Skotlandi er Jatmundur hdt, J>essum sama Hesti hafdi 

Ske'ssann nad, og sendi hann Ambales ; Sverd agjsett 

10 fe'kk komu madur honum, og v6ru Eggjar J>ess i eitri 
herdtar, og umgjord fess af kldru gulli, Spj6t og brinju 
af Stdli ferfalda, he'r med Skjold vel vandada, pridilegasta 
hjdlm og Burstaung, htin hafdi J)d ndttiiru ad jafnan 
saung i heni nser J)eim skildi Sigurs audid er hana bar, 

15 allt v6ru J)etta agjaetir gripir. K6ngur frdtti komu 
mann ad heiti ; han qvadst Tosti heita hann gaf 
kongi Sverd gott ; k6ngur fakkadi honum og spyr 
tidinda; enn hann seigir }>eim urn rddagjordir J>eirra 
brsedra, ad }>eir setla med dvigan Her ad tveim vetrum 

20 lidnum ad herja a Tamerlaus kong. Ambales mee : 
svo seigir mdr hugur ad ei muni feim hingad komu 
audid verda, enn sldur Sigurs a kongi }>essa lands, enn 
i nedri Schytia munu J>eir koma, og heni munu J)eir 

rdda meiga. Kongur brosti lp litid, geingu J)eir sidan 
146 



Chapter 

King Tamerlaus prepared to invade Greece with 
a mighty fleet, and Ambales aided him. He bade 
them find the ship wherein he had come thither, for he 
would himself take command thereof in this expedition. 
Now once when the king and Ambales were without the 
city, there came up to them a man of small size who 
greeted them joyously ; he brought the prince a noble 
horse with brave trappings ; the horse had formerly 
belonged to the King of Scotland hight Jatmund; this 
same horse the ogress had got possession of, and she 
sent it to Ambales. The stranger guest brought him eke 
a precious sword, the edge whereof had been hardened 
in poison ; its sheath was all of bright gold ; he gave him 
too a spear and a byrnie of fourfold steel, and eke a shield 
wondrously wrought, and a stout helmet, and a tilting- 
lance with this virtue, that a singing noise was heard therein 
whenever victory was fated for him who bore it ; all these 
gifts were indeed precious possessions. The king asked the 
stranger his name : he said he hight Tosti ; and therewith 
he gave the king a goodly sword. The king thanked him, 
and asked him what tidings he brought ; Tosti then told 
him of his brothers' plans, that they had resolved to attack 
him with a mighty army when two winters had passed. 
"My mind presages," said Ambales, "that it will not be 
granted them even to come hither, much less to gain victory 
over the king of the realm, but in Lower Scythia they 
may perchance come, and they may lord it there." The 
king smiled a little thereat, and thereafter they went 

'47 



OH. XXIX, helm til Hallar, fdkk Tosti dvergur vyrduglegt Sseti. 
[Kongur le't bua mikin her til Grikklands herfarar, og 
hefdi 90 skip mjog stor og otal smserri skipanna. Ambales 
styrdi skipi sinu pvi er ban kalladi fodur-naut sinn. 
Tosti dvergur var med peim. Kongur belt til Grikklands, 
so og toku hofn, og belt leidangur um alt Landid til hofud- 
borgar og settu par tjold sin.] * 

29 Capituii, 

RiR Grikklandi og odrum kristnum kongarikjum 
rddi sa keisari er Chrisolitus hdt, bann sat i Constan- 
tin6pel, sem var Hofudborg Eikisins, og hann med sinum 
londum vardveitti, bann dtti i orustu vid J)ser ))j6dir sem 

6 kallast Sarasenir, sem voru hinir verstu Tirariar og vaegdu 
eingum hvorki ungb6rnum nd feim i kor Mgu, peir sdtu 
um Constantin6pel i 5 mdnudi med 400,000 manna, 
Hofdingi peirra h^t Barastatis edur Bastianus, enn ad 
auk nafni 6ttamanus, hann framdi hinar verstu Skamir, 

10 hann tok J>ser Egiptsku meyar er hondla kunni, og 
konur, og lagdi J>ser i sina Sseng, og hielt vid peer um 
tima, enn er hann girntist ei leingur hverja fyrir sig, 
risti hann hennar qvid f sundur med knffi, og drap so 
hvorja eptir adra; Hann hafdi 18 Slog baft vid borgar- 

15 lidinn, og gjort mikid manntj6n. Keisarinn le*t Isesa 
ollum borgarhlidum, var bann par inni, og i stserstu 
neid komin. Tamerlaus kongur og Ambales hofdu 
sleigid sinum Tj61dum priggja daga leid frd borginni. 
Tamerlaus kongur qvad par fyrir vera hid versta mann 

* These lines, omitted for the most part in the MS., are based on the British 
Museum MS. 
148 



home to the hall, where Dwarf Tosti received a right 
worthy seat. The king now put in order his huge fleet 
for the voyage to Greece. He had ninety great war- 
ships and many smaller craft besides. Ambales was 
captain of his own vessel, which he named Father-gift. 
Dwarf Tosti went with them. The king held on towards 
Greece, and at last they took harbourage there, and made 
raids on all the land round about, and pitched their tents 
over against the capital. 



Chapter 

Greece and other Christian realms there ruled 
^^ the Emperor Chrisolytus, who dwelt at Constanti- 
nople, the capital of his empire. This city and all his 
territories he defended bravely; he maintained a hard 
fight with the people yclept Saracens, who were the 
cruellest of foes, and spared neither the young nor the 
bedridden. For five months they besieged Constanti- 
nople with four hundred thousand men ; their leader 
hight Barastatis or Bastianus ; his surname was Ottoman. 
He wrought most shamefully ; he would seize Egyptian 
maidens and wedded women, all he could lay hands on, 
and did them outrage, keeping them for but a short time ; 
when he cared for them no longer, he would disembowel 
them, and kill them one after the other. He had engaged 
in eighteen battles with the army of the city, and had 
caused great loss of life. The emperor gave orders that 
all the city gates should be kept shut; he himself re- 
mained within the city, reduced to the greatest straits. 
King Tamerlaus and Ambales had pitched their tents 
some three days' journey from the city. Before them, 
said King Tamerlaus, there was the vilest cur that men 

149 



OH. XXIX. grei er menn vita nii af ad seigja i ollum Heimi, so 
hvar sem hann ndd hefur k6nga Drottningum og dsetru 
edur jarla, pd hefur hann J)eim 611um Svivyrding gj6rt 
og sidarst drepid; i pessara tolu er min Systir, hvorja 
hann firir premr drum hielt i sinni Seeng i 3 mdnudi, 

25 sidann risti hann hennar qvid i sundur firir framann 
rekkjustokkin, og vildi eg honum yrdi petta sitt nidings 
verk endurgoldid med smdnarlegasta dauda, og pad 
var mitt erindi hingad i Land petta, enn p6 vil eg pin 
rdd hafa og pitt fulltingi. Ambal. mee : pennan kdng 

so muntu sigra, pvi reidi hins mikla Guds er og mun yfir 
hann koma, mun eg Idta Tosta dverg skelfa pd med 
sinu ludurs hli6di, pvi bans ludur blastur mun pvi valda 
ad }>eir munu hrsedast. T6k nii Tosti dvergur Ludur 
sinn, J?vi hann bar )>etta Horn d, sinum hdlsi, og bids 

35 i hann 3 reisur, so dgnarlega ad pad heirdist um alt 
landid. enn sem Bast. k6ngur heirdi Ludurs hli6minn, 
vard hann mjog 6ttasleigin, og spyr hvad menn haldi 
um hli6d J>aug er i loptinu heirdust? enn honum var 
Svarad : pad er rodd Guds hinna kristnu manna sem 

40 bodar pdr bans hefnd pvi pitt vond(t) athsefi hefur upp- 
vakid bans grimd yfir oss, pii mdtt senda i pa dtt lands- 
ins sem hliddid kom, ad ei komi Her ad oss 6v6rum, 
ef Skd md ad menn stiri h6num, enn ekki Gudanna 
pjonar, sendi pa kongur 30. manna a niosn, foringi 

45 peirra he't Taulerus, enn er hann kom so naer ad ban 
sd Herbtidir peirra af Skytja, vard hann mjog felmturs- 
fullur, og tok sdr oljuqvist i Sond og menn bans, og 
150 



had ever known to tell of in all the world, for when 
he captured the wives or daughters of kings and earls, 
he perpetrated on them the basest outrage and then 
put them to death ; " and of this number," said he, 
" was a sister of mine ; three years ago he had her a-bed 
with him for three months, and then he cut her asunder 
at the bed's edge, and I would fain requite his craven 
cowardice with an ignominious death ; this is my errand 
hither to this land, and I would fain have thy counsel 
and thine aid." "Thou wilt surely triumph," said 
Ambales, "for the wrath of the great God is kindled 
against him, and must overtake him. I will bid Dwarf 
Tosti scare them with the blast of his trumpet ; that 
noise will surely avail to frighten them." Thereupon 
Dwarf Tosti took his trumpet, he bore the horn a- 
hanging on his neck, and he blew thereon thrice so 
terribly loud that it was heard over all the land. Now 
when King Bastian heard that trumpet-sound, he was 
struck with greatest fear, and he asked his men what 
they held of the great noise that was heard in the air. 
They answered him : " 'Tis the voice of the God of the 
Christians, who announces thus to thee his vengeance ; 
thy wickedness has awakened his anger against us. 
Thou shouldst forthwith despatch men to that region 
of the land from whence the sound has come, lest an 
army assail us unawares, if it chance that men have 
caused this noise, and not the servants of the gods." 
The king then sent thirty men to reconnoitre ; their 
leader hight Taulerus ; and when he came so near that 
he saw the tents of the Scythians, he was greatly afeard, 
and he and his men took olive-branches in their hands, 



CH. XXIX. ridu med J>ad ad Herbiidunum, og var Taulerus visad 
til kdngs Tjalds, I6t kongur Ambales honum mseta i 

50 Syorum soleidis : J)ti mdtt J)inum Herra seigja : ad 
Tamerlaus kongur af Schjytja s3 yfir hann kominn 
med sinn Her, til ad hefna a honum Svivyrdingar 
sinnar og dauda Systur sinnar og annara bans illsku 
verka og hann aungvan kost lifs ne* vaegdar, og vogje 

55 hann sig ad verja, ma hann oss mseta nser biiin fikist, 
Taulerus seigir hann muni ei slikt 6ttast. Eidu nti 
sendimenn leid sina og seigja kongi sinum 611 J>essi 
tidindi, le*t J>a kongur biiast strax til orustu, hann reid 
])vi diri er Nomokey heitir, hann skipti sinum Her i 

60 8 ta Filkingar, og I6t helming )>ess gjseta borgar, enn J>eir 
flokkar sem til orustunnar f6ru, ridu sumir Filum og 
odrum dirum, le*t hafi setja sinar Herbudir nalsegt Her- 
budum Tamerlaus k6ngs, bldsu )?eir sidann i ludra sina 
med miklu rembilseti. Tamerlaus hafdi sinu Her skipt 

65 i friar Filkingar, var hann sjalfur firir eirnri, enn Am- 
bales firir annari, Cimbal og Carvel firir hinni fridju. 
Ambales vakti fyrstur vig og drap Hasarum fodurbrodur 
bans Bastianusar, sidann reld hann i gegnum Filkinguna 
fram og aptur og drap fjolda manna, var nu enn hardasti 

70 bardagi, og hlod Ambales valkostu i kringum sig ; Tosti 
dvergur hlod og valkost storann, og ])6kti bans abl og 
atgjorfi furdu g^gna. Nu tok ovina Herinn ad flja, og 
hofdu Mtid 30,000, i J>essari orustu, reid k6ngur so heim 
til borgar, let kdngur og Ambal. bMsa ollum Hernum ad 
Borgarhlidum og settu far Tjoldinn. 
152 



and so rode to the tents. They led Taulerus to the tent 
of the king, and the king bade Ambales receive him as 
his spokesman. He addressed him thus : " Thou mayst 
tell thy sovran that King Tamerlaus of Scythia has come 
against him with his host to take vengeance for his cruel 
outrages, namely, for his sister's death, and for many a 
wicked deed besides : let him not hope by any chance 
for life or mercy : if he dare to defend himself, let him 
meet us whensoever he is ready." Taulerus retorted that 
he was not to be frightened by mere threats. And the 
messengers rode back and told these tidings to the king, 
and he ordered them at once to prepare for battle. The 
king rode the animal called Nomokey ; he divided his 
army into eight divisions ; half of his forces he left 
behind to defend the city ; the troops went to battle 
riding on elephants and other beasts. The king ordered 
them to pitch their tents near the tents of King Tamer- 
laus, and they then blew their trumpets with great ado. 
Tamerlaus had divided his army into three divisions ; he 
himself led the first ; Ambales was at the head of the 
second; Carvel and Cimbal of the third. Ambales 
opened the battle by slaying Hasarus, the uncle of 
Bastian, and thereafter he dashed through the lines 
and slew a host of men. And now the battle waxed 
fierce. Ambales slaughtered men around him in heaps ; 
Dwarf Tosti, too, piled great heaps of slain, and his 
strength and prowess seemed passing wondrous. Soon 
the enemy took to flight, and they had lost thirty thou- 
sand men in this battle ; so the king rode back alone to 
the city. King Tamerlaus and Ambales then commanded 
the advance to be sounded to the city walls, and they 
pitched their tents there. 



30 Capttutt. 

CH. XXX. QfD morgni bjuggust hv0rjer tveggja til orustu, Tamer- 

laus kdngur mselti vid Ambales : Eg bid ]>ig ad J>u 

vildir taka k6ng penann til fanga, enn ei drepa edur 

ssera til Fjorlasta, heldur faera mdr hann f^nginn. Am- 

5 bales lofadi honum fessu, tokst J>r sidann hin hardasta 

orusta, reid Bast. k6ngur hardt fram og drap a badar 

sidur, honum filgdu 30. kappar, Jjeirra hinn mesti he't 

Atrlanus, hann var Gidingakyns, og st6dst eingin firir 

honum, og J>6kti hann osigrandi. Benk<5bar he't annar, 

10 var hann undan ytsta Skauti Heims, hann hafdi Kisavoxt 
og burdi, afar Ii6tur, ad sjonum, J)6 verri ad raun, han 
vann flest med goldrum og djofuls krapti, og Skaut or 
af hvorjum ffngri, og voru flestir hraeddir vid hann ; Tosti 
dvergr s& nu risann og hans illskufullar adgjordir, hann 

15 mselti : illt skal mi ilium bjoda, sidann for dvergurin i 
leiptring og manadi Risann til atgaungu ; Risinn vildi 
dauda hans, og magnadi orvar sinar og vildi ])eim d Tosta 
skjota, enn J)aer urdu ]> fastar vid fingur honum so ei 
mdtti med haefa, Tosti hafdi orvamseli sitt d baki se*r, d,tti 

20 hann orvar J>8er sem alt mdtti med hsefa J>aed er kjosa 
vildi, skaut hann mi tveimur af J>eim, og kaus augu 
Risans firir, fell dverginum J>etta ad 6skum og hittu bddar 
hans augu og hli6p daudi i Sarinn, vard J>d, risin olmur, 
og drap og deiddi d, badar hendur hvad sem fyrir vard, 



Chapter m. 

(f&N the morrow each side again prepared for battle. 
King Tamerlaus spake thus to Ambales : " Prithee, 
when thou takest the king prisoner, slay him not, nor 
deal him deadly wound, but bring him to me captive." 
Ambales promised so to do. A fierce battle then ensued. 
King Bastian spurred forward, and slaughtered men on 
either side of him. Thirty warriors went with him ; the 
mightiest of them was called Adrian ; he was of Jewish 
race ; none could withstand him, and he seemed invincible. 
Benkobar was the name of the second ; he came from the 
farthest region of the earth ; he was of giant's size, and 
had a giant's strength ; very ugly to look upon, yet uglier 
to encounter, he conquered by charms and by devil's 
crafts ; he shot arrows from his every finger, and folk 
were sore afraid of him. Dwarf Tosti saw the giant 
and knew his evil devices, and he said : " Evil shall now 
meet with evil." He went forward then like a lightning- 
flash, and challenged the giant to come forth ; the giant 
wished him dead and charmed his arrows, and assayed to 
shoot at him, but the arrows seemed fixed to his fingers, 
so that he could not ply them. Tosti had his quiver at 
his back, and therein were those arrows of his wherewith 
he might hit whatsoever he a^'med at ; he shot two of these, 
aiming them at the giant's eyes : it befell according to 
his wish, and both arrows pierced the giant's eyes, and the 
wounds soon mortified : therefore the giant waxed furious, 
and smote and slew on either hand whatsoever was nigh : 



CH. xxx. bardi hann Reidhjortinn dkaflega, og vard margra mana 
bani ei sist i sinu eigin lidi, lomdu J>eir hann og bans 
Reidskjot akaflega med Spj6tum og grjoti, par til hann 
hle^pti lir bardaganum, bardi hann mi sinn reidskj6t 
dkaft, so hann stokk og stedjadi sem fsetur togudu, uns 

30 hann rann af Skeidi ofani eitt diki, le't par beedi Risin 
og reidskjoturin lif sitt. Ambales hjo og lagdi til beggja 
handa so eingin stod vid honum, msetti honum Adrian 
Judi er bar merki k6ngs, reidir hann p& Sverdid ad 
Ambal. og kom d Hofudid svo daladist Hjdlmurinn, og 

35 honum Id vid 6viti, S16 Ambal. aptur til hans, og t6k 
sundur Skjoldin og af hsegri hondina, Ambal. reid ad 
honum }>reyf hann 6r Sodlinum og fserdi hann Tosta 
dverg, og bad hann grseda ef vinnast maetti, pa var 
orustan sem dkaflegust, og fiellu Heidingjar hronnum, 

40 msetir nil Ambal. Bast, kdngi i bardaganum, og lagdi 
hvor til annars, en Ambales vo ban upp ur Sodlinum, og 
reid med hann endila"ngar Filkingar, par til hann hitti 
Tamerlaus kong, og afhendti hann honum kong pennan, 
sidan setti Tamerl. hann i fjotur, voru sidan allir kappar 

45 Bast, kongs audteknir, Keisarin hafdi og i bardagan 
komid, og ad feingnum Sigri, gaf Tamerl. k6ngr honum 
frelsi, og landsvist, a'samt ollu Herfdngi 6vina sinna, og 
bj6 sidann sinn Her aptur til Heimferdar og le't i Haf, 
f^kk Ambal. og Tosti dvergur stort lof firir sina fraegd 

so og framgaungu alia, var Bast. k6ngr settur i mirkva- 
stofu og menn hans utan Atian, hann var i godu haldi, 

og s6r Ambal. tninadar eid medann peir lifdu ba"dir. 
156 



he fiercely lashed the beast he rode on, and became 
the bane of many men, his own not least ; but the folk 
plied him and his beast with spears and stones, until 
he galloped away from the fight. He lashed his beast 
still more furiously, so that it sped on as fast as its feet 
would carry it, yet suddenly it swerved and stumbled 
into a ditch, where both giant and charger lost their 
lives. Ambales dealt cuts and thrusts on this side 
and on that, and no man withstood him, save Adrian 
the Jew, the king's standard-bearer, who encountered 
him and raised his sword to strike at him, and it 
struck Ambales on the head, crashing the helm, and he 
was well-nigh on the point of swooning ; yet he dealt 
him a blow in return which sundered the shield and smote 
off his right hand ; he then rode up to him and haled 
him from the saddle and brought him to Dwarf Tosti 
and bade him heal him, if that were still possible. Now 
the battle raged at its wildest, and the heathens fell in 
heaps, and Ambales met King Bastian in the fight and 
each made a thrust at the other, but Ambales heaved 
Bastian out of the saddle, and rode with him along the 
whole line of battle until he met King Tamerlaus, to 
whom he delivered him. Tamerlaus threw him in 
fetters, and presently all the chief warriors of King 
Bastian were easily taken. The emperor, too, had come 
into the battle, and when the victory was won, King 
Tamerlaus gave him his freedom, and therewith liberty to 
dwell there in the land, and he gave him eke all the 
booty of his enemies. Thereafter he prepared his host 
for the homeward journey, and they put forth to sea. 
Ambales and Dwarf Tosti got great praise for their deeds 
of prowess. King Bastian was put into a dark dungeon 
together with all his men, except Adrian, who was well 
cared for ; he swore Ambales an oath of fealty as long as 
both should live, 

'57 



31 Capitulu 

CH.JCXXI. gj fANN tima Tamerl. k. hddi strld d, Grikklandi, fjellu 
^ Vikingar inni Land bans utan af Blalandi er 
hietu Tarkus og Tambis, og hofdu gjort far mikin 
Skada med ram og manndrapum, og ei fyrmdn feir 

6 ungbornum ne ])eim 1 kor Mgu, en v6ru med ollu i 
burtu er kongur kom heim, og Idu J>ar skamt fra 
med 60. Skipa, enn er kongur spurdi fad, bad ban 
landvarnar menn sina ad leita hefnda vid fd ; Ambal. 
Adrjan, Cimbal, Carvel og Tosti Dvergur (foru) med lid 

10 d einu Skipi, og hieldu Strid vid Vikinga, var fad hord 
orusta og laung; Tarkus hitti Cimbal nserri Siglunni, 
og lagdi til bans Spjoti i qvidin, og utum bakid so 
hann h^kk fastur vid Sigluna ; fetta sier Amb. : og eirir 
ilia, hliop ad honum med nakid Sverd, og klauf ban 

15 ad endilaungu, nu sa Tambis fall Felaga sins, gjordist 
hann fd 61mur og hjd d tvaer hendur, Adrjan f6r d 
moti honum, og hj6 af honum hondina og f6tinn, og 
fell hann daudur nidur, feingu feir far mikid Herfdng, 
samt Skip og miklar ge'rsemar ; pakkadi Tamerl. kdngur 

20 feim mikillega firir fessa landhreinsun, og heldu so 
heim ollum fessum Skipa flota. 



C&apter mi. 

ow while King Tamerlaus was away waging war in 
Greece, two pirates ravaged his land; they came 
from the East, from the land of Swart Men ; they hight 
Tarkus and Tambis ; they wrought great havoc by rapine 
and plunder ; they spared neither the young nor the bed- 
ridden. When the king returned, they had already fled, 
and lay a short distance off with sixty ships. Soon as 
the king heard tell of this, he bade the defenders of his 
land wreak vengeance on them. Whereupon Ambales, 
Adrian, Cimbal, Carvel, and Dwarf Tosti manned a ship 
and waged fight with the pirates ; it was a hard battle 
and long. Tarkus met Cimbal near the mast and hurled a 
spear at him, which pierced his belly and came out through 
the back, so that he was pinned to the mast. Ambales 
seeing this, misliked it much, and rushed upon him with 
a naked sword, and cleft him asunder from the head 
downwards. Now when Tambis beheld the fate of his 
fellow he grew maddened, and struck wildly on either 
side, and Adrian went against him, and smote off his 
hands and legs so that he fell down dead. They got 
there great booty, ships and much treasure. King Tamer- 
laus gave them exceeding thanks for ridding the land of 
this scourge, and so they took their homeward course 
with all that fleet of ships. 



32 Capituli. 

GH. XXXII. jmtfTTiR Tamerlausar k6ngs he't Semrlkandis sem fyrr 

^^ er ge'tid, bun var Ilk modur sinni, og ad ollum 

kvennkostum bin ypparlegasta, hun hafdi fest Huga 

sinn Ambales, og kom far svo um sidir, ad Ambales 

5 vakti bonord til bennar vid k6ng, og var fad strax 

auds6kt, var fvl fad fliotasta til brudkaups buist, f6r 

sii veitsla bid Skoruglegasta fram, voru allir Hofdingjar 

utle^stir med godum gjofum, og ad ollu svobrinu hvarf 

Tosti dvergur, og f6r til ynnis sins, audugur ad & 

10 vordinn. 



33 Capituiu 

kongur sat ad veitslum hjd Landsbofdingj- 
um vissu timum, og voru fad 4 M^nndir er 
hann var feim, og er byrjadist fessi reisa, tok hann 
Bastian. k. med se*r fjotradan var bann dreiginn i 
5 Hrosstagli, og streingdur vid eitt brotid bj61 er mjog 
gdkk stopult, sat bann allsnakin a einum St61 mjog 
fraungum, innanum hann allan v6ru eggjar skarpbeittar, 
frammi firir St61num let kongur setja kosta drikk d 
bord med dirmsetri faedu, enn bann na*di aungvu far 

10 af, og f oldi samt hid mesta hiingur, hendur bans og 
1 60 



Cfiaptet 

daughter of King Tamerlaus, hight Semrikandis, 
as has been said already; she was like unto her 
mother, rich in all the graces of womankind. She had 
set her heart on Anibales ; and it came to pass that 
Ambales addressed the king her father and asked her of 
him ; his suit was readily granted, and they prepared for 
the bridal with all speed, and the feasting was of the 
lordliest, and all the chieftains were sped with goodly 
gifts. And these things having taken place, Dwarf Tosti 
returned to his home, and he had become mightily 
wealthy in the meanwhile. 



Chapter 

certain seasons King Tamerlaus was wont to visit 
his chieftains to feast with them ; he spent some 
four months in these revels. Now when he started on 
his royal progress, he took with him King Bastian 
fast in fetters, drawn at the tail of a horse, and tied 
to a broken wheel, which jolted along. He sat stark- 
naked on a narrow bench ; its seat was all beset with 
sharp points ; before it on a table the king bade 
them place the choicest drinks and the daintiest 
dishes ; but King Bastian might not by any device 
reach thereunto, though he suffered direst pangs of 

L 



OH. XXXIV. faetur v6ru vid St61in reirdar; kongur let hinar agjset- 
ustu meyar dansa frami firir St61num i einu linkleedi ; 
undir bans tol I6t harm harhvasst Sverd og I6t binda 20 
16d af blie vid bans leindar lim ; med fessum og odrum 

15 qvolum I6t k6ngur hann pina, enn j?vl meira sem hann 
leid J>vi verri vard hann, til skapsmuna, Ambales vsegdi 
bonum jafnan, og I6t bera bonum brand til lifsnseringar 
bv6rjum deigi, enn ad endudum veitslunum reisti k6ngur 
heim, og I6t qvedja fings alia Hofdingja, hvad vid Bast. 

20 k6ng gjora skildi ; enn fad kom ollum samann, ad Ambal. 
skyldi J?ar firir sjd, bad k6ngur bann far deema honum 
J?ann dauda er honum sindist maklegur. ]7d mselti Amb : 
ei mun lifs betrunar bans ad bida, og er bann hefur so 
m6rg illverk adhafst sem monnum er kunnugt, og md 

26 hann bunds dauda de^a, so var Bast. k. heingdur, Idtu 
J?eir so um Snoruna biia ad hann skildi ei fh'6tt deya, 
lifdi hann marga daga i gdlganum, le't hann so lif sitt 
med mikillri Sneipu og storum hormu. 



34 Capttuii* 

Ambales hafdi vend med kongi 3 vetur, mselti 
hann eitt sin vid k6ng : Nu mun hendtugur timi 
til ))ess vera kominn ad eg endi heitstreingingu mina, 
og nd aptur fodurleifd minni, enn }>6 vil eg }?itt leifi far 
6 til hafa. K6ngur mselti : eingin m6tvilje er mdr ad 

dformi J?inu, enn ei legg eg lpi stirk til fessarar ferdar. 
162 



hunger, for he was bound to the seat both hand and foot. 
At the king's command the loveliest damsels danced before 
him, clad in a single linen raiment. Beneath him a 
sharp sword was placed, and a twenty-pound weight of 
lead was hung upon his lower limbs. With such-like 
tortures the king tormented him, and the more he 
suffered, the fiercer grew his mood. Ambales would 
always succour him, and every day he sent him bread 
wherewith to sustain his life. Now when the king's 
progress came to an end, he rode home again, and there- 
after he called together all the lords of the land to take 
counsel with them as to what should be done with King 
Bastian. They were all of one accord, to wit, that 
Ambales should decide it ; and the king then asked him 
to pronounce on Bastian the death he deemed most 
fitting. "There is no hope," said Ambales, "of the 
bettering of his life ; and since he has wrought so many 
deeds of shame, as all men know, let him die the death 
of a dog." And so King Bastian was hanged, and the 
halter was so placed that he might not die quickly, but 
lived on for many a day upon the gallows, and at last 
expired in great shame and fierce agony. 



Chapter 

HEN he had been with the king some three winters, 
Ambales spake thus to him : " The time has 
surely now come for me to keep my vow and regain my 
heritage, and yet would I first have thy leave thereto." 
The king answered : " Thy purpose is nowise contrary to 
my will, but I can give thee no help in this enterprise." 

163 



CH. XXXIV. Ambales mselti : einskipa mun eg f&ngad fara & minum 
Dreka sem eg Jmdann med me'r hafdi. K6ngur maelti : 
ad sonnu er gjaefa J>in allmikil, enn ekki er henni altjafnt 

10 gott ad treysta. Ambal. mse : gjsefuna treisti eg alls 
ekki, heldur d gjafara hennar, Adrian skal so sem minn 
pantur hja" ydur vera til J>j6nustu i min stad. K6ngur 
mselti: of fdlidadur fer ]?u hjedan fr oss ad Jrinu radi. 
Ambales mae : ei mun eg marga menn Jjurfa til hefnda 

15 vid braedur J?ina, J>vi )>eim munu elds gtedur biinar til 
hefnda, enn Gud Himnum raedur ollu fessu. K6ngur 
maelti : hvor er sd Gud ? edur hvad hefur hann heldst 
ad verkum ge'rt? Ambal. mse : seigja skal eg ]>6i ]?ad 
k6ngur ef j>u villt 4 hann triia ; hann er sd lifsins andi 

20 sem ollumm Skdpnum gefur lif og andardrdtt; seigir 
hann J?d k6ngi af ollum hofudgreinum kristind6msins ; 
og er hann hafdi lokid rsedu sinni setti k6ng hliddan, 
og undradist miog fvilika hluti, enn sagdi J>6 um sidir ; 
enn mun eg vora Gudi tilbidja, >vi fessir hafa mier 

25 leingi vel verid. Kvaddi }> Ambales k6ng er hann 
hafdi filgt honum til skips ; gdkk hann J)d um bord og 
Idt i Haf, gaf vel bir, lagdi hann undir Cimbrjam, og 
hielt skipi sinu i djupi sjdfar alt til Jola. pad var sidur 
J>eirra braedra, ad hvor hielt odrum j61a veitslu, og dtti 

30 nu Mdlpriant ad ssekja veitslu i Cimbrja til Fdstinusar 
br6dur sins, var hann J?ar komin med miklu fjolmenni, 
og ad J?vi lidnu setla J?eir med Herfor i Schytia og taka 
eignir sinar enn drepa Tamerlaus kong; enn kvoldinu 

firir hinn 8 da dag, lagdi Ambal. Skipi sinu d hofn upp, 
164 



" I shall go thither," said Ambales, " with but one ship, 
namely, with my 'Dragon/ which I erewhile brought 
with me from thence." "True thy luck is great," said 
the king, " but 'tis not safe to trust thereto always." " I 
trust not in luck," replied Ambales, "but in the Giver 
thereof. Adrian shall remain here as my hostage with 
you, doing service in my stead." The king said : "With 
too few men goest thou forth from us, if thou meanest 
to pursue thy purpose." " I shall not need many," said 
Ambales, " wherewith to wreak vengeance on thy brothers, 
for coals of fire will be ready for my vengeance, and all 
lies in the might of the God of heaven." " Who is this 
God ? " asked the king, " or what great thing has he 
wrought?" Ambales answered: "I will tell thee all, O 
king, if thou wilt but believe in him. He is the Spirit 
of Life which gives life and breath to all created things ; " 
and so he recounted to the king the chief points of the 
Christian belief; and when he had finished his speech, 
the king sat silent, and wondered much thereat ; at last 
he spake thus : " I must still hold by our own gods, for 
they have acted kindly towards me this long time." 
Ambales bade the king farewell; he had accompanied 
him to his ship. He went aboard and put out to sea, 
and a fair wind brought him under the coast of Cimbria, 
and he held his ship out on the main all the time till 
Yule-tide. Now it was the custom of the brothers to 
invite each other to a Yule-feast, and it was Malpriant's 
turn to come to his brother Faustinus to a Yule-feast 
in Cimbria. And he had come thither with a great 
multitude of men. And when the Yule -feast had 
ended, the brothers were minded to make a war-raid 
upon Scythia, in order to seize their patrimony and slay 
King Tamerlaus. The evening before the eighth day 
of Yule Ambales brought his ship into the harbour, 

165 



OH. XXXIV. enn festi J)6 ei skipid, og gdkk eirn a* land, t6k hann d 
sig annarlegan btinad, sm voru J)aer gjorfar allar er hann 
ad fornu haft hafdi i Cimbrja, baud hann monnum sinum 
ad halda so Mngt undan landi, ad ei msetti sj )), skildu 
J?eir sin aptur vitja ad tveim n6ttum lidnum, enn 8 da dags 

40 kvoldid ge'kk Ambales til eldaskala, hafdi hann kublinn 
Drafnar naut ytst fata, enn J?ar innanundir Silki vodir og 
grimu & Hofdi Ii6ta so buna sem narrar tidkudu, ge'kk 
hann ad hreisi, ))vi er hann hafdi Spitur sinar i lagt ad 
fornu, t<5k hnn Jeer }> allar og I6t i Hudfat mikid, batt 

45 so ei m&tti glatast, bidleikadi hann nu vid J>ar til ha 
vissi se'r tlma hendtugan til Hallarinnar g^nga ; enn er 
han heirdi sem mestan glaum i Hollinni, dr6g hann nil 
hlassid eptir sdr ad hallar dyrunum, dira-verdir leifdu 
honum inngaungu, en er hann var innkomin, vildi hlassid 

50 meira rum hafa en dirnar g^fu, br^, hann J)d festinni um 
bak s6i og streittist vid slikt er hann kunni, og sem 
hlassid var laust vid dyrnar, enn han sjalfur vid gjsett- 
irnar, tumbadi hann inn g61fid, var J>ad 6hseg bilta, 
vard af J>essu allmikil gledi i Hollinni, qvddu menn 

55 ])etta allmikla Sk^mtan og nu heldst i ])arfir koma ; 
Fifl J>etta tdk nii ad brolta a fsetur, og rogadi nu 
hlassi sinu innar eptir, og komst med J)ad undir bord 
kongana ; eingin gaf gaum ad Jjessu edur meinti far 
mundi nokkud undirbua, t6k nu J>essi ]>rj6tur ad leika 

eo ^mislega og lata ollum 61dtum, og vard mikid gaman 
ad leikum bans, atti hann god vol matar og drykkjar, 
enn so dkafur var han, ad ha tok s^r loks hvild undir 



but he did not moor his vessel there. He went alone 
a-land, wearing a disguising raiment, the very garment 
he had formerly worn in Cimbria. He had ordered his 
men to put off from the land at such a distance that they 
might not be seen ; they were to come to him again when 
two nights had passed. On the evening of the eighth 
day Ambales made for the hall ; he wore over his clothes 
the cloak that Drafn had given him ; he had silken 
raiment beneath ; on his head he had a grotesque mask, 
after the fashion of the fools of the time. He went 
straight to the kennel where he had aforetime stored his 
spits, and he took them all out, and put them into a 
leathern bag, which he tied up so that none might be 
lost. Then he loitered about until he deemed the proper 
time had come for him to enter the hall. He heard a 
loud noise of revelling within, as he dragged the load 
after him to the doors of the hall. The doorkeepers 
suffered him to enter, but though he himself passed in, 
the load needed more room than the doorway would 
allow ; then he twisted the rope around his waist and 
tugged at it with all his might, and at last the load was 
got through ; and when he was well within, he stumbled 
upon the floor, and gave himself a nasty fall ; and thereat 
there arose great glee in the hall, and men said 'twas 
good sport, and had come at the right moment. The 
fool then made vain efforts to get upon his feet again, 
and staggered with his load up the hall, so that at last 
he got it beneath the table of the king: no one paid 
any heed thereto, nor had suspicion that it meant more 
than they saw. And then, like an ape, he began all 
sorts of antics, and disported himself strangely, and 
there was great glee at his pranks, and they gave 
him good choice of meat and drink. And so he went 
on unceasingly, but at last he took rest beneath 

167 



OH. XXXIV. Hallar bekkjunum, enn ei var ban f 6 heldur far ydjulaus, 
heldur drog hann sem kjsenast kleedi feirra sem d bekkj- 

65 unum Satu nidur umm gotinn og stangadi firir med 
Spitunu enn ei hafdi hann far langar dvalir, heldur 
jok hann Folkinu a n^ mikla Skdmtan med sinum 
narra latum, gjordust nii allir drukknir, so eingin gddi 
ad sjdlfum sdr fyrir drykkjuskap og ofsakjseti, og er 

70 mjog var nattad, sveif Fiflid ad Amba Drottningu, og 
varpadi einhvorju bindini i knd henni, enn bun brast 
vid rjod og varpadi J>essu ad Gamaliel, enn hann leysti 
til og fann J>ar br^f innani, hann hugdi ad og las 
bre'fid hli6dlega i eira Drottningar merkti hun J> hvad 

75 i efni var, og hof grdt mikin, og beiddist ordlofs ad 
gdnga i burtu, og qvaddi med sdr Letam Drottningu, 
geingu J>ser so utaf H611inni og allir J>eir ed kristnir 
voru, en fiflid hielt samt & leikum sinum, so ei komst 
athugje a burtfor Drottninganna, enn ad leiks lokum 

so bra ge'sturin s^r ad Gamaliel, og bar hann sem haegast 
mdtti d Handlegg sdr lir Hollinni, og slo sidann hurd 
i Ids, enn er hann Stokk utyfir Hallar dyrnar, gaus 
eldur ilr veski bans er far Id, so 611 Hollinn vard Strax 
i einu bali, enn feir sem flya vildu voru fastir, var far 

85 fa emjan og op mikid brann fd, 611 Hollin og alt folk 
er far var inni, drapust kongarnir badir, far med 2 
Synir kongsins af Spdni, og ad auki nser 2000 manna. 



1 68 



the benches of the hall. Nor was he idle there ; stealthily 
he drew the robes of those who sat on the benches down 
through the holes, and pinned them to the other side with 
his spits. He did not stay there long, but came forth 
again and made sport for them with his fool's tricks. 
And soon all were so besotted that they were beside them- 
selves with drunkenness and with mirth. When the 
night was far advanced, the fool made his way to Queen 
Amba and threw a bundle into her lap ; she started 
thereat and turned red, and flung it to Gamaliel, who 
undid it, and found therein a letter which he read in a 
whisper into the ears of the queen ; and then she saw 
what was toward, and she fell a- weeping, and asked leave 
to go away, and bade Queen Leta go with her ; and so 
they passed out of the hall, and with them all the Chris- 
tians who were there ; but the fool went on with his 
pranks, so as to turn their minds from the departure of 
the queen ; and when he was nigh bringing his sport to 
an end, their guest suddenly turned to Gamaliel, and 
gently carried him in his arms out of the hall, and 
slammed the door to, and even as he leapt over the 
threshold, flames burst forth from a bundle which lay 
there, and the hall was soon all ablaze, and those who 
would have fled were pinned fast to their seats, and there 
was great whooping and lamentation, and the hall and 
all the people therein were burnt : both the kings, and 
two sons of the King of Spain, lost their lives there, and 

some two thousand men besides. 

169 



35 Capttuli* 

CH. XXXV. /jfftPTiR J>ad Kongarnir voru daudir, gkk Ambales i Her- 

bergi modur sinnar, og qvaddi hana med kjaerleika, 

vard hun honum J>& allshugar feigin. Leta Drottning 

var far, og bar litinn Harm )>6 k6ngur dsei ; )>aug dttu ei 

5 born saman og hjeldu menn J>ettad af brogdum volf- 

unnar ad hun mundi um hann til qvenn manna buid 

hafa. Gamaliel flitti ferd sinni i sitt herbergi, en ad 

morgni bj6st Ambales til sjafar og fann J>ar Skip sitt d 

hofn komid, tok fd Ambales upp sin tignar klsedi gjeck 

10 sidan heim til borgar med lid sitt, gjekk Gamaliel fd d 
m6t honum med virdingu voru J> 10 vetur lidnir fra 
dauda Salmans k6ngs : litlu sidar reid Ambales til Fjall 
bigda ad hitta J>& fjelaga Caron og Drafnar, fagna J>eir 
honum vel, baud hann ])eim heim til Borgar med sjer, 

15 og f6ru >eir heim med honum med alt Sitt g6ts, Sidan 
Ijet Ambales biggja eina Veglega H611 miklu vserni en 
J)d fyrri, Tosti dvergur var forsmidur fessa Verks, og er 
J>ad var biiid, Ijet han J)ing Stefna og listi sinum eignar 
Kjetti yfir landinu og ollum nalsegum Eikjum, Toku 

20 allir lands Hofdingjar J>vi vel og var hann svo til k6ngs 
tekinn, Ambales koniingur heldt Drottningarnar med 
mestu Ssemd og vyrdingu, sat k6ngur ])d tvo vetur, en 
ad feim lidnum, vildi hann austur i Schytjam halda, og 

d, feim deigi sem k6ngur vildi burt, sendi Ske'ssan Tosta 
170 



Chapter 

after the king's death, Ambales went to his 
mother's chamber, and greeted her lovingly, and 
from her very heart she was glad to see him. Queen 
Leta was there with her, but she bore little sorrow 
though her lord had perished ; they had had no children, 
and folk deemed that this had come about by the wiles 
of the witch ; she had perchance bespelled him with 
regard to women. Gamaliel had already betaken himself 
to his chamber. On the morrow Ambales went down to 
the sea, and found that his ship had come into harbour ; 
then he took his robes of state, and went back to the city 
with all his company ; and Gamaliel came to meet him 
with great worship ; and ten winters had then passed 
since King Salman's death. Some little space thereafter 
Ambales rode to the mountain-ranges to meet his friends 
Caron and Drafnar, and they greeted him well, and he 
bade them return to the city with him, and they went 
with him with all their belongings. Anon King Ambales 
had a lordly hall built for himself, nobler far than the 
former had been, and Dwarf Tosti was master-builder 
of the work. And when it was finished, he caused an 
assemblage of all the folk to be called, and he declared 
to them his right to that realm and to the neighbouring 
realms, and all the chieftains of the land acknowledged his 
right, and so he was made king ; but he still maintained the 
two queens in greatest state and honour. Then he abode 
at home for two winters, and when they were passed, he was 
minded to fare east towards Scythia. On the day the king 
was ready to depart, the troll-woman sent Dwarf Tosti 

171 



CH.XXXVI. Dverg til hans med dgjaetan kongs Skruda, f^kk Ga- 
maliel i Hendur umsjon Kikisins, d medan harm var 
burtu, Sigldi hann sidan vida um heim J?ad Sumar. Eitt 
sinn lagdi hann undir Eyuna Cypern, festi Skipum, ge'kk 
d land, og s& 18 Skip liggja odrumeigin Eyar, H61fdingi 
so ]?eirra he*t Hephesstus, hann var Vikingur og f)>r6tta 
madr mikill, og hafdi mikid lid, hann lagdi ollum sinum 
Skipum ad Skipi Ambal. kongs, enn hann gaf sig litt ad 
i fyrstu, og hudgu Vikingar han mundi uppgdfin. 



36 Capttuli 

lietu all rembilega, og vildu veita uppgaungu 
d Skip kongs, enn Carvel vardi vinstri Sidu Skips- 
ins, en kongur vardi sjalfur hina hsegri, og fiellu vik- 
ingar hronnum ; J>etta se'r Hefestus, eyrir hann ilia, 

5 ridst um fast, og vard margra manna bani, petta se'r 
kongur, geingur til hans, og leggur Staunginni Tosta 
naut fyrir brjost honum ge'gnum brinjuna, og risti so 
til med Sidu kappans, og vo hann svo upp d Stangar 
oddinum, og festi Skaptid vid Vindds stokkinn, og 

10 l^t hann so i loptinu hdnga, gdkk so i hurt og bra 
vopnum sinum. Carvel mselti : hvar fyrer laetur Jjii 
viklngi f>essum lifs frest ? K6ngur mse : J)vf aungvan 
hef eg frsegri fundid, ]>vi J?ad H6gg fekk eg af honum, 
ad eg fiell d, bsedi kne, og hefdi ei kubliri dugad mdr, 

15 munda eg hafa lifid mist. peir drepa nii alia J)d er 
172 



to him with a royal robe of state. To Gamaliel was de- 
livered the regency of the realm while King Ambales 
was away, and so he sailed far and wide about the world 
during that summer. Once he lay off the island of 
Cyprus ; he moored his ship and went ashore, and espied 
eighteen ships at anchor on the other side of the island. 
Their commander hight Hephestus ; he was a pirate, a 
man of mighty prowess, and with him there was a great 
company. He set all his ships round the ship of King 
Ambales, who at first attempted to do little, and the pirates 
thought he had yielded himself to them. 



Chapter 

pirates carried things with a high hand, and were 
minded to board the king's vessel, but Carvel warded 
the left side thereof, and the king warded the right, and 
the pirates fell in heaps. Hephestus, seeing this, mis- 
liked it much, and rushed about wildly, and was the bane 
of many a man. ,The king observed it, and made for 
him, and thrust his pole, Tosti's gift, through the byrnie 
at his breast, and he ripped it to the warrior's side, and 
heaved him aloft at the point of the pole, and fastened 
the handle to the joist of the windlass, and left him a- 
hanging in the air, and then he went away, and took up 
his weapons. " Why grantest thou a respite to this 
pirate ? " asked Carvel. " Because," said the king, " no 
warrior of mine is a doughtier than he, for such a blow 
got I from him, that perforce I fell on my knees, and had 
not my head-gear stood me in stead, I had lost my life." 

173 



CH. XXXVII. m6tstodu veittu, og toku Skipin og fe* alt. Nu ge'kk 
k6ngur til og sa" Hefestum enn a" Staunginni ha"nga 
hdlfdaudann, let hann }) taka hann, leggja i heega sseng 
og sidan nsera ; og sem hann m^tti msela, baud kongur 

20 honum lif, ef hann vildi sdr trua }>j6nustu veita. He- 
festus qvadst J)ess fds vera, le't k6ngur J>d grseda hann, 
og bundu feir vin&ttu sina med fastma3lum, Sigldu so 
til Schytja, og geingu d, land, fagnar Tamerlaus J)eim 
vel, kongr stardi miog d Hefestus, og spurdi hann nafns 

25 og aettar, enn hann sagdi sem var, so og frd, vigureign 
)?eirra Ambalesar k6ngs og sin, f^kk k6ngur af J)vi 
storan kjserleika til Ambalesar kongs, ad hann hafdi 
lif ge'fid Hefestus, J)vi hann vissi hann sinn brodur vera, 
})6 heimuglegt vaeri, og mynntist orda modur sinnar, og 

30 sagdi honum )>etta i heimugleikum. Ambales kongur 
seigir honum frd afga"ngi brsedra hanns, ad Kikid vseri 
sitt vordid, enn Bdlant kongur mun Spanja riki taka 
vegna Drottningar sinnar, og fad annad ad honum er 
J>ad ad re'ttum erfdum tilfallid. Tamerlaus )>akkar 

35 honum allann fennan Sigur og Ssemdarauka. 



37 Capitult* 

QTD vetri lidnum mselti Ambales kongur vid Tamerlaus 

kg. mi mun hendtugur timi til )>ess vera komifi ad 

eg heim vitje, og ti(l) vorra landa aptur sigli. Tamerlaus 

hliodnadi h^r vid, og mselti : Ei mun tjd ad hindra ferd 



Thereafter they slew all who opposed them, and seized 
the ships and all their belongings. Now as the king 
went his way he saw Hephestus still hanging on the pole 
half dead ; he bade them take him down and lay him on 
a soft bed, and thereafter he had him well nursed. And 
when he was able to speak, the king offered him life, if 
he would but do him faithful service. Hephestus an- 
swered he was full willing thereto. So the king had him 
healed, and they bound their friendship with words of 
troth. Then they set sail for Scythia, and went a-land. 
Tamerlaus gave them goodly welcome. The king gazed 
hard at Hephestus, and asked him his name and kindred. 
He told him truly all, and he told him eke his dealings 
with King Ambales, and the king conceived great love 
towards King Ambales for having granted life to He- 
phestus, for he knew him to be his brother, though it 
had been kept secret, and he called to mind his mother's 
words, and told them him privily. King Ambales told 
King Tamerlaus of his brother's death, and how the realm 
was now his ; King Balant would, however, still rule over 
Spain through his queen ; though, he added, Spain had 
also fallen to him by right of inheritance. Tamerlaus 
thanked him for his victories and for all this accession of 
glory. 

Chapter mm 

Q^T the close of the year King Ambales said to King 
Tamerlaus : " The time has now come for me to go 
home, to sail back to my country." When he heard this, 
Tamerlaus was for a while silent ; then he spake this : 
" It will not avail to hinder thy departure, though it will 



OH. XXXVII. J>ina, fo )>ad s6 Skadi voru riki, Jmdjungur J>essa rikis 
heirir J>inu valdi til sem er beimanfilgja dottur minnar, 
og mdttu sitja d J>vi med oss, enn setja Skattjjegna 
yfir lond J>in. Ambl. kongr mse : einginn rdd hef 
eg i sjdlfs valdi, heldur Gud sem rsedur ollum vorum 

10 stundum og Stodum he'r i Heimi. leysti Tamerlaus k. 
lit dottur sina med Stormiklu Fd. Ambales setti He- 
festus yfir J>ann hluta rikisins 1 Schytja, sem drottningu 
bans til beirdi, og he*r med baud harm bonum Tamerlaus 
kongi hollur ad vera, Ambales sendi Carvel eptir )>eim 

15 karli og kerlingu Artes sem ban gisti fyrst hjd er ban 
til landsins kom, urdu )>aug baedi glod er J)aug sdu 
Ambales k6ng, og merktu bans triggda hot vid sig, 
fe'kk bann ]>eim naegar vistir og miklar vyrdingar. Filgdi 
Tamerlaus k6ngur og Drottning bans D6ttur sinni til 

20 Skipa, og var J>ar skilnadar 61 drukkid, og voru faestir 
sem vatni gdtu baldid, bddu hvorjer vel fyrir odrum, 
og hafdi Ambales kongur 60 Skipa, og fe'kk hinn besta 
byr, og er hann heim kom, baud hann ollum Hofdingj- 
um landsins til veitslu, var hiin gjor med miklum kost- 

25 nadi, enn ad henni endadri, voru menn med gjofum 
utleystir, Sat so k6ngur i riki sinu med fridi og g6dri 
stj6rnsemi. 



176 



needs impair our rule. The third part of this realm, 
the dowry of my daughter, owes obedience to thee ; 
thou mayst well therewith make thy home in our midst, 
and appoint a tributary thane over thine own lands." 
" My own wish," said King Ambales, " counts for nought ; 
all is in the power of God, who determines the days of 
our lives and our dwelling-places here in the world." 
King Tamerlaus sped his daughter from home with great 
store of wealth. Ambales set Hephestus over that por- 
tion of the kingdom of Scythia which belonged to his 
queen, and therewithal he enjoined upon him to be faith- 
ful to King Tamerlaus. He sent Carvel for the carle and 
the carline Artes, with whom he had stayed when he first 
came thither to the land, and they were right glad when 
they saw King Ambales, and perceived his token of kind- 
ness towards them ; he gave them sustenance enow and 
showed them much honour. King Tamerlaus and his 
queen accompanied their daughter to the vessel, and the 
parting-ale was drunk, and few there could keep back 
their tears, and each wished god-speed to the other. 
King Ambales had sixty ships in all, and there was a fair 
wind, and when he reached home he summoned the chief- 
tains of his realm to a feast ; it was prepared at greatest 
cost ; and when it came to an end, the guests were sped 
with goodly gifts. So the king abode in his realm in 
peace and with good governance. 



38 Capituli* 

CH. XXXVIII. /jftiTT kvold fd, konungur sat ad bordum, kom Tosti 
^^ dvergur og qvaddi harm litildtlega, og mselti : vin- 
kona fin er nti sjiik vordin og neer ad Helju komin, 
og bidur hun J)ig ad finna sig ddur hun deir. Kongur 

5 brd, skj6tt vid og for til bigda Kdrlingar, var hun f 
neer 6m^la ordin, enn kunni k6ngur ad rdda J>ad af 
ordum hennar, ad hun gaf Hdrbrd fostru sinni 611 sin 
audsefi eptir sig, ad frdteknum }?eim kostgripum er hiin 
hafdi ddur k6ngi g^fid, og fad sera ruin tilvisadi ad 

10 sinum beinum filgja skildi, sast J>ad hennar vidm6ti 
ad hiin unnti k6ngi af alhuga, var han J>ar vid andldt 
hennar, sidan l^t hann bua um bein hennar miog vyrdug- 
lega, og gjora haug ad i dallendi einu fyrir nedan 
Fjallid, sidann bjost k6ngur heim og hafdi Ha"rbrd med 

16 s6r, og 611 J)aug audsefi sem far v6ru, og var fad stdr 
mikid F^ ; Harbrd, var Jdmfrii dsegileg, Hefestus leit 
dstaraugum til hennar, og far kom ad han hof b6nord 
til hennar vid k6ng, og vard fad auds6kt, og gjordi 
k6ngur briidkaup feirra med mesta S6ma, og ad fvi 

20 endudu, bjost Hefestus heim, filgdi k6ngur feim til 
Skipa, og gaf honum ad skilnadi Sverdid Bisanaut, og 
Sigldi svo Hefestus heim i Schytja, og he*lt sinu Her- 
togadsemi inn til dauda Fodur sins, sidann tok hann 
rikis stj6rn eptir hann Indjalandi. 



Cimpter mum. 

/^NE evening the king sat at his table, and Dwarf Tosti 
came to him and greeted him humbly, and said : 
" Thy woman-friend is now fallen ill, and at the point of 
death, and she prays thee to see her ere she dies." The 
king forthwith betook himself to her dwelling ; she was 
nigh speechless then, but the king could understand 
so much of her words, that she bestowed all her wealth 
upon her foster- daughter Hair-brow, save such treasures 
as she had already given to the king, and such as she 
wished should bide with her bones. It could be seen 
from her looks how she loved the king with all her 
heart. He tarried there till she breathed her last, 
and he saw to it that her bones were right worthily 
bestowed, and he had a mound raised over her in 
valley-ground beneath the mountain. Thereafter the 
king prepared to return home, and he took Hair-brow 
with him, and all the wealth that was there, and it was 
a mighty hoard. Hair-brow was a comely maiden, and 
Hephestus cast longing eyes upon her, and at last he set 
forth his suit for her with the king : his prayer was 
readily granted, and the king gave her a noble wedding- 
feast. And when all was over, Hephestus prepared to go 
home ; the king sent them off to their ships, and he 
gave Hephestus at parting his own sword, the gift of the 
giant. So Hephestus sailed home to Scythia, and held 
his dukedom till his father's death, when he succeeded 
him in India. 

'79 



39 Capituit 

CH. XXXIX. "hEGAR Balant k6ngur frdtti fall Malpriants kongs, kuni 

hann ilia vid hagi sina, pvi Tfris Drottning eggj- 

adi ban hardlega )>ar til ad hefnt yrdi Fodur henar, J?vi 

bj6st hann nordur til J>eirrar Ferdar med mikid lid, og 

5 for til Cimbrja, og sendi kongs fund. Ambal. k. mae : 

vid of er )>ad, ad vid freendur skulum orlog )>reyta, enn 

hugsad hafdi eg ad Balant k6ngur skildi nj6ta Spanja 

rikis, J>d Malpriant k6ngur veeri fr J>vi rddinn, enn 

koma mun eg & bans fund, og skal hann }> f ad J?ekkja 

10 mig. Sendimenn f6ru og seigja Bdlant k6ngi ord banns. 
Ambales k6ngur bj6 sinn her ut, og sem hann var komin 
d> leid, msetir honum madur, sd, sindist komin d sinn 
efri aldur, hann qvaddi kong vyrduglega, kongur horfdi 
miog d hann, og Spyr ban ad nafni ? hann qvadst Tellus 

15 heita. Kongur mselti : gjorla kdnni eg ))ig og J>ekki 
fann ad vera sem leingst vardist med F6dur minum, 
og skaltu m^r velkominn vera, og slikan Soma J>iggja 
sem )>ii ert verdur. Tellus mselti : odru er nu ad gjegna, 
og skulum vid J>ar fyrst til verda sem heldst er naudsyn 

20 til. Sidann ridu J>eir til Herbuda B^lants kongs, og 
skipudu lidi sinu, voru Jjessir heldstu kappar Ambalesar : 
Gamaliel, Caron, Drafnar, Adrjan, Tellus, Carvel, Tosti 
dvergur og Sonur bans. Ambales k. bad J>d, ef Balant 

k6ngur Sigradist, ad granda ei lifi banns, heldur fsera 
189 



Chapter 

N as King Balant heard of King Malpriant's fall, 
he was troubled as to his own fate, seeing that 
Queen Tyris egged him on to avenge her father. So 
he prepared to journey northward with a great host, and 
went to Cimbria, and sent men to hold speech with the king. 
King Ambales said : "Far be it from us that we kinsmen 
should try issues with each other, for I had resolved that 
King Balant should enjoy the realm of Spain when King 
Malpriant had ceased therefrom, but I will come and 
meet him, and he shall get to know me." The messengers 
departed and told King Balant the words of Ambales. 
King Ambales arrayed his host for going forth, and when 
he was come on the way, there met him a man who 
seemed sunken in age ; he greeted the king worthily, 
and the king asked him his name. He said his name 
was Tellus. ''Surely I know thee," said the king; "I 
know thee to be the man who so long fought for my 
father, and thou shalt be welcome to me, and have all 
the honour thou art deserving of." "Other things have 
now to be looked to," said Tellus; "we must first go 
thither where the need is greatest." Thereupon rode 
they to King Balant's camp, and they drew up their lines, 
and the chief warriors of Ambales were the following : 
Gamaliel, Caron, Drafnar, Tellus, Carvel, Dwarf Tosti and 
his son. King Ambales bade them, if King Balant should 

be vanquished, not to hurt him fatally, but to bring him 

181 



OH. XXXIX. se'r hann fjotradan. Ambal. k. reid i heirnar fseri vid 
Balant k. og meelti : 6ssemilegt er okkur Strid ad halda so 
ndnir sem vid erum ad sett, og hef eg aungva gyrnd d 
pinum dauda nd audsefum, og ei skyldir )>u fyrir brek 
Drottningar pinnar farid hafa J)essa Ferd ef min rdd haft 

30 hefdir, enn ei mselist eg undann J)6r J>6 eg s6 lidfserri ; enn 
pad skaltu vita, ad ei hefnir pu" Malpriats kongs i pessari 
Ferd hvad sem per verdur til qvennfadmlaganna pa pu 
ke'mur heim aptur. Vid pessi ord vard Balant kongur 
miog reidur, og Svaradi aungvu, en let blasa til bardaga, 

35 og tokst bin hardasta orusta, fiellu nil men Balants kongs 
hvor um annan fveran ; J)vi eyrir Bdlant kgr. ilia, reid 
framm og ridst um fast og felldi fjolda manna, })etta se'r 
Carvel, og reid 4 moti Balant kongi, og d-ttust J>eir vid, 
Carvel bjo til kongs og klauf Skjoldinn og brinjuna, 

40 og fekk kongur Sdr d laerid ; kongur hjo aptur til Carv. 
og tok af Hjalminum og Brinjunni a Brjostinu, par med 
fildgi vinstri hondin og Hesturin sundur i bogunum ; )>d 
hliop Carvel ad kongi og hio um pverar Herdar honum, 
og reif brinjuna, og i sundur Sodulinn og Hestinn, og 

45 f^kk k6ngur mikid Sdr d rassin, kongur bli6p ad honum 
og hjo a oxlina og klauf svo nidur, fiell Carvel J>& 
daudur; petta leit Drafnar, reid ad Bdlant k6ngi, var 
hann J)d d annan Hest kominn, Drafnar preyf k6ng af 
Hestinum og lagdi hann fyrir framann sig, og faerdi 

60 hann Ambales k6ngi, var hann J>4 i fjotur settur, l^t 
Ambales kongur halda upp Fridar skyldi, og fara hver- 

tveggi i sinar Herbudir, J)vi ad qvoldi var komid. 
182 



to him in fetters. King Ambales rode within hearing 
distance of King Balant, and said : " Unseemly is it for 
us to be at strife, so near as we are to each other in kin- 
ship ; I desire not thy death, nor covet I thy wealth. 
Thou wouldst never have ventured on this enterprise, 
despite thy queen's desire, hadst thou taken my word. 
I cry not off from this enterprise, though fewer men are 
mine ; yet know thou wilt not avenge King Malpriant on 
this journey of thine, whatever be the welcome in store 
for thee in thy wife's embraces, when thou returnest home." 
At these words King Balant was passing wroth, yet he an- 
swered not, but bade them blow the battle-blast. A fierce 
fight ensued, and King Balant's men fell in heaps, one 
after the other. Things boded ill for King Balant, and 
he rode forward, and rushed about wildly, and felled a 
multitude of men ; and when Carvel saw him, he spurred 
towards King Balant, and they fought together, and 
Carvel hewed at the king, and clave his shield and 
byrnie, and the king was wounded in the thigh. The 
king in his turn hewed at Carvel, and clave his helmet, 
and cut the byrnie on his breast, so that his left arm was 
struck off with the blow, and his horse was cut through 
at the withers. Then Carvel leapt at the king, and dealt 
him a blow athwart the shoulders, and ripped his byrnie, 
and cut a-twain his saddle and his horse at the same 
time, and the king got a mighty wound in the buttocks. 
The kirg then rushed at Carvel, and smote him in the 
shoulder, and it clave so deep down that Carvel fell dead. 
Seeing this, Drafnar rode at King Balant, who had now 
mounted another horse, and Drafnar seized the king from 
off his horse, and laid him prostrate before him, and 
brought him to King Ambales, and he was put in fetters. 
Thereupon King Ambales bade them raise the shield of 
peace, and they each went to their camps, for the day 
had worn to evening. 

183 



40 Capituit, 

CH - XL - TftJfM morgunin baud Ambales kongur monnum Balants 
\EB^j 

kongs heim med sdr, og pad Jjadu J>eir gjarnsamlega, 

enn sem peir voru heim komnir, mselti Ambales kongr 
vid Balant k6ng : Hvorja kosti viltu nil af oss taka? 
5 Balant k. mse ; 611 min Iffs kjor eru mi i Jrinu valdi. 
Ambales k. mselti : Eg vil ad J>ii haldir lift J)lnu og svo 
rikjum J>inum med )>vi moti ad J)u latir tru ))ina og 
kristnir lond. Balant k. mse : ei mun eg J>ad til vinna, 
og ekki til lifsins J>ann dtriinad ad Mta sem eg nu hefi, 

10 Jjvi minu riki hefur meiri lukka heppnast sidan eg sida 
skipti hafdi. Ambal. k. mselti : Hvorninn setlar ]>u 
J)6r muni g^nga d Jjeim eilifa timanum ? Balant k. 
mse : feinkir Jni J>inn Gud minum Gudi steikari ad 
hugsa sinum dirkendum fyrir betri Sselu, J>ad muntu 

15 m^r ei triilegt seigja kunna, Skulum vid J>vi hsetta 
fessari frattan, er J>ad best ad hvor dele uppd sina 
Tru. Ambal. kongur vildi honum ]) ei i neinu naud 
Jjreyngja, enn qvaddi Hofdingja Landsins d rddstefnu, 
hvad gjora Skyldi vid Balant k6ng, allir qvddu hann 

20 dauda verdann, enn Eikinn 611 Ambales kongs. p 
maelti Greifi Gamaliel: Ekki er J>etta Mngt frd sonnu 
talad, J)6 s^nist k6ngi vorum gott til ganga }?6 hann 
samaumkan hafi med Bdlant k6ngi frsenda sinum, J?vi 

J?ad er Guds J^olinnmsedi ad hafa yfir sindugum monnum, 
184 



the morrow King Ambales bade King Balant' s men 
wend home with him ; they welcomed the bidding. 
Now when they were come home, King Ambales said 
thus to King Balant: "What terms wilt thou take of 
us ? " King Balant said : " All my life's fate is in thy 
power." "'Tis my will," said King Ambales, "that 
thou have thy life and eke thy realms on this condition, 
that thou yield me thy fealty and Christianise thy lands." 
"Thereto I cannot bring me," answered King Balant; 
" not even for my life's sake can I give up the faith I 
hold, for better fortune has befallen my realm since I 
changed my faith." " How think'st thou," said King 
Ambales, " it will fare with thee in the life eterne ? " 
King Balant answered : " Think'st thou thy God is 
stronger than my god, winning nobler salvation for his 
worshippers? Thereof thou wilt never convince me. 
Let us then leave off this wrangle, for it is best that 
each one die in his own faith." King Ambales in nowise 
would press him then, but he called the lords of the land 
together to counsel him as to what should be done with 
King Balant ; they all said he well deserved death, and 
that all his land should belong to King Ambales. Then 
spake Count Gamaliel : " The words spoken are not far 
from truth ; yet his kind heart leads our king to have 
compassion upon King Balant, his kinsman ; 'tis indeed 
God's nature to be long-suffering with sinful men, 

185 



CH. XL. ef verda msetti ad betrun kynni ad skd, og lika ad 
straffa riki fessarar veraldar med ogudlegu yfirvaldi til 
dsetts tima, J)vi J>ikir mdr rddlegt, kongur! ad J?ti Guds 
vegna i hint leggir lif og dauda kongsins, og hafir so 
}>ad Gud k^s honum til handa. J?etta J)<5kti k6ngi og 

so Hofdingjum allgott rdd ; voru sidann hlutir i Skaut 
lagdir, fiell lifsins hlutur yfir k6ngin, var hann svo 
le^stur og fe'kk storann kjaerleika til Ambales kongs, 
og sdr eid med fastmaelum ad re^nast honum triggur 
i ollum hlutufn. inn til daudans ; Sigldi sidann heim i 

35 Spanja, og var fdtaladur Mnga tima. Tjfris Drottning 
frdtti hann ad sokum og Sigur kjorum. Enn hann 
bistist vid og mselti : opt lukkast ilia deggjan qvenna ; 
J)vi 6hsegt er audnu manninn ad sigra, par sem eg vid 
Ambales kong frsenda minn dtti i hlut, a eg honum 

40 best ad launa, og ei reini eg ad vinna J?ad til Jrinnar 
vindttu framar ad vera ovinur hans, J)vi hefdu freendur 
J)inir lifad, }?d hefdir J>ii ekki Spanja riki feingid, hvort 
Ambales kongur d med rdttu, enn ann me'r halds og 
eignar a ]?vi, og J>a eg var af honum fdngadur, >yrmdi 

45 hann lifi minu, hvad eg mundi honum ei gjort hafa 
hefdi me'r Sigur yfir honum heppnast, skal eg aldrei 
vid hann kjaerleika slita d, medann eg lifi, og so vil 
eg ad J)6 gjorir med me'r. Drottning qvad so vera 
skildi, og hieldu }?aug sidan kjaerleika vid Ambales 
k6ng medann )>aug lifdu. 



186 



in the hope that things may take a better turn, yea, and 
to scourge the kingdoms of the world with ungodly sway, 
for a time at least ; wherefore methinks it were a wise 
course, sir king, that thou shouldst, for God's sake, submit 
to lot the life of the king, and do even as God chooses 
for him." To the king and to his chieftains this counsel 
seemed excellent. So lots were then thrown into a cloth, 
and the lot of life fell to the king. And he was there- 
upon released, and he conceived great love for King 
Ambales, and he swore an oath with words of sooth to 
prove faithful to him in all things until death. There- 
after he sailed home to Spain, and he was of few words 
for a long time. Queen Tyris questioned him as to the 
cause of his silence, and eke what sort of victory he 
had won. But he grew cross-grained thereat and said : 
" Oft the egging on of women turns out ill ; 'tis no easy 
thing to overcome a favoured mortal, when such a man 
as my kinsman, King Ambales, is to be dealt with. I 
owe him greatest gratitude, and to gain thy good-will, 
ne'er will I risk so much again as to become his foe ; for 
had thy kinsman lived, thou wouldst never have gotten 
the realm of Spain, which rightly appertains to Ambales, 
to whom I owe the rule and ownership thereof, and 
whereas I was his captive, he has spared my life. I 
would not have done the same for him had victory fallen 
to my lot, and I shall never forsake my love towards him 
as long as I live, and I desire that thou join me therein." 
The queen said it should be even so, and thereafter they 
maintained their love towards King Ambales as long as 

they lived. 

187 



41 Capttuli, 

OH. XLI. xrtjODFREiR hdt kongur J>eim dogum er styrdi Vallandi, 

var hann nu gamall vordinn, hafdi hann bsedi verid 

megtugur og hinn mesti Biddari, og var Ambales brsed- 

rungs sonur kongs ; kongur atti eina d6ttur, hun hafdi 

5 blind borinn verid, og var enn nu blind ; Lond bans 

voru storlega d sokt af Tirkjum og odrum fiodum omild- 

um, hlaut ban )>vi opt Styrk ad )?iggja af odrum 

nalsegum k6ngum, og vard J>ad J>vi af radi Hofdingja, 

serdeilis Pdfans i R6maborg, er hdt Johannes J>ridje, ad 

10 Godfreir gaf Ambales kongi Eikid eptir sig, enn halft 
medan J>eir lifdu bd,dir, enn ddur enn Ambales af Cim- 
brla reisti, kallar hann Tellum firir sig, og spyr first, 
hvar hann hefdi allan Jrnnn tima verid er Fastinus hieldt 
Cimbrja? en hann sagdist & Eidimorku biggd hafa hjd 

15 eirnri konu er Isodd hiet, hun var i morgu vel ad sdr, 
og er hun nu fyrir tveim vetrum daud, enn J)d, eg spurdi 
])ina hingad komu, vilda eg heldur Ip6r ))j6na enn einmana 
bua J>6tt eg nogan aud hafi. Kongur mse : gods ert J)ii 
af mdr maklegur, vil eg ))ig hdr ad kongi gjora, og fetta 

20 riki ]>6r til halds i hendr fd, og tak til Egta Letam 
Drottningu, ]>vi henni munu karlmenn ei spillt hafa. 
Tellus mse : gott er mer })inu radi ad filgja ; og svo 
gjordist hann kongur yfir Cimbrja, og drakk briidkaup 

sitt til Letam Drottningar, var henni og sjalfri fetta 
188 



Cfmpter 

N those days lived a king hight Godfrey ; he ruled over 
Gaul ; he was now an old man ; in his time he had 
been a doughty warrior and valiant ; Ambales was second 
cousin to this king. The king had a daughter who had 
been born blind, and was still blind at this period. Now 
the king's lands were cruelly ravaged by the Turks and 
other barbarous tribes, and therefore he was oft-times 
forced to ask aid of neighbouring kings ; and it came to 
pass by the counsel of great potentates, especially of the 
Pope of Kome, who hight John the Third, that Godfrey 
bestowed on King Ambales his whole realm after him, 
and half thereof while they both lived. But before 
Ambales set out for Cimbria, he called Tellus before him, 
and asked him first where he had dwelt during all the 
time that Faustinus held sway over Cimbria. He said 
he had been dwelling in a wilderness with a certain 
woman hight Isold ; she was withal a woman of goodly 
parts, but she had been dead then these two years ; " and 
when I heard of thy coming hither, I would fain rather 
serve thee than dwell alone, albeit I have wealth enow." 
The king said : " Well hast thou deserved of me, and I 
will make a king of thee, and give this realm into thine 
hands, and take thou Queen Leta for thine own wife ; 
her, I trow, men have not befooled." Tellus said : 
"Right gladly will I follow this thy bidding;" and so 
he was made king over Cimbria, and he drank the 

bride-ale with Queen Leta, and belike to her herself 

189 



CH. XLI. kjsert; enn Amba Drottning f6r til Vallands med Syni 
sinum, enn sem Ambales k6ngur hafdi rikt 10. dr i 
Wallandi, andadist sa nafnfraegi Greifi Gamaliel, og bar 
Ambales kongur mikinn trega eptir hann. Ambales 
kongur a*tti J>rja" Sonu vid Drottningu sinni, bet bin firsti 
30 Salman, annar Godfreir, J>ridje Gamaliel, en daetra n6fn 
eru her ei skrifud; Stfrdi sidann Ambales kongur riki 
simi til daudadags, enn bans Son Godfreir tok J>ad riki 
eptir bann. 



(Ettlwm ber so >e0sa Sogu af amiales feongt, 

atiur nefntrist 
lifta 



190 



it was a welcome thing. But Queen Amba went to 
Gaul with her son ; and when King Amhales had ruled 
in Gaul ten years, the famous Count Gamaliel breathed 
his last, and King Ambales bore great grief for him. 
King Ambales had three sons by his queen, the first 
hight Salman, the second Godfrey, the third Gamaliel, 
but the names of his daughters are not recorded here. 
Thereafter King Ambales ruled his realm unto his dying 
day, and his son Godfrey took the realm after him. 



en* foe tljts Saga of Ring 
fojjo erst foas also 
eallefc 



191 



APPENDIX. 



I. RfMUR AF AMBlLES EPTIR HALLGRIM 
HALD6RSSON : ISL. BOKM. 273. 8vo. 



^ALMAN kie(-ndur) digSa dyr, I. Rfmur 

Doglings arfen ]?riSie. eptir 

21 pesser baru }?undar stdls Hallgrfm 
]?roska vitsku pr^Je, 

snarpa lund og sn(-ille) mals, 
snbgt yfer aSra lySe. 

22 Sagan greiner sikling stryS, 
sdrt aS Ellen neiSe, 

leiS so fram um langa tyS, 
Loks i friSe DeiSe. 

23 Reckar skifttu Rykum ]?eim, 
Raesers eftter dauSa, 

vosku liSe unar Eim, 
og oturs giallde KauSa. 

24 Spania velde Haukur hyr, 
hiellt meS vaska dreinge, 

}>6 varS luckan ]?eingil Eyr, 
J?yc5u svifttest gei(nge). 

25 A Hans Ryke heiSen her, 
hielt (meS) kblldu strySe, 
lietu christner lyf og fier, 
landed g6tz og prySe. 



I. Blmur 
eptir 

Hallgrim 



196 



26 Af Sciutia Soldans son, 
seggiufn varft aS grande, 
ha<5e stryS um heimdalls kvon, 
hblda vo meS brande. 

27 Malpryant hiet millding grimur, 
magnate villu Ranga, 

christna men meS kvol og Rimur, 
kugaSe bender spanga. 

28 RykeS tok meS Rausnum }?a, 
Recka >rutu gseSe, 

sySar verSur sikling fra 
sagt i ]?essu kva3Se. 

29 Balant frsegur beitte hibr, 
banaSe heiSnum lySe, 
Hispania orku or 

aS sier t6k meS (prySe). 

30 (C-)umbra vellde (hilm-)er (hyr), 
hlaut (meS) frsegS og s6ma, 

Salman kdngur da<5a (dyr), 
Drafnar ]?aktur Ii6ma. 

31 Vinssell (6tte vyser fr6Sur, 
veitte giafer meinge, 

(en) i strySe stiggur og 6Sur, 
stddst ]?a vi3 honum Eingen. 

32 Hoskur giseter viSreks vyfs, 
veifaSe hibrnum RauSa, 

sigur hlaut i s6knum kyfs, 
segge hi6 til dauSa. 

33 FirSum veitte fiarSar bal, 
frsBgum meingiS une, 

kappa lySur kisern viS stal, 
kiesiu ]?iente Rune. 

34 Eina mey er Amba hiet, 
af Fracklande g6Sa, 
Dbgling feste og dreingum liet, 
Dyra veitslu bi6<5a. 

35 Flest a5 vilia filkir (>a), 
fiell sem villde ki6sa, 



hblldum veitte hornala, I Rfmur 

og hraiiar Eisu H6sa. eptir 

36 Seima gierSur siSug bar, Hallgrfm 
s6ma Rausn af lyfte, 

Greifa D6tter vitur var, 
vafin ment og pryde. 

37 VirSing st6r og hefSen ha, 
hyru J>iente vyfe, 

une gramur auSar gna, 
Eins og sinu lyfe. 

38 Fsedde sveinbarn fallda vor, 
fram (]?a) stunder lySa, 

SigurS nefnde sveifta bb'r, 
siklings ]?i6Sen blySa. 

39 Hilmer Rykur helga trii, 
hiellt meS vaska lySe, 
Eingin fanst a jggiar frii, 
OSling iafn aS prySe. 

40 Drottning tiggia (dyr) og svin, 
digg meS hegSan g6Sa, 

Oliett varS i anaS sin, 
Eikin baru g!6Sa. 

41 Grams i Ryke galldra norn, 
greint er Ein sig hielde, 
brdgnum J?6tte bragSa forn, 

bist i sinu velde. 

42 St6r aettuS var strakleg frii, 
Styfen skalka lykie, 

alest hafSe auSar brii, 
upp y GarSa Kykie. 

43 OSlings fnir J>a 61u born, 
oftt til henar vitia, 

e6kt var sn6ten galldra giorn, 
greitt til }?ierra aS vitia (sic). 

44 VereS hafSe vySa um lond, 
virSing Ecke dvynar, 

fieck ]?vi 65um fallda strond, 
fie og leiptur Rynar. 

197 



I Eimur 

eptir 

Hallgrfm 



198 



45 Amba Drottnlng Ecke liet, 
hiS jlla ssekia kvende, 

>ar af grimt um >agnar flet, 
]?i6stur volvu brende. 

46 Gribbafi fittest gradug m6S, 
grim i sinu Bane 

buShings heim til borgar 68, 
bistur galldra svane. 

47 Bsekalls >y af BeiSe bran 
Bamlega >iing aS bragSe, 
Drott(n)ing hyra filkiers fan, 
f61e8 >an veg sagSe. 

48 Hagur >in og lyfsens Ian, 
leikur i stseSstum b!6ma, 

aS >ier hverfur auSnu Ban, 
sem EiSer ]?ynum s6ma. 

49 K6ngur >in skal kyfs af on 
kalldan hreppa dauSa, 

me8 virSa sveitum (va-)ls i hron 
vegs }>& Efne nau<5a. 

50 BuSliing Eingin byte sverS, 
bardaga >6 Beine, 

>aS mun vofSum giltre gier8, 
gilfa verSa a?5 meine. 

51 Son >in lyka sviftest bratt, 
ssetu lyfsens geinge, 

mun 4 galga heing(d)ur hatt, 
harmuren so >ig streingi. 

52 Gramsson sd >ii geingur me8, 
girt af nauSa kyf e, 

synest fibl meS sviplegt gieS, 
samt mun ban hallda lyfe. 

53 6virSter >u ylla mig, 
auSnu sleppter >ine, 
sarleg skaltu sorgar stig, 
sid af beiSne mine. 

54 Sorgande varS siklings frii, 
syst md gleSinar ni6ta, 



J?eingil sagSe Jjorna brii, I. Rfmur 

>essa RseSu Ii6ta. eptir 

55 ReiSen svall urn sinu b61, Hallgrfm 
sorg nam bri6ste<5 ]?reingia, 

J?etta grima galdra 61, 
gilfe bauft aS heingia. 

56 Drottning fieck so digSug RaeSt, 
vi<$ dreifer gullsens RauSa, 

vort mun Ecki bbleS baett, 
J?6 bySe nornen dauSa. 

57 Seetan biSur sikling mi, 
ssemder hene aS bi6Sa, 

ef bol vort villde bseta sii, 
brigSlind hringa tr6Sa. 

58 Msellte ReiSur milding >a, 
mal sem heirSe J?etta, 

Ey m& vondur ande sa, 
anauS mine lietta. 

59 Fr4 vyser geingur ve(-ig-)a s!65, 
vblvu hitte skiaetJa, 

se(-l-)i(-aii gulls a-)f sorgum (m6S) 
so t(-6k)en aS RseSa. 

60 Veita skillde virSing Jrier 
vefian k61gu bryma, 

Ef sitia vilder svin hia mier, 
um saangur legu tyma. 

61 Ey kvaSst munde ]?iggia "paS, 
J?i6fsleg galdra friggia, 

biien sagSest brdtt i staft, 
burt af hbllu tiggia. 

62 POO kvaSst nornen jlsku or, 
afttur fina kvende, 

}? S83tan sette sssngur for, 
syna firer hende. 

63 SiSan skillde sviplegt fljoS, 
vid seliu mundar fana, 

sast Ipvi dbpur seima s!63, 
sorg vill gleSena bana. 

199 



I. Rimur 64 S3, kom dagur sagt er fra, 

eptir s6ttar Drottning kiende, 

Hallgrfm 6 vart j^ngaS bllum >a, 

aftur norneii vende. 

65 Nornen veitte }?i6nkan }?a, 
]?ySre seliu tvina, 

fsedde sveinbarn falda gna, 
filkirs artug kvina. 

66 Sveinen bar i siklings Ran, 
Seggia dr6tten nyta, 

Ecki vilde oSling ]?an 
augum synum lyta. 

67 Pesse syndest J?roska st6r, 
J?6 ey dsegilegur 

naufta dockur nadda }6r, 
nockuS s6matregur. 

68 Ecki villde oSling msetur, 
auguin volvu lyta, 

sd htin aungvar sattar bsetur, 
af evinurn geimer Ryta. 

69 Paa syna Endte saengur for, 
Selian oturs giallda, 

bi6st bin grima bauga vor 
burt ]?a?5an aS hallda. 

70 Burt >d vilde bragSa forn, 
af buSlungs Rane ganga, 

fan aS male ferleg norn, 
frySa seliu spdnga. 

71 Jlla spaSe eg um ]?in hag, 
Eikin kraka saSa, 

fsest J>aS Ecki fserst i lag, 
forlog ]?essu Rd5a. 

72 Son Jin ungur veiga vbr, 
virSing stseSstu bySe, 
Eflaust verdur alma bbr, 
settar sinar prySe. 

73 Burtu vykur hreckia brat, 
sem bblldum varS aS meine, 

200 



davaen eftter drottnfng sat, I. Rfmur 

og dillaSe ungum sveine. eptir 

74 Synu nafne siklings frii, Hallgrim 
so nam Radugh breita, 

Ambales liet auSarbrii, 
unga sveinin heita. 

75 proska miken J?esse hlaut, 
]?6tte menta tregur, 

fremda lytt af name naut 
nockuS skindelegur. 

76 SigurSur fremd og s6ma hlaut, 
af siklings vblldu meingie,* 

luckan studde laufa gaut, 
lyfs meSan Endtest geinge. 

77 AfleiS tyme ytum sa, 
ina greiner letra, 
filkiers arfar fundust ]?d, 
fim og tyu vetra. 

78 Sveimar heim aS sagna vbr, 
siiSa Dvalins karfe, 

Gillings falla giollden spbr, 
af g6ma Ramu starfe. 



END OF THE FIRST RIMA. 



201 



II. RtMUR AF AMBALES EDA AMLODA EPTIR 
(?)PlL BJARNARSON: A.M. 521E. 4to. 



mals urn raddarsal 
reiSur i burtu vendi 
hvorn eg alt aS heyrnardal 
hjeSan fra mjer sendi. 

P6 mjer vseri list sii Ijent 
lj<5<5a kvorn aS hrsera, 
orSasnild e<5a eddument 
inn i ]?au aS fsera, 

Par fra gjorist mjer horfinn hugur ; 
hjer urn f att eg rseSi ; 
hvorki er i mjer da<5 nje dugur 
aS drjgja mserSar sseSi. 

Gefast mjer litil gleSinnar faung 
griifi' eg i sorgar sseti, 
hbrmiing lifsins horS og laung 
hindrar alia kseti. 

Likama hreysiS lamiS og veikt 
lysting so frekt tserir 
}>6 fser meira brj6stiS beygt 
boliS ]?aS hjartaS sserir. 

Sa sem reynir soddan }>ra 
samlega veit hann fleira ; 
hirSi eg ekki a5 herma f rd 
hugraun ]?eirri meira. 

Minn J?6 ksemist hugurinn heim 
aS hreyfa mserSar formi 
202 



fer mjer llkast fugli J?eim IL Rfmur 

sem flygur a m(5ti stormi. eptir Pal 

Enn J>6 hann i akefS frekur Bjarnarson 

afram vilji streyta 
vindurinn hann lir h6fi hrekur 
so hvlldar J?arf aS neyta. 

Haft hef eg oft i hugsun ]?aS, 
]?& haegfti a stygSargeingi, 
aS aBvintyriS uppteiknaS 
old i lj6Sum feingi. 

Eins m4 dsemin ill og g63 
old i nyt sjer fra ; 
citthvaS gott kann ]?egna ]?j68 
J?eim af skynja og Ia3ra. 

Leingi' eg ekki mansaungs mal 
mitt aS ]?essu sinni 
]?vi skal birla boSunar skal 
og brognum skeinkja d minni. 

END OP MANSONGE. 



ForSum k6ngur riki rjeS, 
reindur aS magt og s<5ma, 
Cimbria, so skyri eg skeS, 
skal ]?a$ veldiS r<5ma. 

SagSur k6ngur Salman hjet, 
sa var Donreks arfi ; 
Spania k6ngs sem lyol Ijet 
liita i vopna starfi. 

Sd f jekk kdngur s<5ma nsegS 
sinum a a3sku aldri, 
auSnan n6g og alskyns fra3g<5 
orva ]?jenti baldri. 

BuSliing atti brseSur tvo, 
baSir eldri vdru, 

203 



II. Rimur ffaukur og Bdland hjetu so 

eptir Pal herrarnir mdttar st<5ru. 

Bjarnarson pegar faSir >eirra frd 

]?essum heimi leiddist 
Haukur Spaniam hlaut aS fd 
honum sd arf ur greiddist. 

Ekki leingi lifSi hann 
landinu ]?vi so hjeldi, 
annar k6ngur illur vann 
undir sig J>aS veldi. 

Milding sd hjet Mdlpryant 
magtar st6r meS geiri, 
tignaSi ]?essi Terugant 
og tofruS goSin fleiri. 

Enn Bdland annar br6Sir J?d 
bragna styrSi meingi, 
harla rikur Hispanid 
og hjelt ]?aS riki5 leingi. 

Sdlman k(5ngur ksenn viS rbnd 
Cumbria londin friSu ; 
]?essi g6Su og litlu Ibnd 
liggja d Vallands siSu. 

Pdfans trti og reglu rdS 
raesir trii eg aS hjeldi, 
og 611 ]rau Ibnd sem um er tjaS 
utan Spania-veldi. 

Olli J?essu ilsku gramur 
sem inn t<5k ]?aS meS striSi, 
enn Sdlman kdngur s6masamur 
sin hjelt Ibnd meS pr/Si. 

Vitur og tryggur, vsenn og sterkur 
var sd hirSir ddSa, 
gdSgjarn, Ijiifur, mildur og merkur 
mbnnum gott aS rdSa. 

Sinn kdnglegan hefSar hag 
hjelt so meSur snilli 
aS sitt fserSi lof i lag 
landsins enda d milli, 
204 



(5vlnum sinum grimmur gramur II. Rfmur 

gjarn aS beita vigri eptir Pal 

hjelt s jafnan filkir framur Bjaraarson 

frsegS og mesta sigri. 

tfnga f jekk hann auSargna [tingra, MS. 
afbragS var sii flj65a, 
k6nga aettum fornum fra 
af Fracklandinu g6 a. 

Hennar faSir var greifi gildur, 
Geirmanus aS nafni, 
Sa hjet Ambd svanninn mildur 
saemdra kvenna jafni. 

K6ngurinn unni refla rein 
raektar st6r i mata, 
so aS ekkert matti mein 
a m6ti henni lata. 

Samfarirnar }>eirra J>vi 
J?6tti bin mesta sera, 
J?eirra hvilu ]?aS skeSi { 
aS ]?iing-biiin varS ksera. 

Sii kom tiS sem var til von 
aS vifiS k6ngi faeddi 
frabaeran og friSan son 
fljoSiS reifum klaaddi. 

Nef ndi Sigurd nifliing rfkur 
niSjann sinn hinn friSa ; 
J?essi gjorSist ]?engli likur 
J?egar aS stundir liSa. 

Ari siSar yndishrein ; 
dstum k6ngs ei slefti, 
lifs avaxtar gaefugrein 
gull-hlaSs eikin hrefti. 

Par i rflu ]?eingils var 
]?6 ei komin af flogSum 
volvan ein sem visddm bar 
vbnd i mbrgum brbgSum. 

Sii var liddan Iyndisst6r 
so l^Sum >6tti a fki ; 

205 



II. Rfmur hennar sett og fseolng 6r 

eptir Pal f ram i GardariU. 

Bjarnarson p vl vis drottning, >ess eg get, 

]?ykkju fyltist dsekja, 
]?a auogrund fseddi ekki Ijet 
ilsku flj<5ftiS saekja. 

Nornin hafSi norSur um heim, 
J?a nauSa s6ttir mseddu, 
hofSlngskonum ]?j6nad }?ei 
]?egar ]?8Br bornin faeddu. 

Pykkju einnar kaldan korg 
meS kyngju tru eg hiin herSi, 
Sjer i k6ngsins breiSa borg 
braSa reisu gerSi. 

Hitti drottning heiftum skift 
hiin me8 ]?tingu bragSi, 
hvlla biiin var hringa nift 
viS hana nornin sagSi : 

" pii skalt vita," vblvan kvaS, 
"veraldar magt og s6ma 
muntu hlj6ta aS missa ]?aS 
msBtan heiSur og b!6ma." 

" Pegar aS buSliing beitir vigur 
og berst vi5 heiSna lySi 
missa skal hann msetan sigur 
mestan heiSur og prySi. 

" Laus mun hann verSa londum fra 
Hfs i f ari nauSa ; 
so mun og lika sonur J?inn fd 
saran og harSan dauSa." 

" Enn J?ann son sem fasSir frii 
f ifl skal b'llum synast ; 
me5 ]?eirri skrift skal ]?orna brii 
]?ina um aavi pinast." 

" Haft hef eg oft hj4 herrum na5 
og haldin mesta agaati, 
aldrei var eg so ilia smaS 
sem af ukkar stserilaati. ' ; 
206 



" DrambiS mun og dreissiS vest II. Eimur 

dvfna i fari nauSa, eptir Pal 

>jer skal ssetan >ykja best Bjarnarson 

Jrinn aS kj6sa dauSa.V 

Pd vifiS forlbg vita f jekk 
sem vblvan d hana lagSi, 
hun frd henni gratin gekk 
og gjbrvalt k6ngi eagSi. 

St6rlega reiddist rsesir )>& 
og rsetJir viS hirSmenn sina : 
" volvunni skuluS piS vondri nd 
meS vestum dauSa pina." 

" BfiBtt er ekki bbliS aS heldur," 
burSug drottning tjaSi, 
" meinum einginn veit hva5 veldr 
nema vblvan lir ]?eim ra5i" 

"ViS skulum lata' hana vera oss hj 
og virSing nokkra hlj6ta, 
so aS vorum sorgum J)d 
sjaist ra8 til b6ta." 

Peingill mselti ]?orns viS ey : 
" ]?ii munt raSa verSa, 
enn aldrei mun ]?a<5 arma grey 
auSnuna mina skerSa." 

Drottning gekk, s\i hrygSir hlaut 
hilmirs tit af ranni, 
vblvunnar til, ]>vi bratt 4 braut 
biiinn var stygSar svanni. 

Drottning talar viS duka }?bll : 
" dyra vil eg "pjer bjoSa 
veislu aS ]?yggja i vorri hall, 
vist og allan g&Sa." 

"Par til mitt er f6stri(5 fsett, 
farinu so faS hnekki," 
& ]?ann veg nornin }>& f jekk rsett : 

" piggJ 51 mun e S Ips ekki." 

" pin mun eg vitja," vblvan kvaS 
vikin ur stygSar svima, 

207 



II. Rimur " og yfir ]?jer sitja eftir )?aS 

eptir Pal urn J?inn saengur tima." 

Bjamarson Skrafinu Ijettu >anninn >ser ; 

]?aSan nornin vendi ; 
sii kom tiS ac5 sj61a kser 
s6ttar drottning kendi. 

Aftur kom ]?d auSar bni 
bSru visi i bragSi, 
og j6Ssjuka filkirs frii 
i fagra hvilu lagSi. 

Vitug sat yfir vella hliS, 
vlfiS s6ttin mseddi, 
sii var ]>janing sar og striS, 
sveinbarn eitt hiin faeddi. 

YfriS st6r enn ekki friSur, 
meS asjan J>eigi hvita, 
s^ndist bllum sveinninn striSur 
og sviplegur aS lita. 

Volvan ]?jenti ]?orna vbr 
til )>arfar alt bin greiddi, 
siSan aS HSinni ssengur for 
ssetu \ir hvllu leiddi. 

GjbrSi fatt viS gamla sn6t, 
gramur orSum b/ta, 
eingin syndi astar h6t, 
nje augum vildi lita. 

Nornin >vi i brseSi brann 
og brj6stiS af ilium anda, 
drottning slikt til raunar rann 
vi5 rlkan styrir landa. 

NafniS vildi nytum svein 
niMng ekkert greiSa, 
og so kserleiks aungva grein 
af sjer lata leiSa. 

Petta bllum J)6tti 6fraegS, 
J?aS hvur bSrum sagSi, 
enn alia drottning astar nsegS 
4 ungan son einn lagSi. 
208 



Vtilvan dvaldi vifi hj4 II. Rimur 

vikurnar f j6rar tvennar eptir Pl 

umbun fjekk og seru hd Bjarnarson 

eftir yilja hennar. 

SISan sig i burtu bj6 
meS bestu faung og fseri ; 
drottning vildi a<5 ]?orngrund }?6 
J?ar enn leingur vseri. 

A }>ann dag sem orSlof fjekk 
burt reisa skyldi, 
i barnahusiS bruSurin gekk 
beint og kveSja vildi. 

Drottnfng hitti dregla rein, 
d/r meS astar hendi, 
upp t6k ]?ann hinn yngra svein 
og d brj6st sitt vendi. 

Nornin mselti : " stiiruS stilt 
a st6ra manndygS ]?fna 
minnast vaeri mjer nil skylt 
og mesta trygS a<5 syna." 

" Fyr aungvum hef eg so ilia spa3 
sem ySur i minni brseSi, 
ekki verSur )?vi aftur naS 
eru >aS litil gseSi." 

" Forlogunum bllum einn 
eflaust hygg eg valda, 
]?6 skal ekki ]?essi sveinn 
>fn i ollu gjalda." 

" PI! skalt gefa nytum nafn 
nssrri finu heiti, 
pvi hann mun verSa Jokka jafn 
]?jer a5 nokkru leiti." 

" Litt mun stoSa lofunin t6m 
Ijiifum beitir sverSa, 
allrar sinnar SBttar b!6m 
eflaust mun hann verSa." 

K6ngsins born og kurtis fni 
me5 kossi myntist viSur ; 



II. Rfmur 
eptir Pal 
Bjarnarson 



so var haldin seima bru 
htin saldaSi tarum niftur. 

SiSan burtu vblvan veik 
vikin lir stygSar skugga, 
J?6 sat eftir briiSurin bleik 
barninu sinu aS rugga. 

Piingum anda briiSurin bljes 
af bolinu raunar ef na ; 
lingan son sinn Ambdles 
auS]?oll gjorSi aS nefna. 

Pessir sveinar ]?aSan i fra 
)?roska gjb'rSust braSir, 
61ikir aS ollu aS sjd 
brvaviSirnir tjaSir. 

SigurSur var frsegur og friSur, 
framur i menta greinum, 
lystugur og lyndis striSur, 
og Ijet sig ei fyrir neinum. 

Enn Ambales var ollum ]?rj6tur, 
og aungvum vildi hlySa, 
og asyndar yfriS Ij6tur 
so ekkert matti prySa. 

Fsetur st<5rar hafSi og hendur 
bans ei fanst ]?ar jafni 
af ]?vi var hann af bllum kendur 
Amlodi aS nafni. 

Ara f jbldan dfram bar. 
um annaS ei sagnir letra, 
tyggja synirnir tbldust J?ar 
tiu og atta vetra. 

List mjer ekki lj6Sa kver 
leingur saman aS stima, 
stuSla maliS stofnaS ]?ver, 
stendur jmnninn rima. 



END OF THE FIRST RIMA. 






III. BiMUR AF AMBALIS 
KVEDNAK, AF 

Lcesing hies* hvar laugir tveir f ,_; 
meS Logins prfiddu sprundi J 

ur og mein || ]?ar mundar }?reir i_q 

marar reif^l hjd lindi. M 

FYRSTA R!MA: FERSKEYTT. 
Mansongr. 

1 Kjalars dselu knorinn m& 

kreika mdls af strindi 
Byleifs skafla unnar d 
sestur beslu vindi. 

2 Skuli eg mastra Tyrs A tjdrn 

Tyleiks hundi fleyta 
M6Ssognirs eg m6r d born 
md til fulltings heita. 

3 NorSri og SuSri nyrdSs hr<5 

Nikars snekkju leiSi 
fram tir hr6fi ]?agnar J>6 
]?unds aS Rdnar heiSi. 

4 Hlunnana Austri hafSu til, 

Hl^freyr vb'rina ryStu, 
Draupnir yttu d dverga hyl, 
en Dvalinn mastriS bittu. 

* J>. e. iss = i. t tveir legir = W. J =dr=a. 

=w. || =stunginn kaun=#. 

IF =l8Bsing hl^s=t; alt nafniS er J>vi : Tllaugi=Illugi. 

211 



III. Rfmur 5 By r inn aukiS Gjoll og Gjalp, 

eptir Illuga en gustur seglin . . .* 

Helgason Galar ara ger tj u i dalp, 

en G16i austu aS . . .* 
6 Af leiru mals svo 

Litars knbr . . 



7 Neins ei virSir NorSra US 

nii mitt boS litgefna, 
J?essir fyrst aS }egja viS 
J?d skal aSra nefna. 

8 Brags aS efna Bragi smiS 

beindu af anda ]?inum, 
seSa Kvasirs iSan friS 
yljaSu g(5mi minum. 

9 Standi alfar starblin(d)er 

og styrki aS kvseSa logum, 
asar og dlsir alt eins s6r 
anni aS hlynna brogum. 

10 LySur Herjans ]?rsela }>6 

]?ogn m6r gjaldi laka 
Byleifs ferju Brokks ^ sj(5 
byst eg viS aS aka. 

11 Lag til kvseSa liSugt mer 

Ij63anornir sendi ; 
efniS frseSa fr& eg her 
fara nii a<5 hendi. 

12 Altsem ]?ankmn aeskja md 

eins a sj6 og landi 

sinn me"r lj6Sa sannan hjd 

s6 nii dag eflandi. 

13 Hjalpar ekki urn b6t 4 brag 

aS barma s6r hjd >egnum, 
J?vi skal monnum maerSar slag 
miSla og sprundum gegnum. 

* The MS. is here illegible. 

212 



14 Fyrir sjo'nir lySa sagan ein III. Eimur 

sezt i hsetti lj<5Sa ; eptir Illuga 

>eim sem hlyoa hverfi mein Helgason 

og hugarins angriS mo'Sa. 

15 P<5 skaldin vlSa birti bratt 

BoSnar log fram k(n)iiinn 
hef eg aldrei hennar fidtt 
lieyrt i Ijod upp snuinn. 

16 ])6 eg rattan rauna stig 

rafi i hollu vinda 

af fraeSi sb'gunnar fysir mig 

forman 6Ss aS mynda. 

17 Sogunnar daemi sannar ]?a3 

sorg nser gistu ly<5ir, 
hversu rommum rauna vaS 
raknar lir um siSir. 

18 KviSa ekki hjalpar h6r 

hvaS sem m6ti geingur ; 
meyja sb'ngur J>anninn ]?ver ; 
J?iggi hann faldaspeingur. 

19 Sogunnar vitja byrjar beint, 

beygSu aS heyrnar ranninn, 
faldas61, meS hugvit hreint ; 
hefur efniS }?anninn. 

END OF MANSONGB. 



20 Donrek nefni eg dogling einn 

drakons gsed[dan siki] 
Spania styrSi hilmir hreinn 
helztu k6nga liki. 

21 ... milding meetr 

meS Cimbria reSi, 

r^tt [a5 logunum gaf hann] gsetr, 

grand svo aungvum skeSi. 

213 



III. Eimur 
eptir Illuga 
Helgason 



22 Efnis betri upplysing 

oldin b6r svo fai, 

hvar ]?au lond um lygru bring 

liggja ]?ess bun gai : 

23 Fr& eg tvd bin fyrstu s6 

Frakkalands naer grbnduin 

1 suSvestast Eur6pe 

af ollum hennar londum. 

24 En land Cimbria, les eg bert, 

liggur J?essum f jeerri : 
EystrasaltiS vestanvert 
viS meS eyjum smserri. 

25 Sagt er Japhets sonur var 

sd meS G6mers nafni, 

fr6n sem numdi fyrstur par, 

frsegstu k6nga jafni. 

26 Eptir sig ]?ar innan lands 

aettstofn leifSi f rlSan ; 
Gemeria af heiti bans 
hauSriS nefndist siSan. 

27 F61ks og tima talan nser 

tungna j6kst meS blandi 
Cimbria bet SviSriks mser 
af sveitum ]?ar btiandi. 

28 I frd G6mer settmenn bans 

einir Cimbrar h6tu 

og nafn af ser til daga Dans 

draga bauSriS l^tu. 

29 ^Ettmann G6mers 6sins frii 

einn ]?ar viS sig kendi, 
Dan b6t sa, en Danmork mi 
Dvalins nefnist kvendi. 

30 Bikti bann ]?ar sem lofSung lands 

og leifSi orSrdm frlSan ; 
dregiS nafn af heiti bans 
befir fr6niS siSan. 

31 Tignast mektum Tviblinds maer, 

tignar stjdrnin hana, 



214 



tignaSrar svo til vor naer III. Efmur 

tignin hveSru Dana. eptir Illuga 

32 pegar gerSist saga sii, Helgason 

sem i lj<5(5 hr fseri, 

i Spania riki ]?eingils ]?rjii 

]?& hygg eg a(5 vaeri. 

33 Gylfi einn i Granadi 

Ginars kvinnu r$5i, 
i Arragonia annar J>d 
Onars styrSi beSi. 

34 I Kastilia visir var 

vel hvaS hefsfc i minnum ; 
Spania land vi5 feingil ]?ar 
]?rlhlutaS ver finnum. 

35 Voru riki ]?eingils J?rjii 

J?aS um langar stundir, 
lofSung einn sem leingi nii 
legiS hafa undir. 

36 En Cimbria ]?a, s/n ef er 

sagan, vil eg hyggja, 
vseri eitt, ]?aS virSist mer 
af veldum k<5nga Jriggja. 

37 Og hana ^ Spanskra lySa 16S 

lita enn mi megi, 

en Tartara Danmork tseki' inn ]?j65 

triiaS fee eg eigi. 

38 Vafmleiki veldur >vi 

s4 villir heita landa 
]?essum bo ... i 
OSinn sbgunnar blanda. 

39 Til >ess er sbgu sk . . . 

. . . og gaf lit forSum 

flyt eg 63 og fremst sem . , . 

40 Donrik einvalds innist gramr 

yfir Spania veldi ; 
rsesir s& i rdmu tamr 
risa og blamenn feldi. 

215 



III. Rfmur 41 Greifar bse<5i og bardnar 

eptir Illuga buSlung djrum ]?j(5na, 

Helgason hristu i mundum Hogna skar, 

bans ]?egar messur t<5na 

42 Mestur kappi milding var 

mekt og afl berandi, 

d gulli auSs og gnsegS (5spar 

gjofum J?j6"5 ssemandi. 

43 Vitugr, haegur var og bliSr 

virSum satt bj6Sandi, 
grimmr, (Svsegur, geysistriSr 
gotnum m(5t]?8Bgjandi. 

44 Summu st6ra stillir af 

strj41um rauSum f jarSar 
fatsekum sd gylfi gaf 
gautum linna jarSar. 

45 Silvia h6t fremda f jaS 

fylkis ektakvinna ; 
kdngsins studdi rikd6ms raft 
ristin gulls hin svinna. 

46 Angurs rauna mykti m6S 

mengrund daS eflandi ; 
Hauks var gylfa hring]?oll J6S 
Holsetu af laodi. 

47 Sj61i dtti syni ]?rja 

viS ssevar loga gef ni ; 
pryddi afl og auSna J?a ; 
yta svo eg nefni. 

48 Salmon bseSi og Haukur hsegr 

H^Sins mey viS undu, 
Balant hristi brandinn frsBgr, 
nser byljir Fldrs a dundu. 

49 Sbguna J?egar svo fram a 

segist vera geingiS 
arfar hbfSu )?eingils ]?a 
J?roska og aldur feingiS. 

50 Ellihniginn kraminn kbr 

k6ng a Spbnsku laSi 
216 



saran dauSa af s<5ttarfor III. Rimur 

siSan hreppa naSi. eptir Illuga 

51 FjorraSs gytJju lit vi5 am Helgason 

andar banns sa kendi, 
HallinskiSa gyldan gram 
geymir siSan kvendi. 

52 Doglings arfar rikis raft, 

reifSir snildum, jo"ku 

skiptust ]?eim me<5 skotnum laS, 

sk/rir kongd6m t6ku. 

53 Spania hlotnast Hauki vann 

hilmis eptir dauSa ; 

me5 seggjum friSinn semur hann, 

en sdaSi efling nautJa. 

54 Hispaniam, birt er beint, 

Balant hreppa naSi, 

en Cimbria fser sagan greint 

Salmon kdngur ]?a3i. 

55 Jbtna gladdi malic? mal 

mala gemlis njdta, 
runnar letu stdla stal 
stala sseva brj6ta. 

56 Donriks arfi Haukur hel 

heiSnum fyrir tiggja 

jfleins viS starf, J?6 fseri ei vel, 

frsegur varS a3 ]?iggja. 

57 Af Skidia settaSan 

innir frseSiS sj61a, 

sem fylkis drygja f jorran vann 

fyrr i jarnask<51a. 

58 Malprygant het sj61i sd, 

sem aS fella naSi 
hara dyran f jcirvi fra, 
en firSa landsins ]?ja8i. 

59 Hilmir ]?vingar harSraSur 

holda villu megna, 
alma }>ingi 6trauSur 
opt }>6 hefSi aS gegna. 

217 



Ill Efmur 
eptir Illuga 
Helgason 



218 



60 Spania f61k til heiSni hart 

hnepti og J?rseld(5m striSan 
fylkir sd meS fdlsku djarft, 
fr6ni styrSi siSan. 

6 1 Balant skyrum 6<5ar orS 

setti fr aS greina, 

hreystin gseddi hjors vi5 morS 

horskan bendir fleina. 

62 Riki styrSi sinu s^i, 

saddur heiSri klarum ; 
seggjum lands ]?ar Sj61i hj4 
sseldaSi Freyju tarum. 

63 I hildar stormi sizta satt 

syndi harm 6vinum 
sj61i var meS sinniS katt 
ssemd bj66andi hinum. 

64 Sinu riki Cimbria 

Salmon kongur styrSi, 
bldmenn lseg(5i og burgeisa 
brands, ]?egar skurum yrSi. 

65 Hars i byljum reyndi rbnd 

runnur drakons b61a ; 
mistu gotnar auS og bnd 
b'rt fyrir vopnum sj61a. 

66 Hvar sem vakti H^Sins mey 

hilmir rikmannligur 
fyrSa hrakti fleins viS gey, 
f^kk ]>vi jafnan sigur. 

67 Malmarunni megnfrastum 

margir vildu J>j6na ; 
hbldar unnu hugastum 
hirSir dyrra fr6na. 

68 FriSa meyu lofSung lands, 

Ij6ma Hars s4 beitir, 
frsegur ekta f^kk til bands ; 
flj6SiS Amba heitir. 

69 Gsefan sj61a gekk i vil, 

girS(um) ektabandi; 



greifad6ttir baugs var bil III. Rfmur 

af Borgundialandi. eptir lUuga 

70 Germanus hit fa&r flj6ffs Helgason 

fremd og hreysti vafinn ; 
]?d var runnur funa fl6fts 
f jors i banni kafinn. 

71 Sjalfur unni seima gnd 

sikling vafinn daSum ; 
lySa meingi lands i krd 
laut aS hennar raSum. 

72 Spbk i geSi, vinssel var 

vef jan frsenings reita ; 
vizku naegS og b!6ma bar 
bauga lofnin teita. 

73 Sii i morgu dyrleg dr6s 

doglings bsetti efni ; 
hviluverkin lofSungs Ij6s 
litast baugs a gefni. 

74 K tima r^ttum seima s61, 

sorgar leyst fr4 bbndum, 
sj61a fagurt sveinbarn 61, 
sizt meS efnum vondum. 

75 LofSung dyrum laukahliS 

Isetur sveininn fsera ; 
SigurS nefndi ]?j6Sin ]?yS 
]?eingils arfann sksera. 

76 Kristna tru f4kk sj61i sett 

svinnu a?5 rsekja meingi ; 
pafans fylgdi reglum r^tt 
rsesir vel og leingi. 

77 Skjbldung djarfi skrfmirs svar 

skeinkti randa Jjuadum ; 
fylkis arfa f 6stur var 
feingiS vanda bundnum. 

78 Eptir >a?5 varS oSlings fljoS 

aptur barnshafandi ; 
vblva ein, er magnar m68, 
mildings bj6 i landi. 

219 



III. Rfmur 
eptir Illuga 
Helgason 



79 Af meiri settum menskra norn 

mundi komin vera, 
bysna skyn d brbgSin forn 
bar meS lundu ]?vera. 

80 Grimm i seSi, siSug sizt, 

seiddi sersl a<5 monnum ; 

6tta meingi vakti vist 

og veifaSi galdra hrbnnum. 

81 Siikans friSla 4 galdra gjorn 

gi sting f4kk s6r valiS, 

]?ar herramanna hofSu born 

horskar kvinnur aliS. 

82 ViSa sii i vising hofS 

var 4 NorSurlbndum ; 
ilium spdm af kyngi krbfS 
kastaSi mdls lir grbndum. 

83 Yrpan glsepa sveipuS sii5 

sanntalaS er vseri 
niflungs )?ar i neSstu bliS 
nettasta verkfseri. 

84 ViS karlinn gamla kyrtla laut 

koma vel ser gsetti, 

raS og efni J?ann nser J?raut 

]?4 hun strax lir bsetti. 

85 Um forlog barna fleipra mart 

f ytons hennar kraptur 
gerSi, en auS og gulliS bjart 
aS gjofum J?aSi hiin aptur. 

86 Fyrri }?egar fseddist snar 

fylkis arfinn gildi 
ekki kblluS vblvan var 
veigs aS ))j6na hildi. 

87 Feikna brseSi fyllast r& 

falan galdra riina, 

svo fjblkyngi mestu meo* 

magnar 61sku biina. 

88 R6tt af inni roms >inga 

ritin galdra nser5i, 



220 



sviplj6t versins sseringa III. Rimur 

sj61a a hendur ferSi. eptir Illuga 

89 pegar t^San tima flj6Ss Helgason 

tiggja a var liSiS 

getur fitin galdra skrj6Ss 

grams til borgar riSiS. 

90 Kveitan vestra konstra hams 

kemur sizt J? var<5i, 

]?egar dvaldi drottning grams 

i dyrum eplagarSi. 

91 Htin J?ar finnur hilmis sprund 

hrekkjafull nam r6ma : 
Leikur nii }?in Hfsins stund 
Ij6st i mestum b!6ma. 

92 Lifsins pessa Ian gjorvalt 

og lukku efling hreina 
]?-d skalt missa ]?etta alt, 
]?itt nema f joriS eina. 

93 pinn mun kongur fleins viS far 

falla i eli randa ; 

dapur ort fser dauSinn sdr 

doglings fjori granda. 

94 Ovinir munu yndis karn 

auka hirSir fr6na 
buSlung eingin bfti jam 
beint vi(5 hildar s6na. 

95 Hygg eg lukkan hilmir greiS 

h^San (af) trauSla stySji, 
herfilegan h^r me5 deyS 
hreppir ykkar niSji. 

96 Alia kseti litrymer 

aS]?reingjandi nauSin, 
lifi betra J?a skal ]?6r 
]?ykja sjalfur dauSinn. 

97 Fffl skal ollum synast s4 

sonur meS )?ii geingur, 
af honum svo ei pinn mi 
eySast hrygSarstreingur. 

221 



III. Rimur 98 Fyrri aldrei fils urn laS 

eptir Illuga fatsekum n<* rikum 

Helgason mundi eg vera af monnum smaS 

mfnum efta (yftar) likum 
99 panninn Isetur konstra kat 

kallsi verstu linna ; 

fyrsta lasinn Fjolnis bat 

foldu sel eg tvinna. 

100 ByrSing m6San Bdleiks hyl, 

burt er sagna gr68inn, 
virSi g65a valin til 
viSis loga s!6Sin. 

101 RseSusmfSiS Ij6ma lind 

laegis niSur brotni, 
msetSu kvffiir g6ma grind, 
greina kliSur J?rotni. 



END OP THE FIRST RIMA 



222 



ONNUR RfMA: AFHENT. 

Mansongr. 

1 Dvalijps last eg htina hauk i hyrjar vindi III. Efmur 

setjast fram af sagna strindi. eptir Illuga 

2 LiSiS suSra vantar vfst aS velja leiSi, Helgason 

kenni eg ])essa kraks um heiSi. 

3 Mart a brestur, bifurs ferju bilaS hr6iS, 

ei jrvrl verSur afram r6iS. 

4 Brakast reiSi, bond fra siiSum brotin falla, 

Fjblnis skeiSin fljtur valla. 

5 Frekari nauSsyn faer m4r storf ]?au fast a stri?Sa 

heldur en bifurs bat aS smiSa. 

6 Frost meS hriSum, hreifing storma og hlaupin jaka 

hamla pvi a?J hreifist staka. 

7 Heims til lata svo er sem mig svipi stundum, 

m^r J>aS hamlar geSs i grundum. 

8 Af minstum skamti meS 61atum menn fram ana 

eptir heimsins vondum vana. 

9 Minstur hluti mannkyns er }?ar ma til dreyma, 

sem munn og hendur gd aft geyma. 

10 Baktal auka, banna, Ijiiga, brigzla, ragna 

og annara hrosun yfir fagna. 

11 Fromdu margir formaeling og fyrnsku Ij6ta, 

fyltir lundu heiptar h6ta. 

12 p6 aS halli ]?essu nil hjd )?undum skjalda 

manndygSin }>vi ma ei valda. 

13 Morgum fra fvi mestan part eg meina hnekki 

aft gera ilt, ]?eir geta ekki 

14 SbngliS galdra sjalft bevisar sb'gu stefift 

ilia raun hvaS getur gefiS. 

223 



III. Rimur 15 Maske hafi & bikar bergt i bragSi kbldum 

eptir Illuga annara jeg af ilskuvoldum. 

Helgason jg Msetti af stall murmur gjbr s& meinti ollum 

brydda helms d glsepa gollum. 
17 Agirndin, sem hverjum hrekk fser hserra geingiS 

heit af dygS nii hefir feingiS. 



END OF MANSONGR. 



18 Alaganna yrpan skilst vi(5 oSlings kvendi, 

en beSja kongs til borgar vendi. 

19 Tsekilegum tfma & meS trygSa gildi, 

nser fylkirs kvinna fseSa skyldi, 

20 G6ftsemd vafiS gylfa fljoS meS geSi svinnu 

ssekja l^t ]?4 konstra kvinnu. 

21 I dyra saeng }?& drottning lagSi drillan runa ; 

flj6Sift sveinbarn fseddi nuna. 

22 Vifin furSar voxt & ungum visis arfa 

horunds meS 6friSum farfa. 

23 BroddhserSs var meft blbkkumanna bragSi kynsint 

yfirlitur unga prinsins. 

24 Augna var bans yfirbragS })6 ilitshreina 

daegilegt sem djasn gimsteina. 

25 BeSjan hara buSlung svinnum barniS sendi ; 

raesir mestrar reiSi kendi. 

26 Nser sj61i Iftur sveininn 4 i sinnu hliSum 

fyltist harm af forsi striSum. 

27 Ekkert nafn vill ungum sveini oSling veita 

haldinn sorg um hyggju reita. 

28 Aungva heldur svinnum saemd vill sveini tsera, 

barniS skipar burt aS fsera. 

29 Kvinnu }?a, sem konstraversum kunni byta, 

visir augum vill ei lita. 

30 Hilmis drottning her af gisti hryggSar seSi, 

til sj61a volvan safnar brseSi. 

Deest unum folium. The catchword is " sinn." 
224 



31 Vefju d/rri vblvan ]?6nti vastar brltna III. Rimnr 

og leiddi af sseng d settum tima. eptir Illuga 

32 Dyran s6ma drottnfng sj61a drillu valdi, Helgason 

J>rjd mdnuSi ]?ar hiin dvaldi. 

33 Hilmis drottning hana lit meS hei<5ri leiddi 

[Rin]ar Ijosa gnsegtir greiddi. 

34 Volvan . . . aptur vinskap syndi 

hana viS svo hatri tyndi. 

35 Beint J>ann dag sem burtu norn sig bua sky Id i 

fylkirsr drottning finna vildi. 

36 MeS sinnis kaelu sj61a til i salinn barna 

reikar sn6tin riinagjarna. 

37 BarniS yngra buolungs flj68 J?ar brj6st d lagSi ; 

hana viS svo volvan sagSi : 

38 P^r eg einni afreiSzt hef meS illspd sagna, 

orSin vel sem ekki ]?agna. 

39 Mogulega md, ei baetast meiniS kalda, 

fast ]>vi settu forlog valda. 

40 Mattugur sd einn sem er ]?vi ollu rdSa 

seSstra kann ineS efling daSa. 

41 Skylt m6r vaeri }>6 d ]?ig me5 ]?seg5 aS minnast 

og d trygSir fiis a?5 finnast. 

42 pessi sonur ]?inn, hvern faeddan J?ii nil hefur, 

]?er i raunum gleSi gefur. 

43 HvaS sem nil um hilmirs niSja helzt og meinast 

annaS siSar sveit mun reynast. 

44 Sinnar settar s6mi beztur sd mun verSa 

og 6vinanna orku skerSa. 

45 p^r og m6Sur ]?inum foSur ]?undur fleina 

likjast mun, ]?a5 lySir reyna. 

46 Af >inu nafni hals s6 heit aS hdlfu dregiS ; 

)?ar af bregSa ekki eigiS. 

47 Tillogur ]?6 minar minst hann megi stoSa, 

honum friS og heill eg bo<5a. 

48 Konstra vitiS kvinnu grams nam kveSjur vanda 

hrygSum spent i hyrjar anda. 



III. Rfmur 49 Hilmirs drottning heilla baft og hennar kundi, 

eptir Illuga gratandi svo gekk frd sprundi. 

Helgason 59 Ambalis var siklings son af sj61a sprundi 

nefndur, viS sd nauSir undi. 

51 Peygi* Hkir ]?eingils arfar p6ttust monnum 

i lista nsegS og s6ma sonnum. 

52 SigurSur prydi sonar bar meS s6ma skyran, 

menta nsegtir huldu hyran. 

53 GeSstrangur og vinssell var s visd6m unni, 

hr6su5u flestir hjalma runni. 

54 Ambalis var 61fkur aS ollu honum, 

rsemdur litt hja karli og konum. 

55 [(3ge](5slegur, b'llum J?rjozkur oSlings niSur, 

flestum [monnum] 611 J?vi miSur. 

56 Gotna eingin rsektust [rdS d rsesijs kundi, 

sem g6Ss til honum gagna mundi. 

57 Mildings kundur mjog litlima mundi ]?rekinn 

flest aefandi fiflabrekin. 

58 Nafni breyta naSu menn d nadda ]?undi, 

gylfa er msslt }>aS geSjast mundi. 

59 Hilmir jafnt og hirdin snjalla hrannar g!63a, 

pundinn kallar ]?ann Aml6Sa. 

60 Eykst svo tiSin Ambalis varS ara nfu, 

vitnast SigurSr vetra tiu. 

61 Fyrst urn sinn eg frd ]?eim Dvalins ferju beiti ; 

fleiri menn upp frseSiS leiti. 

62 Soldan nefnist sikling gseddur ssevar Ij6ma, 

Scidia styrSi sviptur s6ma. 

63 Milding ]?essi Macons dyrkun mesta framdi 

goSanna sig d gofgun tamdi. 

64 Atti ]?essi arfa ]?rjd viS eisu f jarSar 

gefni, alia hetjur harSar. 

65 Het hinn elzti hentur nsesta hjb'rs i starfi 

Thamerlaus tiggja arfi. 

66 Malpriant var niflungs niSji nefndur annar, 

fleins i hrlSum b6t sem bannar. 

* peiged, MS. 
226 



IV. AMBlLES RfMUR SALMANSSONAR, ORTAR 
AF P(JRVALDI SIGMUNDARSYNI . 

ISL. LANDSB6KASAFN 72. 4tO. 
II. RfMA. 

(pNN vil Vind61fs ara k!6 

yta fram 4 Bo<5nar-sj6 
hverninn sem me> vegna vill 
viSrinn fars er mjog litill. 

A hattum rimna eg hef ei skD, 
Hjarandi mr drakk ei til, 
}?egar honum GunnlbS gaf 
g65a drykkinn kerinu af. 

St6ru skaldin virtu vel 
Valgauts metiS hyggju ]?el, 
BoSnar J>egar veitti vin 
vestur fengiS gestum sin. 






Hlaeja ]?essir helzt aS 
hr6Srar }?egar iSka kver, 
vitrir svo sem von er a, 
varla kann eg ]?etta la. 

Annar h6pur yta h^r, 
eina stand J?6 hlySi mer, 
lastar fast mitt IjoSaspil, 
lesiS fram af raddar-hyl. 

227 



IV. Rimur 
eptir >or- 
vald Sig- 
mundarson 



228 



ju hlySa efniS a, 
ef ella skiliS meining fa, 
um hr6Srinn ekki hirSa par, 
hverninn sem aft kveSiS var. 

Fj6rSi manna flokkur he"r 
forvitnast um maerSar-kver, 
Eddu-greinum hselir heitt 
og hugsar ekki um efniS neitt. 

H6pinn fimta hef eg seS 
sem hirSir ekki brgum meS 
Ij6t5a-sbfn aS lyta fri, 
lasta >a sem kveikja a >vi. 

Sjotti skilur ekki orS 
Eddu-greina mals um storS, 
en ef kent er ekki par, 
aluSlega J?aS lofar. 

A sjoundu eg hef s63 
6b8erilegt reiSigeS, 
hreyfi nokkur halur snar 
hr6Sri ser til skemtunar. 

Hafa Ipeir i hyggju snart, 
hann muni kveSit n6gu mart, 
ef ]?eir heyra eitthvaS ]?aS, 
ei sem koma skilning aS. 

I veroldinni vandlifaS 
virSum er i hverjum staS, 
sumir brugga sorgar-dans, 
sem ]?6 Idtast vinir manns. 

Peirra biiin glsepa-gjorS, 
galdra samt i nauSum horS, 
nornin sem eg nefndi fyr 
n6gan gjbrSi rauna-styr. 



En J>6 drottning allt fyri >aS IV. Rimur 

illu flagSi naSar baS, eptir ]>or- 

J?egrium skjoldung skipa re3 (fcet^o hdr.) vald Si S' 
skyldi' hiin deyja pislum me3. 

Mansongs r&iar ]?dttur Jrver, 
}?vi aS sagan eptir fer, 
4 hana gengur ekki par, 
hefst svo rimunnar. 

END OF MANS6NGR. 



Praut mig aSan Pundar-vin, 
J?ar sem volvan motrar-Hn 
seeng af leiddi svo meS kurt, 
vildi halda a hurt. 



Drottning henni g6Sar gaf 
gersemar ag jotna-skraf, 
i manuSi ]?6 hiin ]?rjd 
Jorna dvaldist eyju hja. 

Daginn J?ann sem burtu bj6st 
barniS vildi kveSja Ij6st, 
hafSi drottning hugar-J?rd, 
belt ]?eim unga sveini d. 

" Engum bef eg utan ]?6r 
ofreiS orSiS," nornin t6r, 
" ilia fyrir yt>ur spaS, 
engin get ]?6 se5 til raS. 

Forldg gjora ]?jAning ]?6r, 
)?fna manndygS skyldugt er 
m^r aS virSa og minnast a, 
mikla dygS eg fann ]?er bja." 

Ei ]?in gjalda aS ollu skal 
ySar sonur k6ngs & sal, 
sinnar settar s6mi hann 
Sannlegana verSa kann. 

229 



IV. Rfmur Gef }ni honum gbfugt nafn, 

eptir J?or- get eg harm munu seSja hrafn, 

vald Sig- eptir ^ inu au g ar . brii 

a hann nefnast heiti mi. 

LitiS stoSar lofan min ; 

lofSungs son og hringa-lin 

kveSja siSan vblvan vann 

og veg svo (v. visis) hurt af salnum rann. 

OSlings son h6t Ambales 
engum likur sitt meS ve"s, 
61ust synir oSlings ]?ar 
upp meS frsegS sem Hklegt var. 



SigurSr friSur vaskur var, 
vel geSaSur, orku-snar, 
framur mjbg og frsegSar-gjarn, 
f rabserasta k6ngabarn. 

Ambales 4 allan veg 
6s61egur ]?6tti mjeg, 
nokku<5 gott ei nema vill 
n6 neinum hlySa skapmikill. 

tltlimast6r yfriS var, 
engum manni liktist par, 
Aml6Si Ipvi orva-gr^r 
af b'llum lySum nefndur er. 

FengiS hafSi atta ar 
6'Slings sonur lyndis ]?rar, 
en SigurSur tiu til, 
til mi enn }?a genguz vel. 

Soldan nefni eg oSling einn 
-atriinaSur ]?eygi hreinn- 
sagt er atti sonu >rja, 
sem aS rlkti' i Sky]?ia. 



230 



V. RlMUR AF PEIM NAFNFR^EGA KONUNGI 
YFIR VALLANDI AMBALES SALMANS SYNI: 

ORDTAR AP A p LAGAFELLI E j MIKLA S HOLTSHREPP. 

I. FYRSTA R!MA : FERSKEYTT. 

1 QJSA hara horna Id 

hagyrks fram 4 borSum 
bendir hjara baugs og n 
bj6Sist nil sem forSum. 

2 Vantar mig, >6 bj6Si brdtt, 

bj6rinn OSins megna, 
hugsa eg ]?ci i a(5ra att 
oSru starfi gegna. 

3 Foruj6ts anna fl6Sa hjort 

fram 4 laSiS bylgja 
setja skal, ef andinn ort 
yrpu vildi fylgja. 

4 Sizt er ]?6 til ferSa fser 

Fjalars ranga j6rinn, 

hjd m6r einginn halur raer, 

hareistur er sj6rinn. 

5 StyriS vantar vizkunnar, 

vsent er segliS ]?eygi, 
aungvar feimast ararnar 
d ]?vi leku fleyi. 

6 Saumslitin og brotin bor5 

bundin klampar (1) * saman, 

* Illegible. 

231 



V. Efmur aS fara d >essu >angs & storS 

eptir porS j, y ki mer ekki gaman. 

Einarsson 7 Einn eg r51ti gamt d S j 6j 

sizt mun annaS hlita, 
alt vantandi arakl<5 
eingir vilja nyta. 

8 Fyrst aS eingan mentamann 

me"r ]?^nandi fse eg, 
heilog rdSi hamingjan(n) 
hvort a5 landi nse eg. 

9 K6ngur sa, er kendi me"r 

krappa filnum styra, 
heim a<5 landi hjdlpir t^r, 
hsetturnar mun ryra. 

10 Mer fyrst kendi mentirnar, 

mer }>6 bili hugir, 

mer ei granda masSurnar, 

me'r bans andi dugir. 

11 Hatt lof greiSist hilmir ]?eim 

heims 4 breiSu vollum, 
lifgar, deySir, 16nar seim 
laufa meiSum ollum. 

END OP MANSONGB. 

12 ^EfSan frsekleik urn eg get 

O O 

i Spania landi 

dogling ]?ann, er Donrek h6t 

dr(e)if<5i japa sandi. 

13 [Hann] Spania hauSri reS, 

historiur spjalla 

aS Kimbria 4tti meS 

oSling frf af galla. 

14 Eylondum og meingi me<5 

milding styrSi frsegur, 
]?ar til honum J?j6na re5 
]?egna 6tal ssegur. 

15 SkraS er, margir skattk6ngar 

skjoldung ]?entu friSum, 
232 



hraustir jarlar, hertogar V. Rfmur 

hratt meS fleiri lySum. eptir }?or<5 

16 VorSu ]?essir visir meS Einarsson 

valin lond og riki 

hreysti mest var honum Ie5 

hvergi fanst bans liki. 

17 R#5ugur og vitur var 

visir gjafa mildur, 
lyS fatsekan forsorgar, 
fyrcSum hjalpar gildur. 

18 Setina drotning doglings er 

duSuS linna sandi 
hilmirs frsega Hauksddtter 
Holsetu frd landi. 

19 pessa drotning }?aega 4 

]?6tti kostur happa ; 
dttu hj(5nin arfa J>rja, 
alia mestu kappa. 

20 Haukur, Balant h^tu tveir, 

hraustur Salman lika, 
hilmirs arfar h6fu geir, 
hvergi fann old slika. 

21 pegar andast dogling dyr 

dbgum saddur J?aegur 
Spania erfSi Haukur hyr, 
hilmir gerSist frsegur. 

22 Hispanfa buSlungs bur 

Balant fekk aS erf Sum, 
skyr ]?ar gerSist skjoldungur, 
skatna styrSi mergSum. 

23 I Kimbria kynt er varS 

kongur Salman f jaSi, 
smalond morg og eyja arS 
eptir foSur ]?45i. 

24 Haukur brdSir hans meS prySi, 

hver eS Spania reSi, 
feigur hari fell i striSi 
firtur auS og gleSi. 

233 



V. Rimur 
eptir >orS 
Einarsson 



25 Halur sa, er hann deyddi 

heiftingi var mesti, 
f61k af kristni kiigaSi, 
kongur gertfist vesti. 

26 Malprlant he"t oSling sefur 

settaSur fra Skitia 

seinna viSur soguna krsefur 

sviSur kemur tija. 

27 BuSlungs arfa Balant ]?ann 

birtir um i sogum, 
styrSi Hispania hann 
helju fram aS dbgum. 

28 Salman kongur situr aS 

sinu riki friSu, 

vitrir segja virSar JaS 

Vallands austursfSu, 

29 HreystimaSur mesti var 

mikiS st6rhugaSur 
fylkir glaSur friSleik bar 
fyrSum vel]?okka3ur. 

30 Ef aS reiddist dogling dyr 

dr6ttum 6hreppandi 

var hann ]?eim, en vinum hyr 

vel og J4 gleSjandi. 

31 Stj(5rnsamur og >segur >ar 

]?eingill meSur s6ma 
elskaSur af ollum var 
ullum jotna d<5ina. 

32 Greifad6ttir drotning ]?seg 

doglings af . . .* 
Burgundia f riS og f rseg 
Frakka burt lir landi. 

33 Kongs af settum vifiS var, 

vafin japa s!68a 

Amba het, sem dstirnar 

oSling syndi fr6Sa. 

* Words omitted in MS. 



234 



34 Milding unni menja rein V. Rlmur 

meSur astar hita eptir J?orS 

svo aS hennar matti mein Einarsson 

msita (!) einginn vita. 

35 Herra sinum hlySin var 

r hlokkin elda Rfnar 
skynsbm dyra dygSirnar 
drottning sefSi sinar. 

36 Baeta gerSi rasis rd5 

rorust foldin spenna, 
ytar feingu allir tjaS, 
af bragS vseri kvenna. 

37 Yndislega buSlungs bliS 

beSjan 616tt verSur, 
sveinbarn eptir talda tiS 
tvinna faeddi gerSur. 

38 Skjoldungs arfi sklrSur var, 

skapaSur dafallega, 
sd f4kk heiti SigurSar 
sif ja hlynur trega. 

39 Svaf hjd fylkir friS & kinn 

Fofnis bdla gerSur 
J>ar til 61ett annaS sinn 
bSlings friiin ver'Sur. 

40 Valva nokkur djorf, 6dael, 

dvaldist >ar 4 laSi, 
bllu meingi 6vinssel 
ytum forlog spaSi. 

41 Forn i skapi flegSan var, 

f6r um londin viSa, 

og hjd k6ngum alstaSar 

upphefS ]?aSi f riSa. 
41 tir GarSariki griSur var 

getin af haum settum, 

stolt og heiptug brogSin bar 

biiin orma gsettum. 
43 J6S J?4 fseddu friir um heim 

fylkira og jalla 

235 



V. Rfmur valvan ]?essi var hjd J?eim 

eptir >or5 v it ur forlog spjalla. 

Einarsson 44 Sa i mans fru f fyrra sinn 

fsefta }>egar naSi 

var ei boSiS vb'lvu inn, 

viS >aS reiSast gaSL 

45 ForsmaS ]?<5ttist vera vis 

valva striS i lundu, 
hefndir spinna heiptug kys 
hilmirs tvinna grundu. 

46 pegar aptur ]?eingils kvinna 

]?unguS var5 i naSum 
valvan gerSi vifiS finna 
vist aS f jandans raSum. 

47 I lystigarSi Ijiifust var 

lofSungs fru i gleSi ; 
valvan hana hitti ]?ar, 
heiptug ]?anninn t&5i : 

48 Lukka >in og llfleg sefi 

lizt mlr mi i bldma, 
menja strondu mest ]?6 haefi 
missa ]?ennan s6ma. 

49 Ovinonum umsetin 

eg )?ess biS og segi : 
drepinn verSi visir ]?inn, 
vopnin bita ]?eygi. 

50 P^r um spai J?inn arfann 

Ipser um somu tiSir 
smanarlegust helja hann 
hremmi burt frd lySi. 

51 Pegar soddan Jjaning sker 

]?ig viS nauSa kifiS 
dauSinn verSur ]?segri ]?er 
]?d en mseta lifiS. 

52 I lifi >inu Ij6tan hal, 

IsBt eg JaS viS klinast 
Jegar vex upp virSum skal 
versta fifliS synast 
236 



53 Fyrri var eg forsmaS ei, 

})6 faeri um londin vi5a ; 
hljdtiS >iS nii Hars a mey 
hefndir J?ess a5 biSa. 

54 PrambiS ykkar dofni nii, 

drj61a beSja rseddi ; 
burtu vendi sf San sii ; 
sorgin drottning mseddi. 

55 Hitti gram, og harma ber, 

hraksparnar um getur ; 
reiSur skipa fylkir fer 
aS fanga volvu tetur. 

56 Smanarlegum dauSa dr6s 

deyja skal, hann t6Si ; 
oSling reiSum aptur lj(Ss 
anza drottning r6Si : 

57 Batnar raSiS, ]?eingill, ]?ey 

J>6 aS latir deySa 
f61sku trylda falda ey, 
fsest ei grseSing neySa. 

58 Valvan ra5 viS sorgum s^r, 

sagSi drottning friSa. 
ilium f janda, b'Sling t^r, 
einginn skyldi hlySa. 

59 Aptur briiSur anzar glatt 

oSling reiSum }>j6Sa : 

viS skulum finna hana hratt, 

henni sa3mdir bj65a. 

60 Veizlu ]?iggja biSjum bratt 

briiSi dygSa snauSa, 

J?4 mun brogSdtt baugagatt 

baetur gera nauSo,. 

61 Anzar vifi upp a }>a(5 

b'oling reiSur sveita, 
Satan beiddi sinn i staS 
ssetu lotning veita. 

62 Drottning siSan drillu fann 

db'pur mjog af trega, 



V. Rfrnur 
eptir ]?or5 
Einarsson 



2 37 



V. Bfmur en vi5 hana sig meft sann 

eptir >or5 s^ndi }?6 bliSlega. 



Einarsson ter 



beSjan ]>& viS hina 
alt, er gerSi ]?ykkju ]?er, 
]?aegSa-fni og vina. 

64 Vinsemdir og veizlu meS 

vo'lvu baiiS aS ]?iggja, 
hennar svo aS hressist geS 
heim i staS hjd tiggja. 

65 Sittu ]?ar i ssemd hjd m^r, 

saetan hatri sleppi, 
]?ar til fdstriS fseSi h6r, 
fognuS svo eg hreppi. 

66 Aptur sprundi anza vann 

illmselanna vifiS : 

soddan Jiggja sizt eg kann, 

seint >itt grseSist kifiS. 

67 Pegar j(5SiS fseSir fin 

foldin orma skrefa, 
6s6kt kem eg ]?4 til J>in, 
]?arftu slikt ei efa. 

68 Skildu vitur vlfin a8, 

valvan burtu geingur ; 
drottning f(5r i doglings sta5, 
dopur var ei leingur. 

69 MeSgaungunnar talda t!5 

tiggja friiar }?rytur, 

var ]?& komin valvan bliS, 

vifiS fognuS hl/tur. 

70 pd vi(5 drottning syndi sig 

ssemilega bliSa, 
aShlynningu astiiSlig 
auSgrund veitti ]?ySa. 

71 Sveinbarn fseddi falda hli5 

fagurt sizt aS lita, 
horund svart, en hdrin striS 
hlyn 4 litlum ryta.* 
* i.e., rita. 



72 Xsynd hafSi ilia mjeg V. Rfmur 

arfinn friiar svarni, eptir ]?or5 

augun voru dhyrleg Einarsson 

i ]?vi Ij6ta barni. 

73 L>rottning Isetur, dygS er ann, 

ddgling sveininn fasra, 
svo aS fagni sjalfur hann 
sinu j6<5i ksBra. 

74 Pegar barniS Ijdta leit 

lezt hann reiSur vera, 
sjdli skipar svor meS heit 
sveininn lit aS bera. 

75 Ekkert nafn gaf oftling vist 

ungum viSi rlta, 
en ><5 vildi allra slzt 
augum vdlu llta. 

76 Valvan ]?4 um rsenu ri5 

reiSi ]?unga kendi ; 
. af >vl hrepti sorga si5 
siklings ektakvendi. 

77 Valvan >j<5nar vifi trii 

vel sem ]?orfm beiSir 
par til aS hiin fylkirs frii 
friSa sseng af leiSir. 

78 Drottning bySur dregla brii 

dvelja hjd s6r skyldi 

svo leingi meS ssemd og tni 

sjalf er kjdsa vildi. 

79 Petta slzt eg >iggja ma, 

]?a nam valva svara ; 
bei5 }?<$ mdnuS briiSi hjd, 
burt svo vildi fara. 

80 Ferskeytt leiSast leingri m6r 

lj6S ; ]>6 neySir pini 
orva meiSum aSra h^r 
Austra skeiS eg syni. 



239 



V. Rfmur 
eptir >orS 
Einarsson 



II. ONNUE KiMA : BRAGSNEITT. 



1 Prj6ta naSi ]?undar vin um J?ykkju kdra, 

]?egar vildi valvan fara 
viS aS skilja brtiSi hara. 

2 Brjdstlagt hafSi barniS unga buSlungs kvinna; 

valvan hrygftist vizkusanna, 
viS ]pa raeSir dygSasvanna. 

3 Eingum hef eg ofreiSzt manni utan saka, 

nema ]?er min foldin flika, 
61skan J?a mig trylti rlka. 

4 SpaS hef illu ]?orngrund ]?6r, ei ]?arf aS neita, 

ma ])6 ekki boliS bseta, 
brdSi fyrst eg naSi graeta. 

5 Forlogonum fyrSa rseSur frsegsti hari, 

ekki neitt eg aS J?vi geri, 
angur ]>6 mitt sinniS beri. 

6 Skylt aS minnast m6r er ]>6 a manndygS hreina 

mer sem gerSi mesta syna 
m6Su glossa hlokkin fina. 

7 Sonur ]>essi svarti ]?inn meS sinniS try Ida 

ekki skal aS ollu gjalda 
illra foSurs hefndar valda. 

8 Sinnar settar s6mi verSur sendir fleina, 

honum gef ]?itt heitiS fina, 
hann mun likjast aett i J>ina, 

9 HvaS eg segi hrina skal a hlyni branda ; 

vil eg, tjaSi vef jan linda, 

viS ]?ig, drottning, trygSir binda. 

10 Gersemar og gulliS bjarta gaf >a henni 

vizku prydda visirs kvinna, 
valvan gaSi ]?atkir inna. 

11 Kysti barn og friina friSa friuS vanda; 

bratt svo na<5i burtu venda 
bdin skarti valvan kenda, 
240 



12 Mildings friiin msedd }?ar eptir masa naSi ; V. Rlmur 

forlog sin hun syrgja reSi, eptir ]?or3 

sara neyS >vi bar 1 geSi. Einarsson 

13 Sva/minn msetur sfSan Isetur sveininn skira, 

Ambales }>& ytar heyra 
ungur nefnist viSur geira. 

14 Olust baSir upp meS virSing arfar sj61a, 

dlikir ]?6, allir tala, 
ullar vaeri nbSru bala. 

15 SigurSur var friSur, frsegur, fr(5(Sur, slyngur, 

hamentaSur hjors vi<5 angur, 
hygginn, glaSur, reiSistrangur. 

16 Ambales mjog dfrynlegur ollum syndist, 

6]?ekkur og reiSinn reyndist 
r6tt sem fifl, en vizkan leyndist. 

17 OSlings niSur aungum hi/Sir orva runni, 

hrekki syndi hverjum manni, 
harSsinnaSur kongs 1 ranni. 

18 Ekkert Isera bSlings vildi arfinn striSi, 

fdlatur og frill i a#i, 
freklega ]?6 vaxa naeSi. 

19 tltlimirnir allir voru 6gnast6rir, 

aungum likur dlfi geira, 
amatlegur sj4 og heyra. 

20 Arnlb&i var upp nefndur hjd ollu meingi, 

lika sjalfum af lofSungi 
lukku firti sveinninn ungi. 

21 Peygi segir ]?eim af meira ]?ar til dyru 

tru eg atta vetra v6ru 
visirs n iS jar J?roskast6ru. 

22 Fylkis land 1 friSi var og friSir >egnar ; 

annaS kemur efni sagna ; 
um ]?aS verftur lj6Siri magna. 



VI. SPECIMENS OF MSS. 
I. A.M. 521c. 4to. 

VI. Speci- 3&IEB. biriar sbgu af Ambulo eSur AmloSa enum beymska I Capitul. 

mens of ?*v Donareck n : kongur sem rieSi firer spania kimbria og Curlandi og 
6"Sru morgii ]?i6Slbndu fen var 0<5ug r af | gotzi o c fielmenu'r af fplki og 
morgum volldu undirsatQm nm ]?ientu margir undirkongar hertugar og 
Jallar, sem nm | aSstoS veittfi meS storri framkSaemd 16ndin aS veria 
og 0<5aefu a<$ safna var h o c sialf r bin mesti kapi og forsiall. H v r stor ov | 
inu syn m en liuf r og lytilat 1 " vinu synii vitugur i radu J>fij nm v r stbr yiska 
la'nuS nn v r olmusu gia r og gaf m m storar giafir. Selina | n* drott : hnz 
bseSi voru ]?0g miog gomul orSin ]?a saga -JJzi girfrftist. Sini atti ll ]?ria viS 
dro: sini hu var dottir Haukz k s a hoi | setulndi og eftir hm biet hz 
firsti son r . Anar j*ra son h* Baland eptir feSur f s. ))riSie h : Salman 
aller v $r mickler firi sier aS | afli o c aSgi6rvi og fullvagsta >ai bier var 
komiS sbguni o c sem donrek k. deiSi skiptust Ibnd. . . . 



II. A.M. 52lA. 4to. 

af am!6Sa eSfir Ambalase. 
*^ Donrik hiet kongSr sem rieSe fyrer Spania | Hysana Cimbrija eS9r 
Cumbria og 16nd9m bier | 6Sum og borgfim naerri Spania. Han var 
audug r | af fie mecktugfir af folki og stormeni Radvit | ugur stiorn samur 
6rlatur af gotze ljufiir vi | nfim synfim en stranger ovinfim og bielt | sitt 
ryki meS storfim beiSri, Han var for | siall og sigSr ssell J orSstfim og 
haSi marg | ar orfistfir viS beiSnar ]?ioSer, ban hafSi cbristnra mana trii 
og var under Pafans | reglSm og so vor9 611 bans lond. Donrik | kongSr 
hafol drottingu att settaSa af Sma- | londSm dotter Hauks Jails af benar 
nafni | greynir ecki, vi5 heni bafSi kongSr >ria so | nfi gieteS sa ellsti 
242 



hiet Haukur eftter | moftfir f6Sfir synfim, anar Baland bin | >riSie Salman VI. Speci- 
]?esser aller brseSfir vorfi ar | borner ordner er i sogfi fra seiger, ]?eir voru j niens of 
aller mikler men fyr.gr sier sterker aS af | le stor hfigaoer 'vygvaner og 
>eir mestfi bar | daga men ollfim ovseger i skape. . . . | 



III. A.M. 52lD. 4to. 

af AmloSa HaroVendelssyne. 
Efter >aS aS kong H<5ttfir deiSe, tok Hrserekfir kongdbm effter, >a 
fiellfi undaii danmerkfir Ryke, svensker kiirlenSsker og Zlavonia, og 6nuV 
fleire Qmliggiande Ibnd, sem til forna h6fS9 vereS undergiefen og skattgild 
og vildQ nti vera fry f 611fim tollfim og arlegQ skattgiallde, >8i bafiS 
Hrserekfir kg r fit almeninge af danmdrk i leiSangfir og a'minte aS peir 
villdfi f^Sfirlandsens vegna inleggia stor mandbms sticke og viSrietta afiftfir 
]?aS findan var geingeS, so f6SfirlandeS nseSe synfim riettfigheitfim, ]?ser 
findan f611nfi svenskfi og kfirlendsku ])ibSer settii ifer sig kong og drbfi so 
a mote Hraer : k : i tvenfim flockum, anan settfi ]?eir i launsatfir, en meS 
anaii forfi ]?eir fram a vygvbllen En sem Hrser : k : fornam ]?esse svik, 
lagSe han synfim skipfim aS lande og villde ecke verSa miSt a millfim 
6vinana ]?ar aSrer vorfi i lafinsatrenu a lande, En aSrer hieldu til sibs meS 
allan skipaflotan, han fiell hastarlega ifer ]?a sem 1 lafinsatrenfi voru og 
fellde pa so gi6rsamlega, aS ]?ar komst ecke eirn lyfss findan. Skipa hereii 
forfindraSe stbrlega, hfiaS syna filgiara tefSe so leinge, pfii han visse ecke 
en ]?a a<5 Hrasr : k : hafSe lagt ]?a aS velle og IseckaS peirra opsa, pui kom 
]?eim asamt aS hallda a mots viS Hraer : k : og vita a hfi6rn veg Ifickan 
skiffte sier. Y her }>eirra var eirn 6gnarleg r Rise, ]?egar han sier ]?an 
danska her kallar han harre rbddfi til beggia partana seigiande. Mier 
synest ra'Slegt aS h6f5ingiar vorer setie griS og friS a ba'Sar sySur En 
utvelie sin man af hfi6rfim aS hallda Einvyge syn aa a millfim. . . . 






243 



VII. EXTRACT FROM 
SAGAN AF AMLODA HARDVENDILS SYNI: 

A.M. 52lD. 4to. 



VII. Ex- THEGAR Aml6Si HarSvendilsson sd hvorsu bans foSurbr63ir hafSi 
tract from - framiS }?etta 6guSlegt morS og h6rd6m, varS hann dttasleginn um 
Thor- sjalfs sins lif, og uppd ]>a<5 hann kynni a<5 forSa sjalfum sjer, ]?d 

A i 8 ? 18 stilti bann so bseSi orS og gjorSir a<5 allir meintu hann vera halfvita; 
hann 14 sifeldlega i saur og skarni og j6s osku um sig allan meS 
mestu 6skikkanlegheitum ; oil hans or<5 og verk voru darleg og gikks- 
leg og alt hans framferSi leit so lit sem hann vseri kominn af einum 
narra; hann sjndist likari vanskoftu skrimsli enn nokkrum manni; 
stundum Id hann i osku og beit kol, enn stundum talgaSi hann trjespitur, 
beygSi Tp&r i logun sem fiski aungla, og gjorSi ]?ar d agniia, og svei5 so 
endana i eldi. peir spurSu hann aS hva<5 hann gjorSi ; hann svaraSi : 
"Eg skerpi min spj6t, aS hefna meS dauSa foSur mins." Margir hjeldu 
]?etta fyrir dar og heimsku, enn sumir sem djiiphygnari voru mispeinktu 
hann og meintu hann ekki so galinn sem hann Ijeti, heldur mundi hann 
skyla sinni visku undir daruskap og ]?reyskleika, og pvi t6ku ]?eir sin raS 
saman aS J>eir skyldu setja hann i heimuglegan staS, og lata hjd hdnum 
eina dsegilega j6mfrii, og vita hvort hann upptendraSist ekki til 61ey- 
filegrar elsku meS henni, Tpvi ]?a<5 er mannsins meSfsedd nattiira, a<5 hann 
kann ekki aS dylja sinn vilja nser hann veit sig i heimuglegum staS, og 
meintu ]?ar fyrir ef Aml6Si hefSi nokkurt forstand mundi hann I4ta sig 
yfirvinna meS girnd lostaseminnar. A meSal ]?eirra sem Aml6Sa fylgSu 
var einn sem upp meS honum hafSi alist alt fr barnd6mi. Hann ]?einkti 
a gamlan kunnings skap og gaf honum eitt heimuglegt teikn aS hann 
skyldi vara sig, }?vi hann vissi ]?aS mundi kosta hans lif ef J>ar fyndist 
nokkurt forstand meS honum. petta formerkti Aml6Si. Og sem ]?eir 
baSu hann aS stiga 4 hest sneri hann bakinu fram enn fdnginu aftur, 
og festi beisliS viS stertinn, eins og hann vissi ekki annars, enn hesturinn 
244 



skyldi stj6rnast meS taglinu. Ollum JxStti spottlegt aS sjd par hesturinn VII. Ex- 
hlj6p fram og aftur, og maSurinn sem h baki sat styrSi meS stertinum. tract from 
Pegar peir komu nokkuS fram a veginn msetti )?eim einn lilfur. Aml6Si 
spurSi hvaS >aS vseri, >eir sogSu honum >aS vseri ungur foli; hann 
svaraSi : "Soddan fola hefur Feingi faa 1 sinum garSi" MeS soddan g aga 
orSum oskaSi hann straffs yfir sinn stjiipfodur aS lilfarnir og ]?au greindu 
villudyr skyldu hefna a honum syns foSurs dauSa, og taka af honum g6ss 
og rlkd6m, lond og lySi, sem hann hafSi maklega for]?jent. SiSan komu 
Jeir meS hann niSur aS sjdvarstrbndu og sau J>ar liggja sveif af hafskipi 
sem ]?ar hafSi aSur brotnaS J?eir segja : "Hjer finnum vjer st6ran hnif." 
AmloSi sagSi: "P& heyrir ]?ar til st6rt stykki sem ]?essi knifur skal 1 
briikast." Hann meinti efunarlaust hafiS, i hvorju sveifin ]?jenar skipinn 
best. peir baSu hann a<S skoSa ]?a3 hvlta mjol sem laegi meS sjavar- 
strondinni. Aml63i sagSi : " paS er malaS me?5 vindmylnu, enn sii hvita 
froc5a er skum af oil." peir h!6u aS honum, enn hann sjalfur ]?r6saSi sitt 
forstondugt tal. Pegar peir komu langt fram d skoginn skildu ]?eir hann 
einan eftir so hann ]?vi djarflegar skyldi forgripa sig d stiilkunni sem ]?eir 
hbf Su ]?ar aSur lateS, og skyldi hiin koma 6forvarandis til hans, so sem af 
vetSurs raSi : Hann hefSi og vissulega forgripiS sig d henni hef 5i ekki 
hans gamli stallbr65ir varaS hann viS og gefiS honum vist teikn ]?ar uppa. 
Hann t6k eitt laufviSar blaS og stakk 1 gegn um strai og Ijet so fljuga 
]?anga^ sem Aml6Si st6S. Enn sem Aml6<5i s^ ]?a3 fornam hann strax aS 
par voru svik ferSum. Hann t6k stiilkuna til sin og gekk nokkuS 
leingra afram, alt ]?angaS til paug komu i nokkurs konar hulstur, par sem 
einginn sd paug. par baS hann hana aS hiin vildi aungvum segja hvaS 
millum }?eirra fram fseri. pessi stulka hafSi upp alist meS Aml6Sa i fra 
barnd6mi, }>vi duldi hiin meS honum alt ]?aS er hann vildi, og hun vissi 
aS honum mdtti til gagns koma. Nu sem peir f6ru heimleiSis meS 
Aml6Sa spurSa ]?eir hann aS uppd spje hvort hann hefSi hrsert nokkuS viS 
stiilkunni. Hann svaraSi ja. peir spurSa hann fram vegis hvar ]?a<5 
hef Si skeS, hann sagSi : "A hiisbust, hesthofi, og hana kambi." Peir 
gjorSu skoll aS ]?essu og spurSu stiilkuna aS ]?vi, enn hiin neitaSi og 
vildi ]?a$ ekki meSkennast. Hvor maSur triiSi hennar orSum eftir ]?vi 
a5 einginn af ]?eim sem i sk6ginum voru hafSi sje5 hvaS skeS hafSi; 
>ar kom ogso hans triir stallbroSir og spurSi hvort hann hefSi orSiS var 
viS nokkra sending? Aml6Si sagSist vel hafa fornumiS ]?aS sem hef Si 
komiS fljugandi fram fyrir hann meS strd i rumpinum ]?ar aS h!6u ]?eir 
aSrir, enn hans stallbr6Sur hagaSi soddan forstondugt svar. Pegar ]?eir 

245 



VII. Ex- 
tract from 
Thor- 

lakssons 
AmloSa 
Saga 



kunnu ekkert aS formerkja af hbnum annars enn hann vseri einn vitley- 
singur, ra<51ag8i einn af Feingis raSgjofum aS hann skyldi enn ])d reyna 
til viS Aml6Sa hvbrt hann vseri aldiSis afsinna. Hann sagSi Feingi 
skyldi lata sem hann vildi langt burt til merkilegra utrjettfnga, og Isesa 
Aml6Sa einungis meS sinni m6Sur i einh/si og lata einn mann vera ]?eim 
ovitanlega i leyndum, aS heyra hvaS paug seg(5u sin d millum ; ]?vi vseri 
nokkurt vit i honum )?d myndi sonurinn eflaust ekki dylja }>ess m6Surina. 
Pessi sami Feingis rdSgjafi lofaSist sjdlfur aS vakta uppd ]?eirra samtal. 
Feingi eftirfylgSi hans rdtSum og Ijet sem hann vildi reisa nokkuS langt i 
hurt. AmloSi og hans m6Sir voru bseSi innilukt i einni stofu, enn Aml6Si 
dttaolst ]?aS sem i sannleika var aS einhvor mundi heimuglega vera tilsettur, 
aS nj6sna eftir ]?eirra samtali ; J?vi hlj6p hann fyrst sem hann alminnilega 
plagaSi hringinn i kringum alt hiisiS og veifaSi krlngum sig hanSlegg- 
junum sem b'Srum vsengjum og g61 sem einn hani ; Hann hlj6p upp hal- 
minn sem Id i htisinu ]?ar skalkurinn haf 5i sig undir faliS og var }?ar ymist 
aS stappa upp eSur niSur so hann feingi ]?ess betur skynjaS hvort nokkuS 
kvikt vseri ]?ar undir huliS, og sem hann formerkti aS ]?ar var eitthvaS 
fess hattar, greip hann sverS og rak }?ann i gegnum er sig hafSi ]>ar undir 
huliS. Hann dr6 hann siSan undan halminum, og hj6 hans kropp i smd 
stykki, ]>vi nsest sau5 hann ]?aug i heitu vatni, og kastaSi ]?eim ofan um 
eitt heimuglegt salerni, }?ar svin roru niSur undir. par eftir vendi hann 
til sinnar m6Sur, hver eS grjet yfir hans heimsku og galinskap, og segir 
til hennar: "6 ]>ii argvituga h6ra, sem hefur tekiS i faSm pann sem 
myrti ]>inn ksera herra og htisb6nda, og gjb'rol ]?inn einasta son foSur- 
lausan ; i J?essu hefur Ju sjalf opinberaS J?ina vanartugu natturu, aS >ii 
snoggt gleymdir ]?lnu fyrra egtarhjarta ; ]?u skalt og fyrir vist vita aS eg 
gjbri mig ekki galinn fyrir aungva orSsbk, ]?vl eg veit fyrir vist, aS s4 
sem ekki sparaSi sinn eiginn br6Sur, hann brtikar aungva miskunsemi 
viS sina aSra naunga. Pa5 er og einginn galinskapur ac5 forvara sitt Itf 
og velferS meS heimsku; mins fbSurs dauSi er mjer se fyrir minnum, 
hveneer sem eg fse hefnt hans ; allir hlutir kunna ekki aS utrjettast d einum 
tfma, ]?ar heyrir til st6r forstbndugheit aS fanga }?d hbrSu og 6mensku- 
sbmu tyranna. paS er forgefins ]>6 ]?u gratir yfir mlnum galinskap, enn 
viljir Jii sorga, J?d grat heldur J>ina skbmm og vanseru ; eSur ]?6knist ]?jer 
J>a?5 betur a3 ]?egja og lata ekkert d J?jer festa? MeS soddan skbrpum 
orSum og strbffunum vendi hann sina m6Sur til dygSanna frd 6dygS- 
unum, fra oleyfilegum kaarleika og bloS skbmm, er hiin hafSi samlagaS sig 
meS Feingi, og til sins fbSurs fyrri elsku og kserleika. 
246 



VIII. BRJlMS-SAGA. 

(EPTIR A.M. 602E. 4to. EPTIR HILDI ARNGRfMSD($TTUR L^ERDA.) 



"HAD var einu sinni, aS k6ngur og drottning reSu fyrir rfld sinu ; ]?au VIII. 
J voru rik og voldug og vissu varla aura sinna tal. Pau attu eina dottur ; Brjdms- 
hiin 61st upp sem flest onnur sbgubbrn. par bar hvorki til titla n6 tffiinda, 
fretta ne frasagna, um J>ann tfma, nema logiS vaeri. Karl og kerllng 
bjuggu i garSshorni, ]?au attu sjb syni og eina ku til bjargar ; hun var 
svo vsen, aS hana ]?urfti aS mj61ka }?rysvar a dag, og gekk hun sjalf heim 
tir haganum um miSdegiS. paS var einu sinni, aS k6ngur reiS a dyraveiSar 
meS sveina sina. Peir riSu hja nautaflokki kongs, og var kyr karls J?ar 
saman vi<5. Kongur maelti til ]?eirra : " Vsena kii a eg ]?arna." " Ekki er 
}?a(5 ySar kyr, herra," sogSu sveinarnir, "]?a(5 er kyr karls i kotinu." 
K6ngur m*lti : " Hiin skal verSa min." SISan reiS k6ngur heim ; en er 
hann var seztur til drykkju, mintist hann a kiina, og vildi senda menn 
til karls aS fala hana fyrir aSra. Drottning baS hann aS gjora J?a8 ekki, 
]?vi ]>au hefSu ekki neitt annatS til bjargar. Hann hlyddi }>vi ekki og 
sendi 3 menn a3 fala ku karls. Karl var uti og born hans oil. Peir 
skiluSu fra k6nginum, a3 hann vildi kaupa ku karls fyrir aSra. Karl 
maelti : " Mer er ekki msetari kyr k6ngs, en min." Peir leituSu fast d, en 
hann let ekki af, ]?angaS til ]?eir drapu hann. T6ku }>& oil bbrnin ao 1 grata, 
nema elzti sonurinn, er het Brjdm. Peir spurSu bbrnin, hvar ]?au hefSi 
tekiS sarast. pau kloppuSu oil a brj6sti(f, nema Brjam, sem klappaSi a 
rass ser og glotti. Drapu J>eir ]?4 611 bbrnin, er 4 brjostiS kloppuSu, en 
kvaSu ]?aS gilda einu, }>6 hitt greyiS lifSi, ]>vi hann vseri vitlaus. K6ngs- 
menn geingu heim, og leiddu meS ser kuna, en Brjam gekk inn til m65ur 
sinnar og sagSi henni tiSindin, og bar hun sig ilia. Hann baS hana aS 
grata ekki, J?vl J>au tseku ekki mikiS upp a ]?vi ; hann skyldi bera sig aS 
gjbra svo sem hann gseti. paS var einu sinni, aS k6ngur var a5 lata smiSa 

247 



VIIL skemmu handa d6ttur sinni, og hafSi hann feingiS smiSnum gull, aS gylla 

Brjdms- hana innan og utan. Brjam kom J>ar meS fanahatt sinn. p& mseltu 
Saga k6ngsmenn : " HvaS leggur ]?u her gott til, Brjam ? " Hann svaraSi : 

" Minki um mselir mikinn, piltar minir," og gekk siSan hurt. En gulliS, 
sem }?eim var feingiS til aS gylla meS, minkaSi, svo ]?aS dugSi ekki meir en 
til helminga. Peir sogSu k6ngi til. Hann belt, aS J?eir hefSu stoliS j?vi 
og let hengja ]?a. p& f6r Brjam og sagSi m6Sur sinni. " Ekki attirSu svo 
aS segja, sonur minn," segir bun. Hann mselti : "HvaS atti eg ]? aS 
segja, m6Sir mm?" Hun svarar : "Vaxi ]?aS um ]?rjd ]?riSjunga, attirSu 
aS segja." Eg skal segja J>aS a morgun, moSir min," svaraSi Brjam. 
Hann f6r svo heim. Morguninn eptir msetti hann ]?eim, er baru Ilk til 
grafar. Peir sogSu : " HvaS leggur J>u gott h^r til, Brjam ? " " Vaxi um 
}?rjd ]?ri<5junga, piltar minir," sagSi bann. LikiS 6x svo, aS ]?eir mistu 
]?a<5 niSur. Brjam f6r beim og sagSi henni frd. Hun mselti : " Ekki attir 
]?u aS segja ]?a(5, sonur minn." Hann svarar : " HvaS dtti eg ]?4 aS segja, 
moSir min?" <{ GuS friSi sal }?ina, >inn dauSi, attir >ii aS segja," mselti 
hiin. " Eg skal segja ]?aS a morgun, m6Sir min," mselti bann. Hann f6r 
um morguninn beim aS k6ngsboll, og sa hvar rakkari einn var aS bengja 
bund. Hann gekk til bans. Rakkarinn mselti : ' 'HvaS leggur ]?ii gott 
her til, Brjam?" Hann svaraSi : " GuS friSi sal >ma, binn dauSi." 
Rakkarinn h!6 aS ]?essu, en Brjam blj6p heim til moSur sinnar og sagSi 
henni. Hun mselti : " Ekki attir >ii aS segja svo." " HvaS dtti eg >4 aS 
segja ? " sagSi bann ? Hiin svaraSi : " Hvert er ]?etta ]?j6fsgreyiS k6ngsins, 
er ]?ii ferS nu meS, attir ]?u aS segja." " Eg skal segja ]?aS a morgun, 
moSir min," segir bann. Fer bann ]?angaS morguninn eptir, og var ]?a 
veriS aS aka drottningu kringum borgina. Brjam gekk til ]?eirra. " HvaS 
leggur ]?u her til gott ? " sogSu ]?eir. " Er ]?etta nokkuS J?j6fsgreyiS k6ng- 
sins, er J?iS fariS niina meS, piltar minir ? " Peir atyrtu bann. Drottning 
bannaSi ]?eim ]?aS, og sagSi, aS ]?eir skyldu ekki leggja neitt til dreingsins. 
Hann hlj6"p heim til m6Sur sinnar og sagSi henni fra. Ekki attir Ju aS 
segja svo, sonur minn," sagSi bun. " Hvernig atti eg Ja aS segja?" sagSi 
bann. " Er J>etta nokkuS heiSurslifiS k6ngsins, sem ]?iS nuna fariS meS, 
attir ]?u aS segja." "Eg skal segja ]?aS a morgun, m6Sir min," mselti 
hann. F6r hann ]?angaS um morguninn, og sa tvo menn vera aS birkja 
kapal ; hann gekk til ]?eirra. " HvaS leggur }>u her til gott, Brjam ? " 
sogSu ]?eir. "Er J?etta nokkuS beiSurslifiS k6ngsins, sem ]?iS fariS nd 
meS, piltar minir ? " meelti bann. Peir sveinSu honum. Hann blj6p heim 
lit m6Sur sinnar og sagSi henni fra. Hun mselti: "FarSu ekki leingur 
248 



>angaS, ]>vi eg veit aldrei nser >eir drepa >ig." " Ekki drepa >eir mig, VIII. 
m6Sir min," sag<5i hann. pa'S bar svo vi<5 einhverju sinni, aS k<5ngur bauS Brjdms- 
monnum sinum aS r6a til fiskjar, og eetluftu ]?eir acS r6a a tveimur skipum. Saga 
Brjam kom til j?eirra, og ba<5 ]?a flytja sig. Peir hseddu hann, og skipuSu 
honum burt ; ]>6 spurSu ]?eir hann, hvernig hann setlaSi, aS veSur mundi 
verSa i dag. Hann horfSi ymist upp 1 loptiS e5a niSur d jorSina og maslti : 
" Vind og ei vindi, vind og ei vindi, vind og ei vindi;" en >eir h!6u aS 
honum. Reru }?eir svo & miS og h!6Su bseSi skipin. En er }>eir f6ru i 
land, gjorSi storm, og f6rust ba3(5i skipin. Bar nii ekkert til tiSinda, fyrr 
en k6ngur helt veizlu b'llum vinum sinum og vildarmonnum. Brjam baS 
m6Sur sina, aS lofa s&r heim, aS vita, hvacS fram fseri i veizlunni. pegar 
allir voru seztir, gekk Brjam ut i smiSju og f6r aG smiSa spytur. Peir, 
sem komu ]?ar, spurSu, hvaS hann setlaSi aS gjora viS J?ser. Hann svaraSi : 
" Hefna papa, ekki hefna papa." Peir mseltu : "Pu ert ekki 6J>esslegur." 
SiSan f6ru ]?eir burt. Hann stalsetti spyturnar allar i oddinn, Iseddist inn 
i stofuna, og negldi niSur fot allra }eirra, sem viS borSin satu, og f6r svo 
burt. En ]?egar ]?eir setluSu aS standa upp um kveldiS, voru allir fastir, 
og kendu hver b'Srum um, ]?angaG til hver drap annan, svo einginn varS 
eptir. pegar drottning heyrol ]?a(5,, varS hun mjog hrygg, og let grafa 
hina dauSu. Brjam kom heim um morguninn og bauS sig til aS verSa 
]?j6nn drottningar. VarS hiin ]?vi fegin, ]>vi hiin atti ekki morgum a aS 
skipa. Forst honum }?aS vel, og svo kom, a<5 hann atti k6ngsd6ttur, varS 
slSan k6ngur og settist ]?ar aS rikjum, og lagSi af allan gapahatt. Lykur 
svo sogu ]?essari.* 

* " pessi skroksaga er uppskrifuS eptir Hildi Arngrlmsdottur i Hvammi Anno 
1707" stoS d handritinu meS hendi Ariia Magntissonar. Sbr. Dr. Maurers Isl. 

Volkss. 287-290. 



249 



IX. CONCERNING SN^BJORN: 

FROM THE LANDNAMABOK. 



IX. Con- ^N^EBJORN son Eyvindar austmanns, br6Sir Helga magra, nam land 
cerning *^H milli Mjdvaf jarSar ok Langadalsar, ok bj6 i Vatnsfirol ; bans son var 
Snaebjorn H61msteinn, faSir Snsebjarnar galta; mo'Sir Snsebjarnar var Kjalvor, ok 
varu Ipeir Tungu-Oddr systrasynir. Snsebjorn var f<5stra<5r i pingnesi meS 
P<5roddi, enn stundum var hann med Tungu-Oddi eda mfidur sinni. Hall- 
bjb'rn son Odds frd KiSjabergi Hallkelssonar, brdSur Ketilbjarnar ens 
gamla, fekk HallgerSar, ddttur Tungu ; 0dds; >au varu me3 Oddi enn 
fyrstavetr; ]?ar var Snsebjorn galti. O^stiiSlegt var meS ]?eim bj6num. 
Hallbjorn bj6 for sina um vdrit at fardogum ; enn er hann var at biinaSi, 
fdr Oddr fra hiisi til laugar i Reykjaholt ; ]?ar varu sauSabis bans ; vildi 
hann eigi vera vi<5 er Hallbjorn foeri, ]?viat hann grunaSi hvort HallgerSr 
mundi fara vilja meS honum. Oddr hafSi jafnan boett um meS ]?eim. Pa 
er Hallbjorn hafSi lagt d hesta >eira, gekk hann til dyngju, ok sat Hall- 
gerSr a palli ok kembdi s6r; harit fell um alia hana ok niSr a gdlfit'; hon 
hefir kvenna bezt verit hserS a Islandi meS HallgerSi snuinbr6k. Hall- 
bjorn baS hana upp stand a ok fara ; hon sat ok JragSi ; ]?& t6k hann til 
hennar ok lyftist hon ekki ; ]?risvar f<5r sva ; Hallbjorn nam staSar fyrir 
henni ok kvaS : 

Olkarma laetr erma 
eik, firrumk ^at,4eika, 
Lofn fyr lesnis stafni 
linbundin mik sinum. 
BiSa man ek of bruSi 
(bol gorir mik f 61 van; 
snertumk harmr i hjarta 
hrot) aldrigi botir. 

Eftir ]?at snaraSi hann hdrit um bond s4r, ok vildi kippa henni af 
pallinum, enn hon sat ok veikst ekki. Eftir ]?at br hann sverSi ok hj6 
af henni hofuSit, gekk }>& lit ok reiS i brutt. Peir varu ]?rir saman, ok 
250 



hbfSu tvau klyfjahross. Fatt var manna heima, ok var >egar sent at IX. Con- 
segja Oddi. Snaebjbrn var a KjalvararstbSum, ok sendi Oddr honum ceming 
mann; ba<5 hann sja fyrir reiSinni, enn hvergi kvezt hann fara mundu. Snaebjorn 
Snsebjbrn reiS eftir >eim meS t61fta mann, ok er >eir Hallbjbrn sa eftir- 
reiolna, baSu fb'runautar bans bann undan riSa, enn bann vildi )?at eigi. 
peir Snsebjorn kvamu eftir >eim viS hseSir >ser er mi heita Hallbjarnar- 
vbrSur; >eir Hallbjorn f6ru hseSina ok vorSust >a$an ; >ar fellu >rir 
menn af Snsebirni ok baSir fbrunautar Hallbjarnar ; Snsebjorn hj6 ]?a f6t 
af Hallbirni i ristarlio 1 ; >a bnekti bann a ena sySri bseSina ok v4 >ar tvd 
menn af Snsebirni, ok >ar fell Hallbjorn; >vi eru >rjar vorSur 4 >eiri 
baatSinni, enn fimm d hinni ; slSan f6r Snsebjorn aftr. Snaebjbrn dtti skip 
i Grlmsar6si; >at kaupir balft Hr61fr enn rauSsenzki; >eir varu t61f 
hvarir. MeS Snsebirni varu }>eir porkell ok SumarliSi, synir J)orgeirs 
rauSs, Einarssonar Stafhyltings. Snsebjorn t<5k viS p6roddi 6r pingnesi, 
f6stra sinum, ok konu bans, enn Hrdlfr t6k viS Styrbirni, er ]?etta kvaS 
eftir draum sinn : 

Bana se ek okkarn 
beggja, tveggja, 
alt amorlegt 
titnorSr i haf , 
frost ok kulda 
f eikn hverskonar ; 
veit ek af sliku 
Snsebjorn veginn. 

Peir f6ru at leita Gunnbjarnarskerja ok fundu land ; eigi vildi Snsebjorn 
kanna lata um n6tt. Styrbjorn f6r af skipi ok fann fesj6S i kumli ok 
leyndi; Snsebjorn laust bann meo 1 oxi; ]?a fell sjdSrinn niSr. Peir gerSu 
skala ok lagSi hann i fonn. Porkell, son RauSs, fann at vatn var a forki, 
er st65 lit 1 skalaglugg ; ]?at var um g6i ; ]?^ gr6fu ]?eir sik lit. Snaebjdrn 
gerSi at skipi, enn ]?au p^roddr varu at skala af bans hendi, enn ]?eir 
Styrbjorn af Hr61fs bendi ; aSrir f6ru at veiSum. Styrbjorn vd pdrodd, 
enn Hr61fr ok ]?eir baSir Snsebjorn. RauSssynir s<5ru ei<5a ok allir aSrir 
til lifs se"r. Peir t6ku Halogaland ok f6ru paSan til Islands i Va<5il. Por- 
kell trefill gat sem farit bafSi fyrir RauSssonum. Hr61fr gerSi virki 4 
StrandarheiSi. Trefill sendi Sveinung til hof uSs honum ; f 6r hann fyrst a 
Myri til Hermundar, ]?a til 6lafs at Drongum, ]?a til Gests i Haga ; hann 
sendi hann til Hr<51fs vinar sins. Sveinungr va Hrolf ok Styrbjorn ; }>4 
f6r hann i Haga. Gestr skifti vi<5 hann sverSi ok oxi, ok fekk honum 
hesta tv hnokkdtta, ok l^t mann ri5a um YaSil alt i Kollaf jorS, ok le"t 
Porbjb'rn enn sterka heimta hestana. Porbjorn va hann a Sveinungseyri, 
]?vi at sverSit brotnaSi undir hjbltunum. PV! hoeldist Trefill viS Gest, ]>& 
er saman var jafnat viti ]?eira, at hann hefSi }>vi komit a Gest, at hann 
sendi sjalfr mann til hbfuSs vin sinum. 

251 



X. MYVATNS-SKOTTA. 

(EPTIR NORBLENZKUM SOGNUM f HANDRITI SERA BENIDIKTS P6RDARSONAR 

1 



X. /J^INHVER nafnkendastur draugur a norfturlandi var Myvatns-Skotta 

Myvatns- a sinni tfS, og eiga Myvetningar margar sogur af afreksverkum 

Skotta hennar. Fr4 uppruna hennar er svo sagt, a<5 galdramaSur nokkur hafi 
eitt sinn biiiS 4 GrlmsstoSum viS Myvatn, og hafi hann att lit litistandandi 
vi<5 mann einn yfir i Koldukinn. A laugardaginn fyrir paska ec5a hvlta- 
sunnu kom flokkustiilka aS GrimsstoSum. B6"ndi to"k vel viS henni og 
fylgdi henni i eldhis ; kona hans var ]? aS f sera hangiket upp i trog. 
Bdndi ]?rifur langlegg lir troginu, rHtir a<5 stiilkunni, og segir henni aS 
eta. Stiilku-auminginn tekur feginshendi m6ti ketinu, og etur meS g6Sri 
lyst. pegar hiin var mett orSin, bySst b6ndi til aS fylgja henni til neesta 
bsear. En ]?egar ]?au koma a<5 a ]?eirri, sem rennur milli bseanna, tekur 
hann stiilkuna, kastar henni i ana, og heldur i fsetur hennar, mecSan hun 
er aS kafna. Stiilkan hafSi, eins og J>4 var titt, skautskuplu a hofSi, og 
snaraSist skuplan a hnakkann, meSan hann helt henni i kafinu. pegar 
hann ]?6ktist viss um, a<5 stiilkan vseri dauS, dr6 hann hana lir kafinu og upp 
a bakann, magnaSi hana slSan meS jolkynngi sinni, og sendi hana svo til 
aS drepa manninn, sem hann j?6"ktist eiga varhefnt vi<5. pegar draugur 
]?essi sast a ferS slSan, dinglaSi skuplan 4 hnakka hennar, og er J?aSan dregiS 
Skottu-nafniS. Skotta f6r sendifb'rina, og vann ]?a<5, sem fyrir hana var 
lagt ; kom aptur og sagSi b6nda, aS hun hef <5i banaS manninum, og spurSi 
hvaS mi skyldi vinna. B6ndi sagSi henni, aS hiin skyldi fylgja aettarskom- 
minni, og ]?aS gjorSi hiin, og vann margt til meins settingjum }>ess, sem 
hiin drap fyrst. Hiin helt til viS Myvatn, Tpvi ]?ar voru niSjar manns 
]?essa. I mseli var ]?a3, aS hiin hefSi valdiS raunum Illuga Helgasonar, 
]?ess er orti Ambalesrimur ; ]?vi bseSi gat hann stundum ekkert 
252 



timum saman fyrir ds6kn hennar, og misti konur sinar vofeiflega, og varS X. 
sjdlfur geSveikur og vesall d seinustu drum sinum, og var alt ]?etta kent Myvatns- 
Skottu. I mansaungum fyrir Ambalesrlmum minnist Illugi d bol eitt, og 
er J?ar }>essi visa ein 1 : 

" Er eg svo merkjum anauSanna undir staddur, 
og einhverri a dstund faeddur, 
a<5 yndi trautt ma verSa gseddur." 

Vi<5a f6r Skotta um bygSir, og var )?a<5 sagt, aS him fylgdi Myvetn- 
ingum, og ]?6ktust margir sjd hana, sem skygnir voru, d undan komu 
}>eirra, en sumum barst hun i drauma. Frd }>vi hefir veriS sagt, aS kerling 
ein, sem fdstraSi barn, sat uppi um n6tt i riimi sinu, en barniS nam ekki 
af hlj6Sum ; kerlingu ]?dkti ]?etta venjubrygSi, og kom henni ]?d i hug, aS 
barniS mundi sjd eitthvaS 6hreint. Fer hun ]?vi aS litast um, og ser, hvar 
Skotta situr d auSu rumb61i yfir i baSstofuenda ; rssr hiin s^r ]?ar og er aS 
sksela sig framan i barniS ; en kerling gat seS ]?etta, af ]?vi glaSatiinglslj6s 
var i baSstofunni. BeiS kerling ]?d ekki boSanna, leggur barniS i rumiS, 
en tekur kolluna sina, og setlar aS fsela meS ]?vi drauginn. pegar Skotta 
ser tiltseki kerlingar, stekkur hiin ofan, en kerling sendir kolluna meS 
bllu, sem i var, d hsela henni ; heyrir hdn ]?d, aS Skotta segir : " paS mdtti 
ekki minna kosta." * 

* I pingeyars^slu er su sogn til um uppruna Skottu, aS bsendur tveir hafi buiS 
d Arnarvatni viS M^vatn, og vseru galdramenn, og mikill og illur kur i milli J>eirra. 
Einn vetur bar svo til, a5 stiilka varS uti i hriSarbyl >ar vestur a heiSinni, fyrir 
vestan HelluvaS. Annan bondann grunaSi, hvaS stiilkunni leiS, for um nottina 
vestur a heiSi, og vakti hana upp, aSur en hun var orSin kold. SiSan for hann 
meS hana heim um morguninn, let hana fara a undan ser inn i bseinn, og sagSi 
henni aS drepa samb^lismann sinn. Hun for inn, og bondi litlu siSar. En 
]?egar hiin kom inn, settist hinn bondinn snogglega upp i rekkjunni, og skipaSi 
henni a<5 taka J>ann, sem d eptir henni ksemi, og >aS gerSi hiin. Greip hiin J>d 
Jjann bondann, sem hafSi vakiS hana upp, og fleygSi honum sem sopp innan um 
baSstofuna. En hinn sat kyr i rekkjunni og hlo ac5. f>6 let hann hana ekki 
gera lit af viS samb^lismann sinn, en sett hans fylgdi hiin eptir J>aS. Svo stendur 
i handriti fra sera Joni Kristjanssyni d Yztafelli, og aetla eg J>aS se hond Bjarnar 
J6nssonar a FinnstoSum i Kinn. 



2 53 



XL ILLUGA-SKOTTA.* 

(EPTIR HANDEITI GfSLA KONRABSSONAR. ) 

XI. Illuga- ^JJLLTJGI het bdndi, og bj6 a Arnarvatni, norSur viS Myvatn ; harm var 
Skotta 3> talinn margfrdSur. pd bj6 d Gautlondum bdndi sd, sem Magniis het 

Hallsson ; hann var skald og haldinn f jolkunnugur. Hann kva<5 nfSvfsu 
um Illuga, og het hann Ipvi ]?a, a<5 hefna J?ess d Magnusi. pa3 var einn 
dag, a5 Illugi kom a<5 Gautlondum ; st6S ]?d Magnus yfir f e, en konur satu 
inni i baSstofu viS tdvinnu. BaSstofunni var svo variS, aS ]?ar voru gotu- 
pallar langsetis. Illugi f6r inn i baSstofu, og talaSi viS kvennf61ki<5 um 
stund, og stdS upp viS rekkju Magniisar, a meSan hann st6S viS. Um 
kvoldiS, ]?egar Magnus kom heim, og gekk a<5 rumi sinu, spurSi hann, 
hvort nokkur hefSi komiS um daginn. KvennfdlkiS neitaSi Ipvi, og mundi 
ekki, aS Illugi hafSi komiS. Magnus truSi Ipvi ekki, og spurSi enn itar- 
legar um gestakomu. Sagc5i ]>& stiilka ein, aS Illugi a Arnarvatni hefSi 
komiS. Magnus sagSi, aS sig hefSi grunaS ]?aS ; greip hann ]?4 hund sinn, 
og fleygSi honum upp i rumiS, og drapst hundurinn, en Magnus sakaSi 
ekki. Pegar Magnus hattaSi um kvoldiS i rumi sinu, fann hann ]?ar fyrir 
ser eitthvaS i konuliki meS skuplu d hofSi. Honum ]?<5kti hun dkaflega 
leiS, og aS Illugi mundi hafa sent ser kvenndraug ]?enna til <5heilla, og til 
a5 drepa sig. Tok hann Ipvi paS raS, aS magna drauginn og senda Illuga 
hann aptur. ViS ]?etta ox draugnum svo mikiS afl, aS Illugi atti fult i 
fangi meS hann, en ])6 er sagt, aS hann bryti baSa handlegi draugsins ; 
pvi hann var svo rammur, a5 hann var ]?reifanlegur. Draugurinn fylgdi 
leingi eptir ]?aS Magnusi og f<51ki hans, og var kallaSur Illuga- Skotta. 
Galdra-Ari, J6nsson prests greipaglennis, magnaSi Skottu aS nyu, og 
sendi hana aptur Illuga Helgasyni skaldi, sonarsyni Illuga Arnarvatni. 
GerSi hun bseSi honum og oSrum margt lit, og er sagt hann verSi sig mest 

* Er aS likindum sama og M^vatns- Skotta. 
254 



fyrir henni meS kveftskap. Sagt er, aS svo staeSi a >vf, aS Ari sendi Illuga XL Illuga- 

Skottu, aS einu sinni kom Illugi a bse Galdra-Ara, en milli ]?eirra var Skotta 

6"]?okki nokkur. Ari sat i eldhiisi og vissi Illugi J?ac5 ; kom hann upp a 

eldhusgluggann og kvaS niSvisu um Ara ; ekki er ]?ess getiS, aS ]?eir settust 

fleira viS aS J>vi sinni. Eptir j?a?5 sendi Ari Illuga Skottu, og kvaldi hiin 

hann jafnan um nsetur, svo hann gat litiS sofiS, eSa ekkert. Illugi ]?essi 

bj(5 a SySri-Neslondum viS Myvatn, og atti Ingibjorgu fyrir konu. HJ4 

}?eim var br<5olr Ingibjargar, sem J6n het, miklu eldri en hiin, og gat hann 

leingi variS Illuga fyrir Skottu, meSan hann varS ekki ellihrumur, og er 

sagt, aS hann beitti aS eins afli viS hana, ]?vl hann var bseSi st6r og sterkur. 

TJm ]?etta leyti bj6 Haider eldri * J6nsson frd ReykjahliS i Vogum. Hann 

vakti opt yfir Illuga 4 n6ttum, ]?egar afts<5knin var sem mest. Eina ndtt, 

Jegar Illugi vakna'Si meS miklum andfselum, hlj^p Hald6r lit, af ]?vi hann 

setlaSi, a5 Skotta mundi vera d glugganum yfir Illuga. pegar Hald6r 

kom lit, s& hann, aS Skotta var aS glima viS strak einn, sem daiS hafSi 4 

Neslondum um haustiS, og Illugi hafSi opt avitaS fyrir strakapor sin. 

Hald6r var 6hraeddur, og kvaS visu um Skottu, og skipaSi henni aS snauta 

burtu. Hvarf hiin ]?c4 ]?egar, en kom somu n6ttina viS i Vogum, f<5r inn 

i baSstofu, og septi svo hatt, aS heimaf61k heyrSi, og sagSi : " Hald6r er 

kjaptfortur." (?) SiSan t6k hun til og kitlaSi ]?ar stiilku eina, svo hiin 

syktist af ]?vi, en batnatft ])6 aptur, ]?egar Hald6r kom heim. Hiin drap og 

beztu kii Hald6rs og nokkrar ser. Einu sinni meSan Skotta fylgdi Illuga 

eldra, kom hiin aS GrdsiSu i Kelduhverfi, ]?egar f61k var hattaS. par var 

vinnumaSur d baenum, sem Asmundur het, sem sagt var aS fseri meS 

kukl. Skotta snaraSi ser upp fyrir hann i riimiS og sagSi : "Nii er luinn 

Asmundur." Hann spurSi, hvaS henni vseri aS ]?vf. "AS fylgja austur 

yfir halsana og norSur yfir skorSin," sagSi hiin ; ]?vi aS jafnan syndist hiin 

4 ferS me<5 ]?eim fraendum Illuga 4 Arnarvatni. 

* Haldor Jonsson ^ngri fra EeykjahliS bjo i Borgarseli i SkagafirSi. Eptir 
honum attraaSum hefir Gisli KonraSsson tekiS sogu >essa 1848. Sa Haldor hafSi 
J>reifac5 a Skottu i \ingdsemi smu i foSurgarSi, og aetlaSi vera systur sina. En 
Bjorg moSir hans, sem var ramskygn, sa aS >S var Skotta. 



'55 



XII. EXTRACT FROM 

CHRONICA SEM KALLADER ERU ODDA ANNALAR 
tTR LATINU UTLAGDIR AF S^EMUNDI FRODA. 

XII. Ex- gfNNO MUNDI 3430 var TARQUINIUS DEAMBLATE kongr bin siounde 
tract from ** Komanorum Rykte 25 ar, hann flutte >a sioe in i Romam aS binda 
Onronica menn i myrkva stofu, hann kom ein dag in i eitt bus hvort atte Collatinus 
Riddare sa same Collatinus atte ]?a hseverska quinnu Lucretiam, en aS 
fullkomnuSu synu verke gieck hann heim En Lucretia sende boS epter 
symim bonda, En bann var i strySe hia kongenum, nu sem Collatinus fleck 
bref fra sine konu beiddest bann orSlofs aS RySa beim og for beim man farra 
daga En a meSan baf Se Lucretia til bueS meS giesta bo<5 og er Collatinus 
kom sende Lucretia efter synum foSur og moSur og bllum sett mb'nnum 
synum og svo bonda syns Og er ]?eir voru aller komner og sester til borfts 
og er miciS var liSeS a maltyS stoS Lucretia upp fra borSum og seiger viS 
bonda syn, ]?u skallt vita Collatinus aS seinast er Ipu forst beim an skilder 
]?u mig eina breinferSuga kvinnu epter heima i ]?inu husi huer aldrei bafSe 
saurgast af neinum utan ]?ier En nu a meSan )?u hefur d burtu vereS befur 
min beiSur mig rsentr vereS suo eg er nu horkona orSen, Og ]?aS befur Sextus 
Tarquinius gert en meS ]my ]?ier somer eige aS hafa hooru i sseng hia ]?ier 
]?a vil eg ]?ig J?ess biSja og ]?ina settmen aS hefna }>mar svyvirSingar, en eg 
vil sialf straffa mig fyrir mitt brot, og meS ]?essum orSum greip hun ein 
knyf og rak in i sitt hiarta og fiell strax niSr dauS en Collatini og Lucretiu 
settmenn upp vbktu almugan i Eom mote Sextus Tarquinius suo bann var 
drepen Og . . . . kom Collatinus ]?vy til leiSar aS Tarquinius hann saklaus 
var i ]?essu varS og lyka drepen og . . . . kongs rykenu og far meS aller 
bans settmen suo ei HfSe ein maSur epter af kyne Tarquini, so grimlega 
varS ei nockurs morSz i Rom hefnt so sem Lucretiu dauSa. 

Anno Mundi 3449 var5 OSin kongr i Danmork, sa framSe forneskiur 
256 



meS mesta galldre og gibrningum og nefnde folkeft born efter honum, XII. Ex- 
hann var drepen og heigSur ]?ar sem mi heiter OSins ey a Fione. tract from 

Anno 3506 Toku Komveriar QUINTUS CINCINATUS ein kotkall og settu Clironica 
hann ypparstan hbfuSsmann yfer allan Romaborgar lyS, hann frelsaSe }a af 
ollum agange ]?eirra ovina og eiSelagSe alia motstb'Sumenn ]?eirra en efter 
]?ann sigur villde hann ei annaS en fara i sitt kot aftur, til sins fatseklega 
buskapar og sat ]?ar til dauSadags efter )?enan Quintum settu Romveriar 
X menn i bans staS og kblluSust Tribuni. 

Anno 3518 varS 0RVENDILL kongr i Danmbrk. 

Anno 3585 var a dbgum PLATO hof Singe allra IserSra manna, ]?esse 
Plato var kallatmr Divinus hann do }>a hann var aS skrifa 81 ars gamall. 

Anno Mundi 3588 var AMLODE kongsson i Danmb'rk, ]?aS seigest af 
honum i fyrstu a<5 Feggi kongr drap broSur sin Orvendil f0Sur AmloSa og 
eignaSist Geyrlbgu, broSer konu syna moSur AmlbSa, en er AmloSe sa 
)>etta liest hann fyfl vera, }>a giorer AmloSe kroka af sterkum Eyke 
spytum. Fege kongr efaSe aS AmloSe munde heimskr vera og liet til 
bua Hest og ReiSa og baS AmloSa fara a bak og RySa til skoogar en hann 
hliop a bak og snere aftur fangenu en kongr sende niosnar mann meS 
honum huort han talade nockut af vite, og Hier meS hafSe han lateS konu 
i skogen aS hiin skylde Reina sanleikan en Ami. hafSe vine meS ovinum og 
ein hans vin tok breii flugu og batt Gras stra urn hana og liet hana fliuga 
]?ar aS hann Ami. var og konan, Og strax formerkte Ami. aS svik voru 
under. SySan profaSe konguren en a aSran vys Ami. hann Iseste hann i 
ein hyse einu sine hia moSur sine og liet ein svein aa laun i husinu aS 
heyra hvaS ]?au tbluSu En Ami. for upi ssengena ]?ar maSurin la og niSur 
under f0ten og stappaSe me<5 fbtunum og fan so manin og liest skiella 
hbndum saman og GalaSe sem Hane, en moSer hans griet og visse ei aS 
niosnar maSurin var )>ar ine, Han Seigir hiin griete, ]?uy sonur honnar 
vsere fyfl, og skiftingur. En AmloSe sagSe af vite og baS hana aS grata 
syna skom er hun fremSe meS broSur bonda syns, og mans bana og stock 
hann ur ssengene og drap niosnar manin og hio han i stycke og kastaSe 
styckiunu i setu hans en ]?ar komu svyn og atu upp stycken. En }>a kongr 
spurSest um manin svaraSe AmloSe af vite og ei af vite aS han sa aS maSur 
fiell ofan i giegnum seturnar og ]?ar aS svyn kiaeme og sete han upp og ]m 
hlo kongrin og aller sem til heirSu og colluSu Ami. meSur ]?etta af ovite 
tala. Eftir )?etta sende kongrin ]?enan Ami. meS tveimur mbnnum til 
kongsins af Englande og skrifaSe bref meS ]?eim aS Einglands kongr 
skylde lata heingia AmloSa og skrifa sier aftur til meS mbnunum eyrindis 

R 



XII. Ex- loken oil en er Ami. og bans fylgiarar komu a veigen komst Ami. aS 
tract from brefunum braut ]?au upp en er hann hafSe yfer lese<5 brefen, skrifaSe harm 
Cnronica ^ ur ^ TG ^ O g se t ur svo fa i brefe<5 og lagSe i sama staS a<5 J?egar kongrin 
aa Einglande fser ]?esse bref skylde han gefa Ami. dottur syna en heingia 
hina tvo menina og bio so um brefeS og lagSe i sama staS og bin voru aSr 
greind En er ]?eir komu til Einglands geingr ]>eir fyrer kong og voru til 
borSs af honum setter en Ami. sat og villde huorke eta nie drecka og suo 
leiS allt kvolldeS. En er menn voru til saengur leidder sette kongrin 
mann ein til niosnar i herbergeS a<5 heyra hva<5 ]?eir hialaSe og er lios 
var slockt tala )>eir fylgiarar AmloSa til ]?uy han villde ei neyta en 
hann seiger a<5 brauSeS lyktaSe af manna beinum og kioteS af manna 
hollde en Bioren af Ri<5 Jarnum, ]?ar meS hefr kongr ]?raels yferlit og meS 
J>etta sofnuSu Jeir en niosnar maSurin giec leynelega ut og til kongs 
og seiger honum J?esse orS, strax liet kongrin spyria hvar korneS 
hefSe vaxiS fanst J?aS aa ]?eim Akre sem korneS hafSe groeS aS forSum 
hafSe stryS vereS og lau ]?ar dauSra manna bein ogryne, En kioteS var 
af svyne huort eteS hafSe dauSan man, up var grafin en bioren var 
bruggaSur af brune ]?eim er fullur la af sverSum og oSrum BiS Jarnum 
og er kongr fieck ]?etta svo i sanleika reint spurSe han AmloSa hueriu 
giegnde Jrsels yf erlitur a sier. En Ami. baS kongen aS spyria moSur syna 
aS }>uy en ]?aS fanst aS kongrinn var ]?rsels son, Og er kongrin formerkte 
vysdom Ami. gifte hann honum strax dottur syna en liet heingia hina 
baSa stall brseSr hans en ]?egar Ami. verSur )>essa vys liest hann mioc reiSur 
vera og far fyrir gaf kongrinn honum mikeS Gull og ]?ac5 liet Ami. smella 
i tvo stafe og seiger nu ]?etta skylde vera syner stallbrseSur og suo for 
han heim til Danmerkr en er han kom heim hafSe kongrinn lateS til 
bua mikla veitslu er vera skylde erfe efter Ami. og er hann spurSe ]?etta 
gieck hann inn i hollina og tok til a<5 skeinkia boSsmonum en kongurin 
spurSe hvar stallbrseSr hans vseru hann riette fram baaSa stafena er a<5ur 
greinSe og hlo kongrin aS orSum hans, SySan giec Ami. aS skeinkia og 
ran sverS hans ur slySrum og skarst hann a hende og giec hann strax til 
smiSz og baS han drepa a gat og sla nagla i giegnum huortveggia sverSeS 
og baled og gieck suo in aftur og gierSe gestina svo druckna aS ]?eir 
sofnuSu ]?ar hver sem var komin en Ami. tok nu spytu kroka og krsekte 
}?a saman og fotin giestana niSur meS ]?eim. Og sette so eld i husiS og 
brende upp allt saman, gieck so ]?ar aS sem kongrin la og tok sverSeS 
kongsins en feste sitt sverS i staSen a stolpan og vakte suo kongen og 
sagSest nu vilia hefna foSur syns en kongrin hliop upp og greip 
,58 



og a meSan hann gieck a<5 toga sverSeS ]?a drap AmloSe kong og varS XII. Ex- 
sySan kongur efter ban og Rykte ei miog leinge. tract from 

Anno Mundi 3603 varS PHILIPPUS faSer Alexandri Magni kongr i Chronica 
Macedonia, seirna varS sa landskialfte i Rom aS ]?ar varS eitt hoi a miSiu 
torgenu af huoriu hole giec upp Reikur og so ill lyckt so aS plaga varS af 
so margt folk doo en Romveriar spurSu syna guSe um hialp en goSen 
svb'rut5u a'5 ]?etta hoi munde ei aftur lukast nema ein ESalborin maSur 
steipte sier par a hofuSeS ofan i en ]?ar ein Riddare sem hiet Marcus 
Curtius ungur og vsern, hann seigest helldur vilia deyia en borgin og 
moSurland bans fordiarfest og bio sig meS herklseGum og stie a sinn best 
og reiS ofan i J>etta gap og strax byrgSest aftur holeS, er ]?aS nu kallaS 
Locus Curtius. 



XIII. 
EPITOME OF SAXO'S DANISH HISTORY, 

FORMERLY ATTRIBUTED TO THOMAS GHEYSMER, MONK OF ODENSE, 

WHO PROBABLY MERELY TRANSCRIBED IN 1431 THE WORK OF 

AN UNKNOWN EPITOMIST OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY 

RORICUS HTUS. 

XIII. The JljYORTUO HOTHERO, Cureti, Sweci, & Slavi, qvi prius tributarii 

Grlisvsnier ^S^* 

T, ./ erant, Daniam infestare ceperunt, propter qvod RORICUS, con- 

gregate exercitu, contra Slavos venit. Slavi autem in duobus locis insidias 
posuerant, ut Danos incautos opprimerent. Sed RORICUS hoc intelligens, 
socios ordinavit, qvi eos omnes in insidiis occiderent. Cumqve RORICUS 
venisset ad exercitum Slavorum, videntibus Slavis turmas Danorum, unus 
ex eis corpore magnus, officio magus, singulare certamen expetebat. Cui 
qvidam Danus fortis magis mente qvam corpore occurrens, ad primum 
ictum Slavi occisus est. Gaudentibus igitur Slavis de victoria, seqventi 
die idem Slavus duellum petiit, credens jam, nullum superesse, qvi sibi 
resistere potuisset. Cui cum occurrisset qvidam Danus, nomine Ubbo, 
ambo in certamine moriuntur. Igitur Slavi petunt pacem, manentes 
tributarii, sicut prius. Eo tempore Horwendillus & Fengo fratres patri 
suo a RORICO in prefecturam Jucie subrogantur. Porro Horwendillus tarn 
preclara opera fecerat, ut Collerus Rex Swecie, fame ejus invidens, decorum 
sibi putaret, si eum armis superare posset, & dum pro hoc Norwegian, 

exisset, accidit, ut ad qvandam insulam, in medio mari positam, Collerus 
260 



XIII. 



de Saxo grammaticus de poeta 
ersten gheschreeff | in dat latine vn daer na in dat dudessche 
ghesettet is vnde inholt dat van Abrahams tyden is danne | 
marken eyn konninkryke ghewezen vn sodder hefft | eghene 
konninghe vn lieren alletyd ghehat vn dar | tho van vele groter 
manheyt starke vnde vele grote | werke myt vele meer wunders 
de ghescheen syn by | dessen konninghen vn dat densche volk. 

Fol. 20 V . 

VAN KONNINK KOEICO [Cv v -Diij v ]. 

OJLSE Hotherus doeth was do vormanneden syck de Sweden (fol. 21 r ) XIII. Low- 
** Vnde de wenden Wente de ghenen beyde schat de denen de German 
beghunden Do antouechtende dannemarken Darumme samelde Korius(!) version 
de nye konen syne schare to hope toghen de wenden Wente se anlagheden 
dat land in twen enden vp dat se mochten so de denen bedroghen hebbe 
Vnde vordrukket mit vnuorsichticheyt Sunder Koricus de bekande dath 
vn schikke daer syne ghesellen tho de des waer nemen vnde slughen se 
alle dar ouer Do Koric' qua tho der schare der wende vnde de wende 
seghen syne schare Do was dar eyn mank de wende de was groet van 
lychamme Vnde mechtych van werken de warde daer na dat he alleyne 
vechten wolde De | me leep eyn dene entyeghen de daer was mer 
starch van herten we van lichame de van deme ersten slaghe des groten 
wendes doet bleeff Des vrouweden sik de wende ghas sere dat ere 
man stade bleeff Des begherde de grote went Enes de mit em eynen kap 
vechtede Wete he mende dat dar nu nemet mer we | re de em wedder stan 
mochte Des qua dar eyn dene | em entieghe de het Vbbo de kempede 
mit em so dat se beyde dot bleuS Dar vmme beden de wende vm | me 
vrede vn bleue vort vnder den denen so dat se de dene schat geue vort an 
To der sulue tijd eyn de het Horwendill' de bedreeff so mechtighe werk 
Dat de konnink van norweghen Collerus hatede sin ruch | te vn duchte 
dat he daer mochte grote ere vn vroude va hebbe efft he ene kode ouer- 
wynne Vn alze he dar vmme vuer vth norweghe so vyl yd sik Dat se sik 

261 



XIII. The ex una parfce & Horwendillus ex alia applicarent, dumqve insulam intra- 
Gneysmer v j[ ssent> con tigifc ? ilbs duos solos sibi mutuo obviare. Tune Horwendillus 
prior Regem interrogat, qvo genere pugne sibi libeat decertare. Ille vero 
duellum elegit, facta mutua paccione, ut victor victum sepeliat, ac exeqviis 
honoret. Qvibus congressis, Horwendillus nimia aviditate hostem impetens, 
clypeum proprium neglexit, ac utraqve manu gladium arripiens, clypeum 
Colleri crebris ictibus assumpsit, atqve pede ejus absciso cadere coegit. 
Qvo mortuo, corpus ejus regio tumulo ac solempnissimis exeqviis honora- 
bant. Deinde sororem ejus bellicis rebus peritam persecutus occidit. De 
talibus pugnis victoriosis RORICO sollempnia spolia apportavit, per qvod 
RORTCUS in tantum eum honorabat, qvod filiam suam Geruth uxorem ei 
daret, de qva ille Ambletum filium suscepit. Tot ejus successibus prosperis 
frater suus Fengo invidens, occasione habita, fratrem occidit, uxorem 
fratris sibi assumens, incestum fratricidio adjecit. 

Ambletus considerans, qve fiebant, ne patruo propter prudenciam 
suspectus esset, stulticiam simulavit. De qva ut eo magis fidem aliis 
faceret, sordibus domus se inqvinavit, ita ut in facie monstro similis 
videretur. Qvidqvid dicebat, deliramentum videbatur : qvidqvid agebat, 
insaniam pretendebat. Interdum foco assidens, favillasqve manibus ver- 
rens, ligneos facere uncos igniqve durare solitus erat, ac in angulis sibi 
notis conservare. A qvo cum qvereretur, qvid ageret, acuta spicula ad 
ulcionem patris se formare dicebat. Qvod factum cum aliqvi subtilius 
advertentes, dicebant, eum astuciam prudencia occultare. Facto igitur 
consilio, pulcherrimam juvenculam sibi anteponi in rubetis clanculo ordi- 
nabant, ut si earn per venerem attemptaret, utiqve expers stulticie 
videretur. Vadunt secum statim aliqvi, qvi ipsum in eqvo ferrent ad 
profunda nemoris, & predicto modo ipsum temptarent. Cumqve eqvum 
ascendere deberet, ita se super eum posuit, ut faciem ad caudam eqvi 
versam haberet. Qvod factum omnibus risum ingessit. Procedens 

Ambletus, cum lupum obvium haberet, sociiqve dicerent, esse eqvum 
262 



wunde vp eyne werdere midde in dem mere Alze se quemen vp dat XIII. Low- 
werder so ghinghen de twe alle | ne to samede Do vraghede Horwendill' German 
de konink erst mit watwapen em lustede to vechtende Vn in | | (fol. 21 V ) version 
welker mate em lustede Doeschede he den kamp vn | de makeden eyn 
loffte vnd' sik we den andere ouer wune de scolde den andere begrauen 
vn scolde sine bygrafft eren Alze ze do to hope gingen do was Horwen- 
dill' siner so gyrich dat he sinen schylt vorgat vn greep sin swert in beyde 
hande vn how Colleri sine schilt in alle stukke vn how em vort de eyne 
vot aff Dat he stortede so sluch he en vort dot vn make | de em dar 
eyn konninklik graff vn grueff en dar in Vn dede em eyne erlike bygrafft 
Vn sluech vort sine suster de ok gelert was to vechtende mit den 
wape | nen van den erliken vnde mechtighen stryden broch | te he 
Koriko dem konninghe van dannemarken dur | bare goue Dar vmme 
erde ene Koricus so hochliken dat he em sine dochter Gherud ghaff to 
eyner husvrouwen mit d' teelde he eynen sone den hete he Ambletu Do 
hadde Horwendill' enen brod' de het Pengo de hate de lucksamicheyt sines 
broders vtherma | ten sere Vnde nam der tyde ware dat he stede vnde 
stunde dar tho mochte kryghen Dat he en mochte morden Alze he dede 
vn na dar to syn wyff Ambletus de merkede vul wol wat dar schen was vp 
dat sin vedd' nene acht vp em en ghene so likende he sik | enem doren vn 
vp dat de anderen sik des ock scholden dunken laten so nam he drek va 
der erde vn besmerde sik dar mede dat he was gheschapen in de | me 
antlate alze ein de me holt vor ein wytwuder vn allet dat he dede dar terde 
he sik io dorlike to vn allet dat he sprak dat duchte en wesen gabberye 
vnd' stunde sath he in de schorstene vn kokede in d' asche vn makede 
hake van holte vn leet de so by dem vu | re herden vn lede de denne wech 
in hemelike winkel daer he se bewart wuste wen he denne ghevraghet | | 
(fol. 22 r ) wart wat he dar mede doen wolde vn wat he makede so sede he 
he makede scharpe schote dar he sine vader mede wreken wolde Dar 
merkeden etlike vul behendeliken vp wat he dede vn seden vnderstunde 
he were nicht al dore he schulde grote wyszheyt vn | der der doetscop So 
ghinghen se to rade wo se dat voruaren mochten so vunde se dat men 
scholde ne | men eyne iuncvrouwen vn setten de in den busch were id 
zaze dath he sik myt er bewerde so mochte men dat wol weten dat he 
neen dore were So tho | ghen alke vort etlike mit erne hen alze he scholde 
vp dat pert stighe so sette he sik dath he syn antlat kerde to des perdes 
sterte des lachede se altomale Alze se do henne toghen do qua en eyn 
wulff entieghen so sede sine kumpane dat were eyn iunck pert Do se | de 
he wedder He hedde der nicht vele gheseen ryde in synes vaderen schar 
Vortmeer quemen se by en ouer des meres Dar vunden se eyn ruder 
van enem schepe Dat seden sine kumpane dath se hadden eyn mest 
gheuuden Do sede he plecht men dar dat water mede to snidende Do 
seghen se dat wytte sand in dem mere vnde se zeden dat were meel do 
zede he ya dat is van deme storme der bulghen dar to hope woltert Do 

263 



XIII. The tenerioris etatis, nimis paucos hujusmodi in Fengonis grege militare dice- 
eysme ^ id em ijt us preteriens, cum socii, invento navis gubernaculo, cultrum 
maximum invenisse se dicerent; eo, inqvit, pregrandem pernam secari 
oportet, mare signans, ujus magnitudinem gubernaculo dividi satis est 
notum. Cumqve arenam albam dicerent farinam, ait, earn commolitam 
impetu procellarum. Cum igitur ad nemus venissent, ut eo audacius 
veneri indulgeret, ipsum ex industria reliqverunt. Inventaqve femina, 
ex insperato subito fecisset, nisi qvidam ex eis, ejus collactaneus, ipsum 
sagaci signo de cavendis insidiis premonuisset. Nam inventum stramen 
oestri pretervolantis caude submisit, ac in eum locum, qvo Ambletus erat, 
ad volandum direxit. Nee callidius hoc signum datum qvam cognitum 
fuit. Nam Ambletus, videns oestrum cum stramine volantem, insidias 
metuit, ac amplexans mulierem, ad palustria longe deduxit, factoqve 
concubitu, exegit ab ea, ne cui rem proderet. Qvod & ilia fideliter re- 
promisit, nam educata fuerat cum Ambleto. Domum igitur reductus, cum 
interrogaretur, an puellam cognovisset, sic se fecisse fatetur. Rursum 
interrogatus, qvo loco rem egerit, super ungulam eqvi, cristam galli ac 
laqvearia tecti fecisse dicebat ; horum enim particulas secum tune habe- 
bat. De qvo dicto cum omnes risissent, interrogata puella, nichil talium 
ipsum fecisse, dicebat. Tune ille, qvi sibi oestrum direxerat, ut se coram 
eo monstravit, dixit, se solum de eo solicitudinem habuisse. Qvi ad 
mentem ejus & factum subtiliter respondens : Vidi, inqvit, qviddam 
subvectum alis stramen in posterioribus gestans. Qvod dictum sicut alii 
risum ita fautori Ambleti gaudium fecit. Dum igitur solercia juvenis sic 
deprehendi non posset, habito alio consilio, Fengo se absentavit, interim- 
qve Ambletus & ejus mater in uno cubiculo includuntur : ut si qvid 
prudencie ei inesset, coram matre aperiret, ac ambobus insciis, unus cum 
eis occultate latuit, qvi verba eorum diligencius adverteret, eratqve idem, 
qvi hoc consilium dederat Fengoni. Cumqve locum Ambletus intrasset, 

suspicatus insidias, complosis manibus ac concussis brachiis saltare cepit, 
264 



se quemen in den wolt Do lepen se van em vp dath he deste vryeliker syk XIII. Low- 
vor enighede mit dem wyne Do he dat wyff dar vant do wuste he des German 
nicht dat se dar vmme daer was dat se ene dar mede vorsoken wolden so version 
dat he vul na hadde sine wylle mit er vullenbrocht dat se id ghesen hadden 
Men dar was eyn mede mank sine kupane De ene vorsoken scholden de 
ghunde em woel de ghaff em des eyn teken dat se ene dar mede vor soken 
wol | den vnde he vant eyn stro dath stak he in eynes vo | | (fol. 22 V ) 
gels stert vn leth den vleghe in de stede daer he myt deme wyue was do 
sach Amblet' dat stro nicht so drade he bekade dat dar by dat he dar mede 
gewarnet was Vn na dat wyff in sinen arm Vn ghynck mit er in de 
dusternisse des woldes dar ene nemat senen kode Vn hadde dar allikewol 
sine wille myt de wyue vn bat se do dat se dat nicht segghe scholde Vn 
se louede em dat wyslike to holdede Wete se | ghude em ok wol vn was 
mit em vp gheuudet do wurde se en wedder tho hus vn vraghede en io 
efft | he de iunkvrouwe hedde ghetruwet do zede he al ia Se vraghede 
em in wat stede he sede vp ene perdes houe vn vp de helm tekene Vn vp 
de dake vn van dessen alle dren hadde he io ein merke mede bracht Do 
he sodane wort sede Do lacheden se altomale Do vraghede se de iuck- 
vrouwe wer he so gheda hed | de do sede se he hadde er nichtes nicht 
gheda Do se siner daer mede nicht konde wys werde do bedach | te se 
ene andere raet Dat Fengo sine veddere he hud | de sik oft he dat nerghe 
were vn se neme se vn beslote Ambletum in eyner kamere mit siner moder 
vn ein de hudde sik vp de kamere dat se yd beyde nycht en wuste dat he 
scholde hore wat he to siner mod' spreke Wente se mende were dar noch 
wat wyszheit in | ne dat wyszede sick yo vth we he by sine mod' queme vn 
de sulue de vp d' kamere mit behud was de hadde Fengoni de raet 
ghegheue Do Amblet' vp de kamere qua do merkede he vn dachte vul 
woel dat se em echter hadde gelaget Do sprak he vp vn clappede mit de 
hende vn sloch to hope mit den arme vn begiide to kreyede alze eyn hane 
alze he stech vp dat stro do vulde he vn vorna dat dar sik ein gehut hadde 
vn greep en vn to how ene so degher dat eimlyt | | (fol. 23 r ) nicht by de 
andere bleff vn warp en so dor de hemlicheyt vn dar ete ene de swyne vp 
do he do alleyn mit d' mod' was Do bewede syne mod' sine dorheyt Do 
sede he to d' mod' Bewene di sulue du boze sno | de wyff de du lichst 
alze ene schoke mit dynes mannes brod' dat vntelit is vn drifst mit erne 
dyne boszheit Jk do dat nicht sund' sake dat ick mi so dorlike there wete 
ik wet dat wol de sines egene brod' nich 4 ". en schonede De scolde vul luttek 
medelidinge hebbe mit sines brod' kinde Me ick seal mines vad' doet 
nicht vorghete We id ik alzo valt so wyl ik des nicht vorsumen du schal 
dar nemade va segghen Do se ene wedder aff lete Vn Fengo quam do 
wedder to hus vn se sochten vuste na deme de daer ghehuch was vp de 
kamere Vn se ene yo nicht en vunde do vraghede Fengo eins in schimpe 
Ambletum efft he en nicht ghesen hadde Do zede he dat he were steghe 
dor dar huszeken Vn vyl in de schite so eten ene de swyne vp vn makede 

265 



XIII. The ad modum galli cantum edendo. Dumqve stramenta conscenderet, per- 
eysmer p en( jj t pedibus subtus aliqvem latitare. Qvem confossum membratim 
divisit, ac per cloacam dejecit, qvi a porcis devoratus est. Cumqve cum 
matre esset, ipsa ejus insaniam deploravit. Cui ille, deplora te ipsam, 
turpissima mulier, inqvit, scorti more incestum faciens, fratrem viri tui 
turpi concubitu amplexaris. Ego enim non sine causa stoliditatem simulo, 
sciens, qvod, qvi fratri non pepercit, nee eciam filio fratris compateretur, 
necem patris mei non neglexeram, qvam tempore oportuno vindicare pro- 
pono, hec sub silencio tene. Reversus Fengo, cum dictum insidiatorem 
diu qvesitum nusqvam reperiret, per jocum qverebat Ambletum, si eum 
vidisset. Qvi respondit, eum cloacam intrasse ac in cenum cecidisse, 
sicqve a suibus devoratum. Qvod dictum omnibus cachinnum fecit. 
Cumqve Fengo omnino eum prudencia suspectum haberet, nee tamen 
eum propter RORICUM Regem avum ejus interficere auderet, ipsum Regi 
Britannie misit occidendum. Discedens Ambletus, matri latenter jubet, 
ut anno revoluto aulam cortinis ornet ejusqve exeqvias faciat, promittens, 
se eo tempore rediturum. Vadunt cum eo duo satellites Fengonis, ha- 
bentes literas ligno insculptas, ut tune moris erat, qvibus Regi Britannie 
Ambleti occisio mandabatur. Qvibus dormientibus, Ambletus eorum lo- 
culos perscrutatus, literas invenit, qvibus lectis, literas ibi positas abrasit 
aliasqve posuit, qvibus sociis suis mors, sibi autem connubium filie Regis 
Britannie petebatur. Cum autem Rex Britannie literas legisset, recepit 
eos convivio. Sed Ambletus tarn cibum qvam potum regium fastidivit. 
Dum autem dormitum irent, premisit Rex qvendam, qvi latitans intus 
verba colloqvencium auscultaret. Interrogatus Ambletus a sociis, cur sic 
in mensa abstinuerit, dixit, panem cruore respersum, potum autem habere 
saporem ferri, ac carnes humani cadaveris habere odorem. Addidit eciam, 
Regem habere serviles oculos, Reginam vero tria ancillaris ritus officia 
peregisse. Exprobrantibus sociis ejus vesaniam, qvod laudanda vitupe- 

raret. Ille, qvod latebat, reversus, Regi omnia enarravit, qvi ultra modum 
266 



dar ene gabberye aff dat se alle nuch to lachende hadde Do hadde Fengo XIII. Low- 
allyke wol grote var vor sine wysheyt Wete em mistuchte vnderstunde German 
an erne Vn he endorste ene doch nicht dode vor deme Forico de syn version 
grote vad' was van der mod' weghe Vn sande ene to dem hertoghe va 
Britanien dat de en doden scolde Do na Amblet' syne moder hememelike 
to sik vn sede er wen eyn iar vmme ghan were va der tijd an so scolde 
se de hof al vmme behenghe mit vmmehagen schonlike vn de gheliken 
Vn scolde laten sine begrafft eren vii bega so wyl ik wedd' kome So 
toch Amblet' hen vn Fego sende twe schildknechte mit em vn dede den 
eyn | holt mede daer in gheschreuen was alze do de zede was Dat de 
hertoge va Britanien scolde Ambletu | (fol. 23 V ) doden Alze do sine 
kupane slepen so besochte he ere budele vii vant daer de breue inne Vn 
las dat dar inne schreue was vnde scrapede dat aff vn schreeff ander 
wedder in de stede Dath de twe worden ghedodet vn scholde hebbe des 
hertoghen dochter va Britanien dar lede Fengo vrutlyken vmme bydden 
Do de Hertoghe va Britanien de breue las do bat he se to gaste men 
Ambletus de wolde des herthoghe spysze nicht ethen Do se slapen ghin- 
ghen do let de hertoge hemeliken dar na horen wat se to hope spreken 
Do vragheden de twe Ambletum wor vmme dat he alzo sath ouer der 
tafete vn wolde nicht eten zede he dat brot were besprenget mit bluede vn 
dat beer hadde ene smak na yserne vnde dat vlesch roke alze eyn as van 
eyne minschen Vnde sede noch dar to dat de konnink hadde knechtlike 
oghen Vn | de hertogh inne hadde dre magetlyke werk ghedan Do straff - 
eden ene sine kupane vnde seden He laster | de de he louen scholde vn dat 
were dorheyt De yen|nede ene behorkede de zede deme hertoghen 
alle desse stukke Vnde de konnink konde dat merken dath he konde 
smekken bouen de rechten mynsliken na | ture Vnde vunden dat dat 
korne daer dat brot van was dat wus vp eynem acker daer vele doder 
myn | schen knoken leghen Wente vp der stede hadde eyn grot strijd 
ghewezen dar vele lude ane gheslage worden Vnde de swyne dar dat 
spek van was he hadden enen Kouer in ghegheten Vnde dat water dar 
dat beer van ghebruet was Daer leghen vele swer | de inne dede rust 
ghegheten hadde Dar vmme besinnede dat de hertoghe wol dat de 
iunghelink hadde al rechte ghesecht vnde nam sine moder to sik 
vnde bedrouwede de so langhe dat se em moste segghen | | (foL 24 r ) 
we syn vader was Do sede se id em dat is was ein knecht Do shemede 
sick de konink dat yd so was vmme zyne zake Vn vraghede do de 
iughelink vmme de konninghinne wath maghetlike werk dat se | ghedan 
hadde Do zede he se pleghe eren hoyke vp dat houet to henghede Vn 
pleghe ere cledere vp to schortede Vn se pleghe de tene to stokede mit 
eynem stocke Vn dat se dar vth stockede dat ete se denne achter na Vn 
sede dar noch tho des koninghes moder wart to eyner tijd gheuanghe dar 
van wart se alze eyne maghet Dar vmme erde de konnink sine wyszheyt 
efft he eyn god were Vn gaff erne sine dochter vn sine kumpane de leeth 

267 



XIII. The humanum sapere vel desipere juvenem indicavit. Inventumqve est, qvod 
Gheysmer p an j s factus f uit ex segete, qve creverat in campo repleto ossibus mortuo- 
rum, eo qvod illic strages belli ante fuerat maxima, & qvod porci, ex 
qvibus lardum erat, corpus unius latronis devorassent, & qvod aqva, unde 
potus factus fuit, habebat in fundo plurimos gladios jam fere ferrugine 
consumptos. Igitur Rex animadvertens, eum de istis subtiliter judicasse. 
Cum a matre per minas extorsisset, qvis pater suus fuerit, servum fuisse 
cognovit. Erubescens autem Rex de sua condicione, qvesivit a juvene, 
qvaliter in Regina facta servilia denotasset, eo, inqvit, qvod more ancille 
pallio caput obduxit, qvod vestem ad gressum succinxit, & qvod reliqvias 
cibi inherentes dentibus stipite eruit & erutas comedit : addidit, qvod 
mater Regis per captivitatem in servam aliqvando redacta fuisset. Cujus 
industriam Rex qvasi aliqvid divinum veneratus, filiam suam ei donavit, 
ac socios ejus seqventi die suspendio consumpsit. Ambletus contra Regem 
conqverens, qvod socios suos occiderit, aurum a rege composicionis nomine 
recepit, & postmodum igni liqvatum latenter duobus baculis cavatis in- 
fudit. Anno fere revoluto, de licencia Regis solus in Daniam rediit, 
nichil secum de regiis opibus habens, preter duos baculos supradictos. Ut 
autem in Juciam venit, statim ut prius vesaniam pretendebat. Cumqve 
triclinium, in qvo sue fiebant exeqvie, intravit, stupor omnes invasit, 
qvod, qvem mortuum credebant, vivum viderent. Interrogatus de sociis 
suis, ostendit baculos, qvos gerebat : Ecce, inqviens, hie & unus & alius 
est. De qvo dicto ridentibus con vi vis, pincernis se junxit : Et ne gressum 
laxior vestis impediret, gladio se cinxit, qvem plerumqve de industria 
extrahens, supremos digitos vulneravit, propter qvod gladium cum vagina 
clavo perforante confixit. Adeo autem cunctos inebriavit, ut nullus aulam 
exire posset, sed ubi comederant, ibi sopori se dabant. Cernens autem, 
cunctos profundius obdormire, cortinas superius solvit, extunditqve eas 
super proceres in pavimento dormientes, atqve inexcogitabili modo hamis 
ligneis, qvos aliqvando fecerat, eos ligavit, sicqve ignem imposuit ac 
cunctos cum aula cremavit. Accedens eciam ad cubiculum Fengonis, 
gladium ejus lectulo herentem arripuit, ac suum loco ejus fixit. Demum 
patruum excitans, proceres ejus igne perire refert, & adesse Ambletum, 
trucidatur. Occiso Fengone, Ambletus latitabat, qvousqve intelligent, 
268 






he des anderen dages henghen Ambletus de claghede ouer den konninck XIII. Low- 
wor vmme dat he sine kumpane ghemordet hadde So langhe dat em de German 
konnink vele goldes gaff to zone vor sine kumpane Vn he nam dat golt version 
Vn leet weik werde in deme vure vn makede twe hole stokke Vn goet id 
dar hemeliken in Do dat iaer vul na vmme komen was Do nam he orloff 
van dem konnighe Vn qua alleyne wedder in dannemarken Vn na nicht 
mit sik van des konninghes ryke daghen ane de twe stokke Alzo vort 
alze he in Jutlande qua Do na he sine dorheyt wedd' vor Alze he quam 
to d' wert | schop dar me sine bygrafft beghink do wuderde se sik altomale 
Dat se den luendych dar seghen den se menden dat he langhe dot hadde 
gheweze De vragheden se na sin em kumpane do wyzede hede twe stokke 
Vnde sede dyt is de eyne dath ys de andere dar van worden se altomale 
lachende Do makede he sik by yewelken schenken vn halp en dat se io 
vul scholden schenken vn he halde vul beer Vn he gink los ghegordet vn 
de kled' hinderde erne dat he nicht | | (fol. 24 V ) so wol konde helpen 
schenke alze he gherne da hadde do nam he vii gordede sik mit sine 
swerde vnde toch do dat swert io vaken vth vn to sneet buten sine 
vinghere dat se em blodde daerume nam he eynen nagel vn sluch dor de 
scheden vn dor dat swert vn neghelde id so to hope vp dat me en io 
scholde vor eynen doren holde vn vp dat sik nemat vor em warde wete 
he wuste alrede wol eyne andere wysze dar he se mede vor deruen wolde 
we mit de swerde vn he halp dar alzo to mit siner wuderlicheyt dat se 
altomale so drunke worden dat daer nicht eyn kode vth deme houe komen 
Sund' dar se gheten had | de dar lede se sik slapen alze he sach dat se 
altomale harde slepen do lozede he de vmmehanghe bouen althomale vn 
toch de ouer de eddelinghe de dar leghen vp d' dele vn slepe vn makede 
darso wund'liken eyn strijck vn eynen hamen van vn beknuttede vn 
bestrikkede se darso inne mit den haken de he oldinghet ghemaket hadde 
dat id vnsprekelyck vn vndenkelik was vnde stack do vuer in den hoff 
vnde vorbrande allent dat dar inne was To deme lesten ghink he to 
Fengonis bedde vn nam sin swert dat by synem bedde stut vn sette sin 
in de stede vn wekkede en do vp vn sede sine gude lude weren altomale 
vorghan in de vure vn he were Amblet' de hedde dat ghedan vn sluch en 
do ok So ghink he do vth deme weghe so langhe dat he horde wo dat 
volck wolde laten vmme Fengonis dot Do horde he dat etlike sik bed- 
rouede vmme synem dot De anderen de he wuste dat sines vader vrunt 
weren vn leth dat volk to hope vorboden vn claghede vn sede va synes 
vad' vnschuldyghe dode vn va siner eghene bedroffnisse vn iamericheyt 
de he lede hadde menych | | (fol. 25 r ) yar vn claghede dat so iamerlike 
dat me nicht qua to groter medelidinghe vn dat menich weende va barm- 
herticheyt Do lesten neme se en mit enem ghemenen rade vn koren en 
to konninghe vn vorhopeden sik altomale ghudes van siner grote wijszheyt 
vn vorsichticheyt Do so mennighe yar lykende sych | enem doren vp dat 
he mochte vullen bringhen sine begheringhe do dyt ghescheen was do nam 

269 



XIII. The qvaliter populus mortem ejus ponderaret. Dum igitur aliqvi mortem ejus 
Gheysmer dolerent, alii laudarent, vocatis ad se, qvi amici patris fuerant, populum 
Epitome congregari fecit, coram qvo de injusta patris sui nece ac de propria cala- 
mitate, qvam pluribus annis pertulerat, tarn motive perorabat, ut multos 
ad miseracionem, plurimos eciam ad lacrimas commovit. Tandem finito 
merore, alacri omnium acclamacione in Regem sublimatur. Nam omnibus 
de ejus industria maxima spes accreverat, qvi tot annis simulate se ges- 
serat, ut ad intentum perveniret. Hiis gestis, cum tribus navibus adorna- 
tis, assumptaqve probissima societate, in Britanniam est reversus. Inter 
cetera vero sollempnia, qve secum habuit, gessit clypeum, in qvo omnes 
eventus sui & notabilia, qve fecerat, de qvibus jam dictum est, mirabili 
ingenio depicti erant. Sed & comites ipsius tantum deauratis clipeis ute- 
bantur. Rex vero Britannie eos letissime suscepit, atqve de statu amici 
sui Fengonis inter epulas interrogans, interfectum ab Ambleto intellexit. 
Qvo audito, obstupuit propter id maxime, qvod ejus mortem in proprium 
generum vindicare deberet. Condixerant enim inter se Fengo & Rex 
Britannie, qvod superstes necem alterius vindicaret. Excogitato igitur 
consilio, rogavit Ambletum, ut ad Reginam Scocie legacionem sibi assu- 
meret, earn pro ipso procuraturus, eo qvod uxor ejus noviter jam fuerat 
defuncta. Sciebat enim dictam Reginam omnes procos suos odio habere, 
nee aliqvem superesse, qvin per earn capite truncaretur. Assumptis igitur 
sociis, Ambletus proficiscitur, atqve dum prope curiam Regine esset, in 
pulchro prato ad qviescendum se deposuit. Audito hospitum adventu, 
Regina X. juvenes emisit, qvi hospites & eorum apparatum explorarent, 
qvorum unus clipeum Anibleti ad caput ejus positum, ac liter as legacionis 
ejus de loculo callide receptas ad Reginam deportavit. At ipsa diligenter 
clipeuin & literas considerans, eos referri precepit. Evigilans interim 
Ambletus, iterum sompnum simulavit, atqve exploratorem clipeum refe- 
rentem subito vinculavit, sociisqve excitatis ad curiam accessit. Cui cum 
caussam legacionis dixisset, literasqve tradidisset, respondit ilia, se multum 
mirari, cur homo tarn nobilis tantorumqve operum vellet legacionem 
sumere pro viro de servili condicione nato, licet in Regem sublimato, ac 
filiam ejus accipere in uxorem : addiditqve, se Ambleti amplexibus dignam, 
utpote qve Regina esset, ac per thorum suum Regem facere posset. Sic 
dicens, ipsum amplexata est, qvi e contrario in ejus ruit oscula, sibiqve, 
qvod virgini erat placitum, protestatur.* Deinde fit convivium, convo- 
cantur amici, nupcie peraguntur. Qvibus expletis, in Britanniam cum 

* Pro protestatur Apographum Magneeanum legit porrigebat, 
270 



he dre | schepe vn tzyrde de schonliken vn nam dar yn mit sik de alder- XIII. Low- 

menlikesten vn beddernesten selschop de he konde vinden in sine lade vn German 

toch so wedder in Britanien Mank andere hochtichlike dynghe de he version 

mit sik hadde so droch he ene schilt dar alle de stukke de em to kome 

weren vn alle de merkeliken dynk de he bedreuen hadde inne stunde myt 

vntelliker behendycheyt ghemalt Sunder sine kumpane hadde altomale 

vorguldede schylde Do se dar queme do entffenk se de konninck ghans 

leeffliken vnde do se ouer maltijd seten do vraghede he na deme state synes 

vrundes Fengonis vn vnderstut wol dath he ghedodet was van Ambleto vn 

vnderquam des dat he sinen doth scholde wreke in sine eghene swaghere 

wente Fengo vn he de hadde dat to hope gelouet welk er des anderen dot 

leuede de scholde den anderen wreken vn dachte eynS raet dat he bat 

Ambletu dat he wolde vmme sin werff vare to der koninghinne va schot- 

lande vn werne em de wete syne vrouwe were nyens ghestorue De konink 

mende dat dar vp he wuste wol al de iene de to d' koniginne queme vn 

worue vmme vrye de leth se altomale dode So na he sine kupane vn vur 

daer hen do he qua by d' kQnighinne hoff do lede he sik in eyne scoue 

wysch rouwe do de konighinne horde d' geeste to | | (fol. 25 V ) kumpst 

Do sande se vth teyn iunghelinge de ere verde vnde ghelate vorspeen 

scholden Do qua eyn vn sach den schylt Ambleti ligghen tho sinem 

houeden vn he nam den schilt vnde sine breue dar sine bode schop ane 

stund vth sine budele vn brochte dat d' konninghinnen Do se hadde den 

schylt vul wol beseen vn de breue Do bat se en dat he dat dar wolde wedder 

bringhen De wyle wakede Amblet' vp vn vornam wol wo dar gheuaren 

was Do lede he sik wedd' efft he slepe vn greep de vorspeer De de schilt 

wedder brochte vn venk en vn bat en al harde vn wekkede do sine kupane 

vn ghinck vp de hoff vnde warff sin werff Vn wyzede sine breffe Do sede 

se dat er dat ghas sere wunderde dat alzodanich eyn eddel man de alzo- 

danich werk bedreue hadde Dat de wolde alzodanych eynes manes bode 

vezen De dar were van enem knechte boren Woldoch dat he were 

vorhoghet to eyne konninghe Vn dat he wol de syne dochter neme to 

eyner huszvrouwe Vn sede vort Jk were werdych dyner De ik eyne 

koninghin byn Vn vormiddelst niynem bedde mach eynen konink maken 

Alze se to em sprak so grep se ene in den arm Vn he kussede se vn hadde 

alle synen wyllen mit er Darna makeden se brutlacht vn vorbodeden ere 

vrut Do de hochtijd vthe was Do toch he mit siner nyen brued wedder 

in Britanien Vii nam mit sik enen starke hupe va den schotten Do he 

dar qua do lep des koninghes dochter sine andere huszvrouwe entieghen 

Vii bath ene woldoch dat he hadde noch eyne ghenomen Dat he se doch 

nicht scholde leuer hebbe wen se Vii lete er des gheneten dat se em hadde * 

eynem sone teelt Vnde se warnede ene vort dat he sik yo warde vor der 

bedrechnisse eres vaders | (fol. 26 r ) Do leep em ok de hertoghe van 

* Dadde in the old text. 

271 






XIII. The conjuge Hermintruda redit, valida manu Scotorum secum sumpta. Cui 
Gheysmer occurrens uxor sua prior, Regis filia, rogabat, ut, qvamvis uxorem aliam 
Epitome. superduxerit, non tamen earn preamaret, caussam pro se allegans, qvia 
filium secum jam habebat. Insuper admonuit, ut patris sui insidias 
precaveret. Occurrit autem Rex Britannie, generumqve amplexatus, 
dolose ad convivium invitavit. AmUetus autem, licet sciret fraudem 
subesse, tantum receptis secum CO. eqvitibus, paruit invitanti. Sed dum 
essent inter portas ad curiam ducentes, Rex eum jaculo perfodisset, nisi 
ferrum, qvod AmUetus sub toga habuit, obstitisset. Igitur festinus rediit 
ad locum, ubi Scotus jusserat expectare. Rex vero fugientem insecutus, 
majorem partem sociorum ejus trucidavit : ita ut, dum seqventi die 
AmUetus pro salute preliari deberet, adjutorium de interfectis mutuatus 
est. Nam qvosdam eorum stipitibus affixit, qvosdam ad lapides erexit, 
aliqvos in eqvis posuit, adeo ut hospitibus videbatur, qvod nullum damp- 
num habuisset, propter qvod territi Britannici fugam inierunt. Qvorum 
Rex, dum segnius fugeret, ab inseqventibus est occisus. Victor igitur 
AmUetus jam Rex Britannie ac Scocie factus, cum ingenti preda in Juciam 
cum utraqve conjuge est reversus. 

Interea defuncto RORICO Rege Danorum, avo AmUeti, WICLETUS vi- 
tricus Ambleti in regno successit. Qvi qverebatur, qvod AmUetus fraudu- 
lenter regnum Jucie usurpasset. Sed AmUetus dissimulans, splendidissima 
dona de suis spoliis Wicleto transmisit. Qvem tamen postea, publicus 
hostis effectus, bello devicit. Sed WICLETUS iterum congregans exercitum, 
AmUeto bellum denunciat. Qvi periculum ejus imminere considerans, 
plus dolebat de uxoris sue Hermuntrude viduitate, qvam de proprie necis 
respectu ; tantum enim earn amabat. Cumqve de hoc cum ea loqveretur, 
promisit, se futuram cum eo in acie, detestabilem asserens feminam, qve 
cum viro mori non auderet. De qva promissione parum tenuit; nam 
interfecto AmUeto, statim iniit amplexus WICLETI occisoris. Tanta est 
mulierum fides. WICLETUS autem senex est defunctus. 



272 



Britanien entyegC mit bedrechnisse vn nam en in de arm vn bath ene XIII. Low- 

vp valsch to gaste Ambletus woldoch dat he wuste dar valscheyt vnd' German 

wezen so na he doch me twe hudert mit sik mit perde vn wolde doch allike version 

wol don alze he em bat me do se were tusschen de ports de vp de hoff 

ghinghe do hadde Amblet' de konik aldoct gheschote hadde he nicht dat 

yserne hat vn | der de hoyke dar van wende he sick varloze vn qua dar 

he de schotten ghelate hadde vn de hertoge volghede em vn vorderuede 

em de groteste deel va sine kupanen des andere daghes do Ambletus 

scholde stride vor sine heyl vn salicheyt do na he hulpe van de dode Eyn 

deel rychtede he vp byde stene eyn del stak he stakene in de erde vn 

bant se dar to eyn deel sette he vp de perde so dat he britanier seghe 

sinen hupe allike grot vn dat he nenen schade ghenomen hadde vn worde 

dar mede vleende vn de konninck was va de de achter na vloghe vn wart so 

gheslaghe So wart Ambet' konink ouer britanien vnde ouer schotlande 

vn qua so mit eyne mechtyghe roue vn mit sinen twen huszvrouwen wedder 

in syn eghen lant Vnder des wart konnink Rorikus van dannemarken 

begrauen vn Wicletus de ambletum ouerwa de volghede em in dat ryke de 

claghede do ouer Ambletu dat he mit bedrechnisse hadde sik vnderbroke 

Jutlande sund' Amblet' wolde en beweke vn sande em de aid' durbarsten 

ghaue va sine eghen en dat he gherouet hadde de doch allike woel syn 

vyent wart vn ouerwa ene wente Wiclet' de sam | melde vnder des sine 

schare to hope vn kundyghede Ambleto enen strijd do dat Ambletus 

horde do vruchtede he alzo vort sine schaden vn dachte wol | | (fol. 26 V ) 

dat he den doth nicht entghan konde vn sorghede do meer vor sin wyff de 

konighinne va schotlande dat se scholde wrdewe werde wen he sorghede 

vor sine eghene doet do he mit er darume sprak do louede se em dat se 

wolde mit em bliuen vor in d' spijsse vn sede dat were en vnardych wyff 

de nicht dorste sterue mit ere mane dar se doch sulue vul luttich aff belt 

wente do Amblet' doth was do ghink se alzo vort hen vn leet sik helsen 

Wicletu de eren man slaghen hadde Alzodane is der wyue loue Do de 

Wycletus olt wart so starff he. 



XIV. HAMLET DANAPRINS. 

PYDINGU EPTIR MATTIAS JOCHUMSSON, 

REYKJAVIK, 1878. 

ACT III. SCENE IV. 

XIV. P6L. 49 ti er bans von. per vaegiS honum ekki, 

Hamlet *P* en segiS aS bans sersli ekki kunni 

Danaprins hi5 minnsta h6f og >olist >vi ei lengur. 

Og aS ]?er sjalfar hafi<5 einatt hlotiS 
aS vera hlif i milli bans og balsins. 
Eg setla her a8 halda mig { t6mi. 
Per hHfiS honum ekki. 

HAMLET \uti fyrir]. MdSir ! m63ir ! 
DROTTN. Nei, >vi s6 f jserri, veriS >ar um vissir, 
en fariS ]?vi eg heyri hvar hann kemur. 

[HAMLET Jcemur ; P6L6Nius felur sig. 
HAMLET. Nil m6Sir g<5$, er nokkuS nytt i efni ? 
DROTTN. p\i, Hamlet, hefur st6rum styggt ]?inn foSur. 
HAMLET. Per, mo'Sir, hafiS stdrum styggt minn fb'Sur. 
DROTTN. Fy fy, ]?ii svarar furSu lettuSlega. 
HAMLET. Fy fy, ]?u talar furSu syndsamlega. 
DROTTN. Nu hvernig, Hamlet ? 

HAMLET. HvaS er nii aS gjora 1 

DROTTN. P\i manst ei hver eg em ? 
HAMLET. Jii, mildi Gu<5 minn ! 

)?er eruS drottning, bondans broSurkona, 
en lika ]?vi er miSur m6Sir mfn. 
274 



DROTTN. So veit eg >a, sem viS >ig geta talaS. XIV. 

HAMLET. Kom ! sezt nil her og hreif >ig ei ur staS, Hamlet 

eg fer ei burtu fyr en eg hef synt >6r Danaprins 

i spegil pann sem s.ynir i ]?6r hjartaS. 

DROTTN. HvaS ertu a<5 hugsa ; viltu myroa mig 1 
^E, hjalpiS, hjalpiS ! 

P<$L. \bakvid]. pey ! >ey ! hjalpiS, hjalpiS ! 

HAMLET. HvaS? valska! drepsthiin? ja, eg ve3ja diikat, 
him drepst. [Bregdur svercti og rekur i gegnum tjaldid. 

POL. Harm drap mig, se, ae ! [Deyr. 

DROTTN. Hva5 er >etta ? 

HvaS gjorSir J?ii ? 

HAMLET. Eg veit ei ; v6g eg k6nginn ? 

[Lyptir upp tjaldinn og dregur fram POLONIUS. 

DROTTN. mikil b!6Sug 6fyrirsynju-6daS ! 

HAMLET. Ja, b!63ug vist og nser eins markverS, m6Sir, 
og morS eins k6ngs og samlag viS bans br63ur. 

DROTTN. Og morS eins k6ngs 1 

HAMLET. Ja, min orS voru J?aS. 

\Vict POLONIUS.] pinn veslings flysjungs-garmur, vertu saell ! 
eg belt Ipu vserir herra J?inn ; tak kaup ]?itt ! 
Arveknin, serSu, hentar bezt i h6fi. 
Gmi ]?u ei bendur, haf ]?ig kyrra, sittu, 
og lof mer gntia hjarta ]?itt, ]?vi ]?a3 skal 
nil kenna til, ef annars bltur d ]?aS, 
og vana-f jandinn hefur ei um fa5 hamraS 
eirbrynjustokk gegn ollum tilfinningum. 

DROTTN. HvaS bef eg gjort, aS ]?ii meS ]?essum ofsa 
eyst gifuryrSum yfir mig ? 

HAMLET. pd oddS, 

sem flekkar ssemdar-feimni bverrar konu, 
umbreytir tryggS i tal og gripur bl6mstri3 
af hreinnar astar yndisbjdrtu enni 
og gjorir ]?aS eitt graftarmein og breytir 
hjiiskapar eiS i flarra spila falseiS. 
6, 6da5, >d er hrifur g!65beitt hjartaS 
ur barmi sdttmalans og gjorir guSsorS 
og g6Sa siSi aS tomu hraesnis-skrumi. 

275 



XIV. Ja, himinsins bin baa dsynd roSnar, 

Hamlet O g gjorvoll ]?essi }?etta, rekna hvelfing 

Danaprins fa r hrseSslusvip sem ddmsins dagur 6gni, 

og synist sjiik af sturlun. 

DROTTN. M, mig auma ! 

og hvilik synd er ]?etta ]?a, sem blj6<5ar 
og jmimar gegn mer ? 

HAMLET. Lit d J?essa mynd 
Og ]?essa ; vel }?ser likjast baSum brseSrum 
O skbrungs-tign sem skin lir ]?essum svip ! 
Apoll6s lokkar, ennisprySi J6vis, 
herguSsins a3gu 6gnar-snbru sj6nir, 
og vaxtarlagiS Hkt og sendiguSinn 
nystiginn niSur, gnsefi batt d gnypu ! 
]>vi slikan hafSi bann voxt og vaenleiks-pr/Si, 
aS synast matti, svo sem allir guSir 
sitt smiSsbogg befSi s6rbver d hann sett, 
a5 sanna heiminum aS par var mactur. 
Og ]?ennan attir ]?ii. En lit nii binn : 
nii dttu ]?ennan : eins og eitraS brandax, 
sins br63ur forsman. Attu auga i hofSi ? 
Gaztu ]?d kvaSt svo fagran f jallahaga 
og velt )>er niSr i ]?rilikt forarfen ? 
svei ! attu augu ? Nefn ]?a8 aldrei astir ; 
a ]?inum aldri er bl<5SiS stillt og staSnaS 
og stj6rnast j?^, af viti, en bvaSa vit 
kys ]?ennan fyrir ]?ennan ? Vitin attu, 
]?vi ella baerSist' ekki ur staS, en raBnan 
er eflaust lir ]?eim vitum ; vitfirringin 
er ei svo vitskert, engin raSdeild getur 
svo frselkaS undir a3rslum, aS hiin bafi 
ei eptir enn )>a3 korn af frjalsu vali, 
aS geta gert ser grein & slikum mismun. 
Hver f jandinn bj6 Ipig i ]?ann blindingsleik ? 
Tilfinning sj6nlaus, sj6n dn tilfinningar 
eyru an banda og augna, ilman smekklaus 
einn minnsti angi einbvers heilbrigSs vits 
gat aldrei hafa fariS flatt sem ]?etta. 
276 



(3, skbmm, hvi ro<5nar Jii ei ? Vargdlmt viti ! XIV. 

aesir J?ii bal i beinum settrar konu ? Hamlet 

m skirleiksdygS bins unga verSa aS vaxi Danaprins 

og brenna 4 sjalfs sin bali ? Nefn ei skomm, 

hvar hamslaus lostinn steypir allri stilling 

og elli-frostiS logar eins og seskan 

og vit og grseSgi haldast beint i hendur. 

DROTTN. J, Hamlet ! haettu, les ei J^etta lengur 1 
j?ii hringsnyrS inn til hjartans augum mfrmm ; 
eg s J?ar inni svarta vonzku-bletti, 
sem lit sinn vilja ei lata. 

HAMLET. Og aS diisa 

i frillulifsins viSbj6Sslegu velgju, 
i syndarinnar yldu, kjassa og kyssa 
d )?essu fiila fleti. 

DROTTN. Hsettu, hsettu ! 

Hvert or<5 ]?itt sker min eyru likt og knffur. 
J?ey, Hamlet ! 

HAMLET. Petta hrak og manndrapsmaSur 
og tuttugu sinnum tuttugu verri maSur 
en J?inn hinn fyrri ; ]?etta kongafifl, 
og rummimgs]?j6fur rikisst61s og tignar, 
sem konungsdjasniS hrifsaSi ofan af hyllu 
og stakk i vasann ! 

DROTTN. pey ! ]?ey ! 

[VoFAN kemur. 

HAMLET, pennan konung 
lir tbtradulum. Drottins naSarskarar ! 
^E, hjalpiS m6r og veifiS Iiknarva3ngjum ! 
HvaS viltu hingaS helgi vo5a-svipur ? 

DROTTN. M y hann er serSur ! 

HAMLET. Seg ertu kominn til aS saka son ]?inn 
um seinlsetiS aS nota ekki timann 
n hafa hugm6S til bins st6ra starfs 
er stranglega ]?u bauSst m^r, seg me>, seg m^r 1 

VOF. Gleym ]?u ]?vi ei. Eg kem a5 kveikja aptur 
upp aform ]?itt, sem ]?egar er 4 forum. 
Sjd m6Sir }>in er lostin st6rri sturlun ; 

277 



XIV. veit henni hjalp 1 hennar salarstriSi ; 

Hamlet vit, imyndun er skasSust breysku bl<55 ; 

Danaprins $ mel til hen nar Hamlet ! 

HAMLET. HvaS er aS 

)?er drottning 1 

DROTTN. Eg spyr hvaS er aS ]?^r, Hamlet, 

)?vf horfir )?ii svo fast a ekki neitt, 
og heldur hrdka-rseSur lit i lopti<5 ? 
Ur augum ]?inum horfir s^lin hamslaus, 
og bar ]?itt ris lir rekkju likt og HSsmenn 
sem beyra her6p, stendur upp meS endum 
sem f jori fyllt. ^E kseldu, kseri sonur, 
meS kaldri stilling ofsabuga skaps ]?ins ! 
HvaSborfirS' a? 

HAMLET. A hann ! a hann ! O sjaSu, 
hve nafolur hann starir ! sbk og svipur 
i sameiningu hropa h^r svo hatt 
a<5 steinar maettu stokkva. Horf ei a mig ! 
]?vf hryggSarmynd ]?in kynni aS sjiiga krapt 
og lif og lit bins voSastranga verks mins, 
svo ausi' eg tarum lit en ekki b!6Si. 

DROTTN. Seg til hvers ertu aS tala ? 

HAMLET. SeW hann ekki ? 

DROTTN. Nei, eg se ekkert, og }>6 allt sem er h^r. 

HAMLET. Og heyrirS' ekkert 1 

DROTTN. Ekkert nema Jig. 

HAMLET. Pey, litt a ! h^r ! nii laeSist hann a bust 
FaSir minn, alveg eins og J?d hann lifSi ! 
Sja J?arna fer hann, ]?arna lit um dyrnar. 

[VOFAN fer. 



278 






XV. SUMMARY OF MANUSCRIPTS. 



AMBALES-SAGA. Ai. 

1. (3/M. 521c, 4to paper, seventeenth century, written by Ami XV. 

*^ Gislason: "Saga af Ambulo eSur AmloSa enun keymska." Summary 
Arni Magnusson writes in a note that Ami Gislason got his copy from 
Pal Bjarnarson; yet different from 521s, which also came from Pal 
Bjarnarson. 

The saga, re- told in Danish by Steingrimur Thorsteinson circa 1870, 
is found in the same MS. at the end. Written circa 1670-80; divided 
into forty chapters. (Cp. Specimen, Appendix VI.) 

2. ISL. BOKMENTAFELAG, 108, 4to : " Sagan af Ambales Konge;" later 
half of eighteenth century ; very similar to 1 ; differs occasionally in 
phrases and words. 

3. ISL. BOKMENTAFELAG, 116, 4to : "Sagan af Ambales K6ngi;" 
written circa 1800 ; much like 1, but defective at the end, and varying 
slightly in phraselogy. 

4. ISL. BOKMENTAFELAG, 165, 4to : "Af Ambales;" in a very con- 
tracted hand; written 1778; evidently written from a good original; 
differentiated in phraseology from the 1, 2, 3. 

5. ISL. BOKMENTAFELAG, 185, 4to : "Af Ambales og Koppum hans;" 
written after 1850; very like 1 ; slightly different in wording. 

6. ISL. BOKMENTAFELAG, 309, 4to : " Sagan af Ambb'lis Konge ; " 

279 



XV. written 1788 ; illegible for the most part. At the end of the saga, which 

Summary resembles 1, the following lines occur : 
of MS3. 



mikell Amloode, 
Ungdoms Ty3 fram geek slungen, 
Fin, syndest fimur aS Able, 
Frsekeli var og vel sprsekur. 
Fodur leifd fieck meS Raadum, 
Fliott unned Ny Aars Noottu 
Braadt komst burt ur Hsettu 
Bloomgadest og varS kongur." * 

7. ISL. BOKMENTAFELAG, 368, 4to : " Af Ambales Konge;" late 
eighteenth century ; thirty-nine chapters ; similar differences in diction. 

8. ISL. BOKMENTAFELAG, 175, 8vo : " Sagan af Ambolis Kongi ; " copied 
from 6. 



9. ISL. BOKMENTAFELAG, 700, 8vo : " Sagan af Ambales eSur AmloSa ; " 
circa 1750 ; thirty-nine chapters ; similar differences. 

10. BRITISH MUSEUM, xi. 158: "Saga af Amboles edur Amlooe;" 
forty chapters; written in three different hands; ff. 71-122; thirteenth 
century; with the verses at the end, as in 6. 

11. A manuscript in the possession of Dr. J6n Thorkelsson, of Reykj- 
avik, Iceland : " Sagan af Ambales eSur AmldSa ; " nineteenth century. 

1 2. A modern manuscript, formerly the property of Gisli Bryn julf sson, 
of the University of Copenhagen. At his death it passed into the posses- 
sion of the editor of this volume, and has been used for the present 

* " Fierce-tempered was AmloSi ; in his youth he was cunning ; a fool he 
seemed, yet endowed with strength ; he was valiant and skilful ; his father's 
heritage he got with his wiles ; he won them soon on New Year's night ; anon 
he escaped from danger, nourished, and was king." 
280 



edition. It was written by P4tur J6nsson of Arneskofar, near Husa- XV. 
vikurbse. The volume (which contains also " Sagann af Falentin og Summary 
Ourson Greena Riddara og Fleiri Koppum") was a gift to Gisli from of Mss - 
Kristjan J6nasarson ; previously it had belonged to GuSny Bjarnarddttir. 
The title is as follows: "Sagann af Ambales Salmans Syni, er 
kalladur var Amlode." There are forty-one chapters; the verses are 
not found. The former owner of the MS. has drawn, at the end of the 
MS., a genealogical tree of the persons of the saga. 



AMBALES-SAGA. An. 

13. A.M. 52 IB, 4 to paper, seventeenth century: "Saga af AmloSa 
eSur Ambales." Note by Arne Magnusson that the MS. came originally 
from Pal Bjarnarson of Unnarholt. This is the oldest MS. of this class ; 
the writing is very contracted, and in places illegible ; forty-one chapters 
in all ; in many minor respects different from Ai. 

14. A.M. 52lA, 4to; well written, and not contracted; circa 1700; 
evidently copied from 1 3, or both are from the same original. Its descrip- 
tion is as follows : " Saga af AmloSa e5nr Ambales." An important 
note by Arne Magnusson states that it came from the widow of Torfseus, 
1720. 

15. NY KGL. SAML., 1719, 4to; a poor copy of 14. (Cp. Specimen, 
Appendix VI.) 



B. SAGAN AF AMLODA HARDVENDELS SYNE. 

16. A.M. 52lD, 4to; 14 pp.; written circa 1700. Arne states in a 
note: "Amloda saga, komin til min fra Jone Thorlaks syne 1705. Er 
tekin ur Saxo Gramatico, og er blik Amloda Sbgu Pals Biarna Sonar : 
anars skrifaSi Jon Thorlaksson mier meS henni 1705, 12 Junii : Eg Ia3t 
hier meS fylgja amloda sogu, sem mig minner ]?ier beiddud mig um a arunum. 

281 






XV. En eg atti hana ]?a eigi til, og eigi hefir hun mier in borist fyrr en i vetur. 

Summary Svo dyliast sogurnar riett upp undir mier, }?6 til sieu. 
of MSS. 

me, nimirum decipere voluit vir bonus, et persvadere, se 
rem vetustam 

mihi mittere. Sed non ego credulus illi." 

(See Specimen, Appendix VI.) 

C. RtMUR. 

17. ISL. BdKMENTAF^LAG, 8vo, 273: "Rlmur af Ambales eptir Hall- 
grim Halddrsson." Imperfect at the beginning, but authorship attested 
by runic passage at the end of the work. The author flourished during 
the first half of the eighteenth century. Twenty-five sections. (Cp. 
Appendix I.) 

18. A.M. 521E, 4to : " Rljmur af Ambalez eSa amloSa; " in the same 
hand as No. 13; twenty- five sections; half of last rlma wanting; seven- 
teenth century. Note by Arne Magnusson states that these rimur were 
sent him by J6n Thorlaksson. Dr. Kalund points out that, as Pal 
Bjarnarson of Unnarholt is known to have composed Ambales-Rimur, 
perhaps these are his; but the MS. seems to be a copy (an imperfect 
copy, due to inability on the part of the scribe to read what was before 
him), and cannot well be the author's autograph. (Cp. Appendix II.) 

19. NY KGL. SAML., 1719, 4to; clearly a copy of the previous MS.; 
similarly defective at the end. 

20. MS., 4to, in the possession of Dr. J6n Thorkelsson, Copenhagen : 
"Rimur af Ambalis kveSnar af Illuga Helgasyni." In tattered con- 
dition; composed circa 1690-1700; written about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, or later ; twenty-four sections ; defective at the end. 
(Cp. Appendix III.) 

21. ISL. LANDSBOKASAFN, 72, 4to : (a) " Ambales Rimur Salmanssonar, 
ortar af Thorvaldi Sigmundarsyni ; " written in three hands; circa 1750- 
1800; ends in the eleventh rlma, the rest wanting; 28 pp. (Z>) Another 
MS. of the same ; part of the first rlma missing ; ends in the middle of 

282 



the nineteenth rima; 36 pp., in same handwriting; earlier than the XV. 
the former. (Op. Appendix IV.) Summary 

of MSS. 

22. MS., 4to, belonging to Dr. J6n Thorkelsson, Copenhagen ; brought 
from Iceland, 1894, and recently discovered among his papers: "RJjmur 
af >eim nafnfraega konungi yfir Vallandi Ambales Salmans Syni ordtar 

af 

a p Lagafelli E i mikla S hrepp ; " 

i.e., p6rSur Einarsson 4 Lagafelli i Mikla [holts]hrepp. Lagafell is a 
farm three hours' ride from Snsefellsjokul, in the west midland of Ice- 
land. The MS. is certainly the author's autograph. 

D. ANNALS. 

23. BRITISH MUSEUM, Finn Magnusson's MSS., No. 375 ( = xi. 153): 
" FiesjoSr margra loflegra frasagna, annala, sefintyra, &c.; samantekinn af 
Magniise Joonssyne i Vigur. 

"(M. J.) Magnate Islandise, circa 1550. Ipsius autographum et 
verisimiliter unicum quod jam existit exemplar. Ineditus. In Anna- 
libus antiquioribus, oddensibus dictis occurrit, ad annum mundi 3588, 
singularis narratio de Amlodo (Amleto sine Hamleto), Danico principe, 
alioquin a Saxone Grammatico et posterius a Guilielmo Shakespeare 
celebrato. Adscribuntur hi annales celeberrimo Scemundo dicto frocti, 
Eddicorum carminorum primo collectori in Islandia defuncto 1133 (ante 
nativitatem Saxonis in Dania; hie Ssemundus dictos annales e latino 
sermone transtulisse perhibetur)." Note by F. M. 

The volume is certainly written at the end of the seventeenth century, 
as Finn Magnusson must have known. The writer states the date clearly 
at the end of one of the sections (1694) ; he must have known, too, the 
date of Magnus Jonsson i Vigur. (Cp. Introduction.) 

24. There is a much later MS. of these " Odda Annaler " in NY KGL. 
SAML., 1703, 4to, written circa 1770: "Argi" is given as the wicked 
uncle's name instead of "Feggi." 

E. BA'LANTS EDA FERACUTS RiMUR. 

25. Of these Rimur, closely connected with the Ambales Saga and 
Rimur, there are many MSS., more especially in the B6kmentafelags- 

283 



XV. Safn (e.g., Nos. 174, 176, 200, 278, 297), and in private hands. Dr. 

Summary Thorkelsson, of Copenhagen, possesses two MSS. One of these, written 
of MSS. in Snsefellsness, circa 1760, is here described : 

"H6r byrjar rfmur af Balant admiral, kveSnar af GuSmundi Berg- 
>orssyni." 

The author, a cripple, was evidently a professional composer of rimur ; 
in the Mansb'ngr to the fifth Rima he enumerates no less than thirteen 
other rimur-cycles. 

The name of the author of the present Rimur, the date (1701) and 
place of composition, and the name of his patron (Arnljotur), are thus 
indicated at the end of the twenty-fourth Rima : 

Snekkjur dverga tvennar t61f 
t<5kst mer nii aS skapa 
nybangaSar nams um g<51f 
nii d 4-rnarstapa. 

*Xrfer3,f vinda agg J og logur, 

is || yfir skarSi landa,^[ 

tyr,** ur,ft reiS,|J sd beiddi um bogur 

brj^tur kennist landa. 

ValdrdouriogvffafellU 
vakti Kvasis dreyra 
61iSlegast ort ]>6 s6 
ekki er nafniS meira. 

Artal hef eg i lj<5Sin leitt 
lesarann 4 ]>6 furSi 
seytjan hundruS alls og eitt [ = 1701 
eru fr Christi burSi. 



* =ar=a. t ferS=reiS = r. J =nauS = n. =1. || =i. 
IT = 6s = 6. ** =t. ft =u. JJ =r, Arnljotur. 

GuS. HI) mundur, GuSmundur. 



Printed by BALLANTTNE, HANSON 6 s Co. 
Edinburgh & London 



O 



BINDING SEC i. JUN 3 Wbfi 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY